In individual medley events, the swimmer covers the four swimming styles in the following order: butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke and freestyle.

In medley relay events, swimmers will cover the four swimming styles in the following order: backstroke, breaststroke, butterfly and freestyle.

Each section must be finished in accordance with the rule which applies to the style concerned.


You might have heard of something called Front Quadrant Swimming which has to do with the timing of your freestyle stroke. It's widely recognised as being an efficient way to swim and something that you should use in your own stroke technique but there's a lot of confusion about what it actually means:

If you drew two lines, one through the swimmer's head and one at water level you would create four quadrants:

Front quadrant swimming simply means that there is always one of your hands in one of the front quadrants (1 and 2) at any one point in time. Or, put even more simply, when your hands pass above and below the water, that should happen in front of your head, not behind it.


There are four basic swimming stokes: crawl (also known as freestyle), backstroke, breaststroke, and butterfly.

Swimming Stroke # 1 – The Crawl, or Freestyle

The technique involved in this swimming stroke is pretty simple. You float on your belly in the water, and propel yourself by rotating your arms in a windmill motion, and kick your legs in a fluttering motion. The hardest part of this swimming technique is the coordination of the breathing while performing the strokes, since the face remains in the water almost all the time.

Swimming Stroke # 2 – The Backstroke

The backstroke is akin to the crawl, except that you float on your back in the water. The arms are moved in a similar alternating windmill motion, and the legs a kicked in a similarly fluttering motion. The two basic techniques of a correct backstroke are: One, that the arms are moved with equal force, or else you will find yourself swimming off towards one side; Two, that the body should be rolled from one side to the other, so that the arms extend to their utmost reach, to propel you by catching enough water.

Swimming Stroke # 3 – The Breaststroke

This swimming technique involves a pattern wherein the body bobs upwards and downwards as you propel yourself forward in the water. The breaststroke is a difficult swimming technique, and should not be chosen if you are just beginning to learn swimming. Basically, this swimming stroke involves pulling your arms through the water, as you bob up and breathe, and then kicking with your legs as you bob down and glide forward. The arm pulling and the leg kicking are done alternatively.

Swimming Stroke # 4 – The Butterfly Stroke

Similar to the breaststroke, the butterfly is also a difficult swimming technique, and not advocated for beginning learners, since it involves a fair amount of strength as well as precise timing. While performing this stroke, the legs should be moved together akin to the movements of a dolphin’s tail, the arms should also be moved together, pushing the water downwards and then backwards, while the torso moves forward in an undulating manner.

The fourth is always different

The first Olympic demonstration was at the 1952 Olympic Games, where the Helsinki officials welcomed Kay Curtis and lit a torch in her honor. Curtis died in 1980, but synchronised swimming did not become an official Olympic sport until the 1984 Summer Olympic Games.[8] It was not until 1968 that synchronised swimming became officially recognized by FINA as the fourth water sport next to swimming, platform diving and water polo.


The Rubik's Revenge (also known as the Master Cube) is a 4×4×4 version of Rubik's Cube. It was released in 1981. Invented by Péter Sebestény, the Rubik's Revenge was nearly called the Sebestény Cube until a somewhat last-minute decision changed the puzzle's name to attract fans of the original Rubik's Cube.[1] Unlike the original puzzle (and the 5×5×5 cube), it has no fixed facets: the centre facets (four per face) are free to move to different positions.


Methods for solving the 3×3×3 cube work for the edges and corners of the 4×4×4 cube, as long as one has correctly identified the relative positions of the colours — since the centre facets can no longer be used for identification.


Made of quadrants


Originally the rubiks cube was a two by two cube (the quadrant)

Rubik's Cube is a 3-D combination puzzle invented in 1974[1][2] by Hungarian sculptor and professor of architecture Ernő Rubik. Originally called the Magic Cube,[3] the puzzle was licensed by Rubik to be sold by Ideal Toy Corp. in 1980[4] via businessman Tibor Laczi and Seven Towns founder Tom Kremer,[5] and won the German Game of the Year special award for Best Puzzle that year. As of January 2009, 350 million cubes had been sold worldwide[6][7] making it the world's top-selling puzzle game.[8][9] It is widely considered to be the world's best-selling toy.[10]

In a classic Rubik's Cube, each of the six faces is covered by nine stickers, each of one of six solid colours: white, red, blue, orange, green, and yellow. In currently sold models, white is opposite yellow, blue is opposite green, and orange is opposite red, and the red, white and blue are arranged in that order in a clockwise arrangement.[11] On early cubes, the position of the colours varied from cube to cube.[12] An internal pivot mechanism enables each face to turn independently, thus mixing up the colours. For the puzzle to be solved, each face must be returned to have only one colour. Similar puzzles have now been produced with various numbers of sides, dimensions, and stickers, not all of them by Rubik.

In March 1970, Larry Nichols invented a 2×2×2 "Puzzle with Pieces Rotatable in Groups" and filed a Canadian patent application for it. Nichols's cube was held together with magnets. Nichols was granted U.S. Patent 3,655,201 on April 11, 1972, two years before Rubik invented his Cube.

On April 9, 1970, Frank Fox applied to patent his "Spherical 3×3×3". He received his UK patent (1344259) on January 16, 1974.[13]

It is made of quadrants

Alphabetical variations have emerged, sometimes called Wordoku; there is no functional difference in the puzzle unless the letters spell something. Some variants, such as in the TV Guide, include a word reading along a main diagonal, row, or column once solved; determining the word in advance can be viewed as a solving aid. A Wordoku might contain words other than the main word.
"Quadratum latinum" is a Sudoku variation with Latin numbers (I, II, III, IV, ..., IX) proposed by Hebdomada aenigmatum, a monthly magazine of Latin puzzles and crosswords. Like the "Wordoku", the "Quadratum latinum" presents no functional difference with a normal Sudoku but adds the visual difficulty of using Latin numbers.

Made of quadrants


Killer sudoku (also killer su doku, sumdoku, sum doku, sumoku, addoku, or samunamupure) is a puzzle that combines elements of sudoku and kakuro. Despite the name, the simpler killer sudokus can be easier to solve than regular sudokus, depending on the solver's skill at mental arithmetic; the hardest ones, however, can take hours to crack.


Made of quadrants and 16 is the squares of the quadrant model


Kakuro or Kakkuro (Japanese: カックロ) is a kind of logic puzzle that is often referred to as a mathematical transliteration of the crossword

The canonical Kakuro puzzle is played in a grid of filled and barred cells, "black" and "white" respectively. Puzzles are usually 16×16 in size, although these dimensions can vary widely.

Made of quadrants


A crossnumber (also known as a cross-figure) is the numerical analogy of a crossword, in which the solutions to the clues are numbers instead of words. Clues are usually arithmetical expressions, but can also be general knowledge clues to which the answer is a number or year. There are also numerical fill-in crosswords.

The Daily Mail Weekend magazine used to feature crossnumbers under the misnomer Number Word. This kind of puzzle should not be confused with a different puzzle that the Daily Mail refers to as Cross Number.

four by four is the squares of the quadrant model


One of the smallest crosswords in general distribution is a 4×4 crossword compiled daily by John Wilmes, distributed online by USA Today as "QuickCross" and by Universal Uclick as "PlayFour."

A four by four grid is the quadrant model



A lot of people do crossword puzzles. I know my Dad did every morning

A crossword is a word puzzle that normally takes the form of a square or a rectangular grid of white and black shaded squares. The goal is to fill the white squares with letters, forming words or phrases, by solving clues which lead to the answers. In languages that are written left-to-right, the answer words and phrases are placed in the grid from left to right and from top to bottom. The shaded squares are used to separate the words or phrases.

Crossword puzzles are made of quadrants

Matisse is known for painting squares. Squares are quadrants


Matisse was known in his later life for spearheading art that was extremely simple. One of his later paintings was simply squares, like the squares of the quadrant model of reality. The quadrant model itself is extremely simple. Just think, 16 squares, four quadrants, but it can explain all of reality, and it is not just that it can explain all of reality, it does. The last olympic logo had four parts to it, inspired by Matisse's later cut out works. In some of Matisses' later works he merely cut out squares of different colors. At the end of Matisse's life he became religious. His whole life he was an atheist but he had surgery and at the end of his life he made a sort of cathedral where he tried to represent color in its purest form just through light, and he has an image of Jesus in the Cathedral and a cross.

16 is the squares of the quadrant model


Chess was originally called "four parts of the army", coming from India's four divisions of its army.

There are 16 pawns in a chess set and each player in a chess game starts with sixteen pieces

Wine tasting is a huge thing for a lot of people

There are four recognized stages to wine tasting:


"in glass" the aroma of the wine

"in mouth" sensations

"finish" (aftertaste)


The results of the four recognized stages to wine tasting: appearance, “in glass” the aroma of the wine, “in mouth” sensations, “finish” (aftertaste) – are combined in order to establish the following properties of a wine: complexity and character, potential (suitability for aging or drinking), possible faults.


Russian four square was started in the Soviet Union. Russian four square is a variation of the Russian game Квадрат (square).

Each square that was divided is a position for the players:

1st: Peasants square 2nd: Duke's square 3rd: Prince's square 4th: King's square



I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.


Four square, also known as handball, downball, squareball, blockball, boxball, champ or king's square, is a ball game played among four players on a square court divided into quadrants. It is a popular game at elementary schools with little required equipment, almost no setup, and short rounds of play that can be ended at any time.

Four square is usually played with a rubber playground ball, on a square court with four maximum players. The objectives of four square are to eliminate other players to achieve the highest rank.émon_characters#Members_of_the_Elite_Four

Members of the Elite Four[edit]

"Elite Four" redirects here. For the video game, see Elite 4.

The Elite Four (四天王 Shitennō, lit. "Four Heavenly Kings") is an order of exceptionally skilled Pokémon trainers consisting of four member trainers of ascending rank. Like the Gym Leaders, they also specialize on a type of Pokémon but are far stronger. Most different regions possess their own organizations. The player must first defeat them all so that they may gain the right to challenge the 'Pokémon Champion'. The player must obtain all eight badges from each respective region's gym leaders.

Kanto Elite Four[edit]

The Kanto Elite Four act as the Elite Four in the original series of Pokémon games consisting of Pokémon Red, Blue, Green, and Yellow versions as well as in Pokémon FireRed and LeafGreen versions which act as remakes of the original games. Within the timeline of the game series they are eventually also given the status as the 'Johto Elite Four', as Johto shares its Pokémon league with Kanto. Specifically, this Elite Four is located on the Indigo Plateau, shared by both Kanto and Johto.

  • Lorelei (Kanna (カンナ)): Lorelei is a specialist of Ice-type Pokémon. She is originally from the Sevii Islands and she collects Pokémon Dolls. She appears in the Orange Islands series of the anime, where she is known as Prima in the English version. She is a villain in Pokémon Adventures, who attempts to take over the world with the other Elite Four. She later allies with Red and Blue to save her home.

  • Bruno (Shiba (シバ)): Bruno is an expert on Fighting-types, and a friend and training partner of Brawly. He constantly trains his own body along with his Pokémon, and he wishes to fight the best trainers in the world, which is why he is part of the group. He regularly trains on the Sevii Islands and utilizes the spa for his Pokémon. He appears in the first episode of the anime as a combatant on television, and he later meets Ash when he seeks out Bruno to learn of his "secret" to become a great trainer. Bruno is an unwilling villain in Pokémon Adventures, where he is forced by Agatha to fight for her. He later forms the Johto Elite Four with Will, Karen, and Koga. Bruno attaches his Poké Balls to the ends of a set of nunchaku, and unleashes his Pokémon at high speeds to give him an advantage.

  • Agatha (Kikuko (キクコ)): Agatha is an elderly woman who specializes in Ghost-type Pokémon. In the anime, she appears in the episode "The Scheme Team" where she is acting Gym Leader for the Viridian City Gym, defeating Ash in a battle. She is one the main antagonists of the Yellow chapter of Pokémon Adventures, along with Lance. She attempts to destroy most of humanity from their base on Cerise Island. She controls Bruno against his will by utilizing the mind-controlling powers of her ghost Pokémon, and she is a former rival of Professor Oak, though their relationship eventually grew very bitter when he decided to pursue his own research career rather than stick with their group, which according to Oak, was only interested in finding new ways to control Pokémon, which the professor found unethical.

  • Lance (Wataru (ワタル)): Lance, known as one of the best Pokémon trainers in the world, specializes in dragon Pokémon. He is Clair's cousin, having previously trained with her in Blackthorn City. He helps the protagonist in the second generation games in the fight against Team Rocket. He appears in the anime, where he helps Ash's group defeat Team Rocket, catching a red Gyarados that is part of their experiments, and later helps to stop the battle between Groudon and Kyogre. He is the main antagonist of the Yellow chapter of Pokémon Adventures who wishes to destroy humanity due to all of the pollution and their hurting of Pokémon. He later becomes an ally of Silver, who he sends on various missions. He is promoted to a Pokémon League champion of the Indigo Plateau in the sequel games.


Johto Elite Four[edit]

The Johto Elite Four act as the Elite Four in the original series of Pokémon games consisting of Pokémon Gold, Silver, and Crystal versions as well as in Pokémon HeartGold and SoulSilver versions which act as remakes of the original games. Within the timeline of the games series, they become the successors of the Kanto Elite Four. Only Bruno from the previous games returns, while the others are replaced by new ones.

  • Will (Itsuki (イツキ)): Will is a Psychic-type specialist, who wears formal clothes and a mask. In the Pokémon Adventures manga, he was kidnapped by the Mask of Ice as a child and raised to be his servant. He is initially one of the leaders of Neo Team Rocket, but he eventually goes on to form the new Elite Four with Karen, Koga, and Bruno. He takes over Lorelei's place.

  • Koga, Fuchsia City Gym Leader in the Kanto-based versions of the games, is promoted to the Elite Four in Johto-based versions.

  • Bruno, member of the Elite Four in the Kanto-based games, retains his membership in the Elite Four in the Johto-based editions.

  • Karen (Karin (カリン)): Karen is a Dark-type specialist; she likes Dark-types because she finds their wild and tough nature appealing. In the Pokémon Adventures manga, she was kidnapped as a child and raised by Mask of Ice to be his servant. Like Will, she is initially a leader of Neo Team Rocket until she joins the others to form the new Elite Four. She takes over Agatha's place.

Hoenn Elite Four[edit]

The Hoenn Elite Four act as the Elite Four in the original series of Pokémon games consisting of Pokémon Ruby, Sapphire, Emerald, Omega Ruby, and Alpha Sapphire.

  • Sidney (Kagetsu (カゲツ)): Dark-type specialist, who believes that the dark-side is beautiful, and that "might is right." He is always upbeat, and congratulates those who defeat him.

  • Phoebe (Fuyō (フヨウ)): is a Ghost-type specialist, whose grandparents are responsible for guarding the Blue, Red, and Green Orbs at Mt. Pyre. She takes control of Regice, together with Glacia, in the Pokémon Adventures manga.

  • Glacia (Prim (プリム Purimu)): Ice-type specialist, who came to Hoenn while looking for a warmer climate that, as she claims, help her Pokémon grow strong.

  • Drake (Genji (ゲンジ)): Dragon-type specialist. He battles Ash in the anime, and he wins overwhelmingly due to Ash's overconfidence.

Sinnoh Elite Four[edit]

  • Aaron (Ryō (リョウ)): Aaron uses Bug Pokémon, calling them beautiful and perfect. He appears in the anime preparing for a championship battle against Cynthia. When he meets Ash, who tells him about his experience with Cynthia, Aaron tells Ash about how he abandoned his Wurmple during his youth. He does his best to train and understand Bug-types out of regret for his mistake. He is later shown to have lost his match.

  • Bertha (Kikuno (キクノ)): Bertha is an elderly Ground-type specialist. She appears in the anime along with Cynthia.

  • Flint (Ōba (オーバ)): Flint is a Fire-type specialist, who meets the protagonist in Sunyshore City. He is a friend of Volkner and he has a younger brother named Buck. Flint's also seen on TV battling Cynthia in the final episode of Pokémon Diamond and Pearl.

  • Lucian (Goyō (ゴヨウ)): Lucian is a Psychic-type trainer, who is an avid reader. He battles with Dawn in the anime, and he is shown on television battling Cynthia.

Unova Elite Four[edit]

  • Shauntal (Shikimi (シキミ)): Shauntal is a Ghost-Type Pokémon Trainer. Her hobby is writing books. She can also be seen at Cynthia's holiday home in Undella Town on occasion. According to one of her stories, she once battled Volkner.

  • Grimsley (Gīma (ギーマ)): Grimsley is a Dark-Type Pokémon Trainer. The son of a distinguished family that fell into ruin, he has since become an expert gambler.

  • Caitlin (Cattleya (カトレア Katorea)): Caitlin is a Psychic-Type Pokémon Trainer; she is described as having psychic powers which she had trouble controlling in the past due to her explosive temper. She travels to the region of Unova to learn how to control them and become a better trainer. She previously appeared in the Generation IV games' Battle Frontier and was in charge of running the Battle Castle but was unable to battle, with her valet taking that responsibility in her place.

  • Marshal (Renbu (レンブ)): Marshal is a Fighting-Type Pokémon Trainer. He is one of Alder's apprentices.

Kalos Elite Four[edit]

  • Malva (Pachira (パキラ Pakira)): Malva is a Fire-Type Pokémon Trainer. A hot-headed news reporter and a self-proclaimed star of the Holo Caster, she is also a former member of Team Flare and expresses animosity towards the player for the team's defeat. Looker later blackmails her into helping the player stop Xerosic's plans.

  • Siebold (Zumi (ズミ)): Siebold is a Water-Type Pokémon Trainer. He is a chef, whose customers notably include Valerie and Grant, and compares the art of cooking to the art of Pokémon battles.

  • Wikstrom (Gampi (ガンピ Ganpi)): Wikstrom is a Steel-Type Pokémon Trainer. He wears a suit of armor and is eager to battle challengers.

  • Drasna (Dracaena (ドラセナ Dorasena)): Drasna is a Dragon-Type Pokémon Trainer, inspired to train Dragon-types after her grandparents from Sinnoh told her about the region's mythology surrounding Dialga and Palkia. She is just happy to battle and enjoys it when trainers and their Pokémon like each other.

Alola Elite Four[edit]

  • Hala: Due to his position as Kahuna of Melemele Island, Hala, was invited by Kukui to become one of the Elite Four. He focuses on Fighting-type Pokémon.

  • Olivia: Due to her position as Kahuna of Akala Island, Olivia, was invited by Kukui to become one of the Elite Four. She focuses on Rock-type Pokémon.

  • Acerola: As she had completed the Island Challenge and become a Trial Captain, Acerola was invited to be one of the Elite Four. She focuses on Ghost-type Pokémon.

  • Kahili: A friend of Kukui and known as one of the most pre-eminent golfers on Alola, Kahili was invited to be one of the Elite Four. She focuses on Flying-type Pokémon.émon_characters


In Pokémon X and Y, the Battle Maison is introduced as a new system where the bosses are the sister Battle Chatelaines (バトルシャトレーヌ Batoru Shatorēnu). Each serves as a leader of a different type of battle style and are faced after winning a series of battles against other trainers in succession.

Nita (Lanuit (ラニュイ Ranyui)) is the Battle Chatelaine for Single Battles.

Evelyn (Lesoir (ルスワール Rusuwāru)) is the Battle Chatelaine for Double Battles.

Dana (Lajournée (ラジュルネ Rajurune)) is the Battle Chatelaine for Triple Battles.

Morgan (Lematin (ルミタン Rumitan)) is the Battle Chatelaine for Rotation Battles.

When challenging the Multi Battle system, the sisters pair up amongst each other.émon_characters


Go-Rock Squad[edit]

Go-Rock Squad (GoGo Gang (スナッチ団 GoGo-dan)) is a villainous team in Pokémon Ranger. Their plot consists of replacing the rangers and becoming the new heroes of Fiore. The Squad begins this by stealing a Capture Stylus from Professor Hastings. Reverse engineering the design, the Go Rock Squad mass-produces a great many styluses. Following this, the Squad captures a multitude of Pokémon for their own use. In the endgame of their plans, Gordor attempts to summon legendary Pokémon Entei, Raikou, and Suicune, who would terrorize the land with their power. In theory the Squad would then stop the legendaries with the Pokémon they already had, but the Squad broke up after the Rangers foiled the plot.


Gordor (ラゴウ (Ragō)): The Go Rock Squad's leader. Gordor was the mastermind of the Squad. A former professor, Gordor was jealous of Hastings receiving all the attention for projects they both contributed to, so Gordor went Rogue.

The Go-Rock Quads (Four GoGo Siblings (ゴーゴー4兄弟)) are Gordor's four children, and were the admins of the Squad as well as a musical quartet. They consist of:

Tiffany, who played the violin.

Garrett, who played the electric guitar.

Billy, the leader of the Quads, who also played an electric guitar.

Clyde, who played the bongos.

A tetromino is a geometric shape composed of four squares, connected orthogonally. This, like dominoes and pentominoes, is a particular type of polyomino. The corresponding polycube, called a tetracube, is a geometric shape composed of four cubes connected orthogonally.
A popular use of tetrominoes is in the video game Tetris, where they have been called Tetriminos (spelled with an "i" as opposed to the "o" in "tetromino") since 2001.
Tetris is one of the most popular games of all time. It is no coincidence it is related to the number four.

16 is the squares of the quadrant model


Formation skydiving is a skydiving event where multiple skydivers attach themselves to one another by grabbing each other's limbs or by the use of "grippers" on their jumpsuit while free falling through the sky. The goal of this skydiving program is to build a formation of multiple divers arranged in a geometric pattern.


Formation skydiving can be further divided into several sub-categories, so named for the number of members in a team:


4-way sequential

4-way vertical sequential (VFS, Vertical Formation Skydiving)

8-way sequential

16-way sequential

10-way speed

Large formations (Big-ways)

There is only one category of official VFS competition, that being VFS 4-way, which is part of the United States Parachute Association Skydiving Nationals. The first official VFS 4-Way US Nationals Competition was held on October 27, 2006, in Eloy, Arizona. Nine teams (45 skydivers) competed.


VFS 4-way has been adopted as an addition to future FAI world competitions (as VFS 4-way), the first being the FAI World Cup in Eloy, AZ, in October 2008.



A "Quad" four fins, typically arranged as two pairs of thrusters in wing formation, which are quick down the line but tend to lose energy through turns. The energy is lost as the board goes up the wave because the fins are now vectoring energy from the oncoming water toward the back of the board, bleeding speed.

The fourth is transcendent- fifth is questionable


PBA Tour major championships[edit]

The PBA Tour has four events that are considered major tournaments over the history of the organization:


The USBC Masters

The PBA World Championship

The Tournament of Champions

The U.S. Open

The PBA Players Championship (formerly Touring Players Championship) has been held off and on since the 1980s, and is considered fifth major tournament.


Don Carter is also noted for having won all four possible "majors" during his career (PBA National Championship, BPAA All-Star, World Invitational and ABC Masters), however some of these were not PBA events.

16 is the squares of the quadrant model

This is a list of WWE pay-per-view events, detailing all professional wrestling cards promoted on pay-per-view by WWE.


WWE has broadcast pay-per-views since the 1980s, when its classic "Big Four" events (Royal Rumble, WrestleMania, SummerSlam, and Survivor Series) were first established. The company's PPV lineup expanded to a monthly basis in the mid-1990s, and reached its peak of sixteen shows a year in 2006 before returning to twelve in 2012. Pay-per-view shows are typically three hours in length, though budget priced events (e.g., In Your House) were shorter, and premium events such as WrestleMania can approach five hours. Since 2008, all WWE pay-per-views have been broadcast in high definition. Pay-per-view events are a significant part of the revenue stream for WWE.[1][2]

Fatal 4-Way was a professional wrestling pay-per-view (PPV) event produced by World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE), which took place on June 20, 2010, at the Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum in Uniondale, New York.[3] The show was based on certain matches on the card that are contested as fatal four-way matches. The event received 143,000 pay-per-view buys, down on The Bash's figure of 178,000 buys. This was the final WWE pay-per-view event to be held in Nassau Coliseum after the coliseum will have a renovation. Also, this was the first and only Fatal 4-Way event produced by WWE.


The Four Horsemen was a professional wrestling stable in the National Wrestling Alliance and later World Championship Wrestling. The original group consisted of Ric Flair, Arn Anderson, Ole Anderson and Tully Blanchard. Flair and Arn Anderson have been constant members in each incarnation of the group except once following Anderson's neck injury, when Curt Hennig was given his spot in the Horsemen.


The original Four Horsemen (1985–1987)[edit]

The Four Horsemen formed in November 1985 with Ric Flair and his storyline cousins Ole Anderson and Arn Anderson (the latter brought in from Continental Championship Wrestling), and Tully Blanchard from Southwest Championship Wrestling, with James J. Dillon as their manager. They feuded with Dusty Rhodes (breaking his ankle and hand), Magnum TA, Barry Windham, The Rock 'n' Roll Express (breaking Ricky Morton's nose), Nikita Koloff (injuring his neck), and The Road Warriors. Animal, Hawk, Ronnie Garvin and many others fought Ric Flair for the NWA World Heavyweight Title during that time period. They usually had most of the titles in the NWA, and they often bragged about their success (in the ring and with women) in their interviews.


The Four Horsemen moniker was not planned from the start. Due to time constraints at a television taping, production threw together an impromptu tag team interview of Flair, the Andersons, Tully Blanchard and Dillon; all were now united after Ole Anderson returned and, along with Flair and Arn, tried to break Dusty's leg during a wrestling event at the Omni in Atlanta during the fall of 1985. It was during this interview that Arn said something to the effect of "The only time this much havoc had been wreaked by this few a number of people, you need to go all the way back to the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse!"[6] The comparison and the name stuck. Nevertheless, Arn has said in an RF Video shoot interview that he, Flair and Blanchard were as close as anybody could be away from the ring while they were together. They lived the gimmick outside of the arena, as they took limos and jets to the cities in which they wrestled. Baby Doll was Flair's valet for a couple of months in 1986, after previously managing Tully Blanchard during 1985.


The Xtreme Horsemen[edit]

The Xtreme Horsemen was a professional wrestling stable in Turnbuckle Championship Wrestling, and later Major League Wrestling, and also appeared across Japan, that disbanded in 2004. The groups name was in homage to the Four Horsemen, who in the 1980s were one of professional wrestling's top draws worldwide. The group came together in Dusty Rhodes' Turnbuckle Championship Wrestling promotion, but the group later left Rhodes' promotion to join Major League Wrestling where Steve Corino and "The Enforcer" C.W. Anderson were joined by former ECW superstars Justin Credible and Simon Diamond. This incarnation was briefly managed by former Four Horsemen manager J.J. Dillon before Major League Wrestling ceased operations. Barry Windham also joined the group for a War Games match for one time only.


At WXW-C4's Sportsfest 2009, Steve Corino reformed the Xtreme Horsemen in the form of Corino, NYWC's Papadon, WXW-C4's A.C. Anderson, and Corino's student Alex Anthony. They are managed by Corino's personal manager, Rob Dimension.


As of 2016, Corino and Anderson have retained the Extreme Horsemen faction and added independent wrestler John Skyler to the group.



Main article: Evolution

In 2003, rumors began circulating that Ric Flair (at the time working for the World Wrestling Entertainment) was going to reform the Four Horsemen with Triple H, Randy Orton, and Batista. This group was eventually formed, but under the name Evolution instead of the Four Horsemen, and with Triple H as the leader instead of Flair. They served much the same function as the original heel Horsemen had, dominating the titles on Raw and feuding with that brand's top faces. The group slowly died between August 2004 and October 2005. Orton was kicked out of the group after he won the World Heavyweight Championship, which Triple H coveted. In February 2005, Batista left the group after winning the Royal Rumble, in a storyline where Triple H tried to protect his title from Batista. During a Triple H hiatus, Flair turned face, and at Raw Homecoming, Triple H returned as a face, but turned heel by the end of the night, hitting Flair in the face with a sledgehammer and officially ending Evolution. At Raw 15th Anniversary, an Evolution reunion as faces took place, though then-heel Randy Orton refused to participate and instead challenged the face versions of Flair, Batista, and Triple H to a match in which he partnered with then-heel, Edge and Umaga, and at the same time reforming Rated-RKO for one night. On the March 31, 2008 episode of Raw, Flair delivered his farewell address. Afterward, Triple H brought out many current and retired superstars to thank Flair for all he has done, including Four Horsemen members, Arn Anderson, Tully Blanchard, Barry Windham, J.J. Dillon, and Dean Malenko. Also, it was the night in which Evolution got back together in the ring, except for Randy Orton (who was outside the ring). This would mark the last time both groups would be in the ring together.


On the April 14, 2014 episode of Raw, Triple H, Orton, and Batista reunited Evolution full-time, once again heels, to feud with The Shield. However, on the April 28, 2014 episode of Raw, Flair showed his endorsement for The Shield, effectively turning his back on his old teammates, thus not turning heel.



Main article: Fortune

Fortune was a professional wrestling stable in Total Nonstop Action Wrestling, announced by Ric Flair on June 17, 2010 as a "reformed" version of the Four Horsemen. Flair had been loosely associated with A.J. Styles, Desmond Wolfe, Beer Money, Inc. (James Storm and Robert Roode) and Kazarian since April 5, 2010, and announced that each of them and anyone else who wanted to join Fortune (originally spelled Fourtune) would have to earn their place in the stable.[9] On July 11 at Victory Road, Styles and Kazarian became the first official members of Fortune by defeating Samoa Joe and Rob Terry in a tag team match.[10] On the July 29 edition of Impact!, Flair announced that James Storm and Robert Roode had earned the right to become the final two members of Fortune.[11] However, on the August 12 edition of Impact! Douglas Williams, who had helped Flair defeat his nemesis Jay Lethal the previous week, and Matt Morgan were added to Fortune as the stable assaulted EV 2.0, a stable consisting of former Extreme Championship Wrestling performers.[12] Fortune had since merged with Hulk Hogan and Eric Bischoff's Immortal stable, but turned on them months later, splitting them into two feuding factions. Ric Flair would turn on Fortune and remain associated with Immortal.


The Four Horsewomen[edit]

The stable was invoked by mixed martial artists Ronda Rousey, Shayna Baszler, Jessamyn Duke and Marina Shafir (Invicta Fighter), who named themselves "The Four Horsewomen" in 2013, with the blessing of Anderson and Flair.[13] After Bethe Correia defeated Duke, she held up four fingers and symbolically put one down. She did this again after beating Baszler. As Shafir is not in the UFC, these two wins set the stage for a bantamweight title fight between her and Rousey (the "Ric Flair of the Four Horsewomen") at UFC 190.[14] Rousey knocked Correia out in 34 seconds.[15]


The group was shown at ringside during WrestleMania 31, where Rousey was later involved in a major in-ring segment with The Rock, Triple H and Stephanie McMahon.[16]


The NXT wrestlers Charlotte (Ric Flair's daughter), Bayley, Becky Lynch and Sasha Banks have referred to themselves as "The Four Horsewomen", and posed in ring at NXT TakeOver: Brooklyn each with four fingers held up.[17]


The Radicalz (sometimes titled The Radicals) were a professional wrestling stable in the World Wrestling Federation (WWF). The members were former World Championship Wrestling (WCW) wrestlers Chris Benoit, Eddie Guerrero, Perry Saturn and Dean Malenko.[1] Terri Runnels later joined the group by proxy after becoming Saturn's on-screen girlfriend. Benoit, Malenko, and Saturn all had previously been a part of a similar small stable of younger talent while in WCW, The Revolution, which was dismantled by their defection.


World Wrestling Federation[edit]

The four first made their appearance on the January 31, 2000 episode of Raw Is War as audience members and backstage guests of Mick Foley. They interfered in a match consisting of Al Snow and Steve Blackman and The New Age Outlaws. While the group was sitting in the front row, Road Dogg took a cheap shot at Benoit, which prompted all four to severely beat both of The New Age Outlaws inside and out of the ring. The attack ended after Guerrero performed a frog splash on Billy Gunn and Benoit performed a diving headbutt on Dogg, with Jim Ross dubbing them The Radicalz. The four were offered a chance to "win" contracts by beating the members of D-Generation X in a series of three matches. Malenko lost to X-Pac after an illegal groin attack, while Saturn and Guerrero ended up losing against The New Age Outlaws, since Dogg had pulled the referee out of the ring when Guerrero was covering Gunn for the pin after a frog splash, thereby illegally breaking up the cover. Benoit then lost to Triple H, but not before making him tap out to the Crippler Crossface while the referee was unconscious. Soon afterwards, the four wrestlers were "given" contracts with the WWF by Triple H, in exchange for them turning on Mick Foley. The group became known as The Radicalz (sometimes spelled The Radicals in on-screen graphics), and they attained some measure of success. At first tightly knit, all four of the wrestlers in the group eventually drifted apart as all of them sought stardom as singles wrestlers in the WWF.

Started with four members- X is the quadrant


D-Generation X (also known as DX) was a professional wrestling stable (and later tag team) best known for their appearances in the World Wrestling Federation/Entertainment/WWE. The group originated in the midst of the WWF's "Attitude Era" in 1997 as a foil to another prominent faction, The Hart Foundation.[1]


After its original run with members Shawn Michaels, Hunter Hearst Helmsley (later known simply as Triple H), Chyna, and Rick Rude, the group expanded to become a mainstay of the Attitude Era with new additions like X-Pac, The New Age Outlaws (Road Dogg and Billy Gunn) and Tori until it disbanded in August 2000. After a teased reunion in 2002, DX reformed in June 2006 as the duo of Triple H and Shawn Michaels for the remainder of the year[2] and again in August 2009 until March 2010, shortly before Michaels' retirement. This incarnation was voted the greatest WWE Tag Team Champions of all time in a 2013 WWE viewer poll.[3]


The fourth is always different


The Fabulous Freebirds were a professional wrestling tag team that attained fame in the 1980s, performing into the 1990s. The team usually consisted of three wrestlers, although in different situations and points in its history, just two performed under the Freebirds name.


Main Members

Michael Hayes was the leader of the group. Nicknamed "P.S." (Purely Sexy), he was known to get the crowd going with his antics.

Terry Gordy was the powerhouse of the group. Nicknamed "Bam Bam", he loved to fight and beat his opponents down.

Buddy Roberts, nicknamed "Jack" for his love of Jack Daniel's whiskey, was the speed of the group, who would often frustrate other wrestlers into chasing him, until Hayes and/or Gordy surprised them with a move. Buddy was also acknowledged as the best ring technician of the group.

Jimmy Garvin's association with the Freebirds began in 1983, as he had often teamed with Hayes, Gordy, and Roberts in WCCW and AWA. In 1988, he teamed with Steven Dane while Hayes was injured as a watered-down version of the Freebirds, and with Hayes during a reignited WCW run between June 1989 and July 1992. He was always considered the fourth Freebird by Hayes, Gordy and Roberts, although no one really believed it until 1989, when Hayes and Garvin (nicknamed "Jam") teamed up for the NWA World Tag Team Championship tournament.

Diamond Exchange (1988–1989)- four members

Badd Company (Paul Diamond and Pat Tanaka)[5]

Col. DeBeers[5]

Curt Hennig[6]

Madusa Miceli[6]

Diamond Mine (1991–1992)- four

The Fabulous Freebirds (Michael Hayes, Jimmy Garvin, and Badstreet)

Scotty Flamingo[22]

Diamond Studd[5]

Vinnie Vegas[5]



The Diamond Exchange was a professional wrestling stable led by Diamond Dallas Page in the American Wrestling Association from 1988 to 1989. Page led a spiritual success known as The Diamond Mine in World Championship Wrestling from 1991 to 1992.


The Dangerous Alliance was a heel professional wrestling stable that made a name for itself in World Championship Wrestling (WCW) in the early 1990s and the American Wrestling Association (AWA) in 1987, with Adrian Adonis, Randy Rose, and Dennis Condrey making up the AWA incarnation of the group.


AWA members[edit]- Four

Adrian Adonis

Dennis Condrey – he was one half of the Original Midnight Express

Paul E. Dangerously – leader and manager of the Alliance

Randy Rose – he was one half of the Original Midnight Express


Elimination tag team matches[edit]

Elimination tag team matches are the same as a normal tag team match except that a wrestler who suffers a loss is eliminated from participation. The match continues until all members of one team are eliminated. WWE uses the term "Survivor Series match" to denote an eight or ten person match held during their yearly Survivor Series pay-per-view. Lucha libre wrestling promotions use the term Torneo cibernetico (cybernetic tournament) for multi-man elimination matches. Sometimes in these matches, there can be only one winner, so after the other team has been eliminated former teammates face each other in an elimination match. A further variation is where teams of four or more are composed of tag teams, and once a member of a team is eliminated their partner is also eliminated.


Three-way tag team elimination match[edit]

In a three-way tag team elimination match, three teams compete as tag teams with two or more members per team. One member of two teams start. Anyone could be tagged in by anyone else and can be subject to immediate disqualification for failure to accept a tag. When a wrestler is pinned, the entire team is eliminated and the last team left of the three wins.


Four-way tag team elimination match[edit]

Much like in a three-way tag team elimination match (see above), a four-way tag team elimination match (also known as a Fatal 4-way tag team elimination match, and at times has also been called the Raw Bowl and the Superstars Bowl), four teams compete. Anyone could be tagged in by anyone else and can be subject to immediate disqualification for failure to accept a tag. When a wrestler is pinned, the entire team is eliminated and the last team of the four wins.


Tag team turmoil[edit]

Tag team turmoil is another version of an elimination tag team match. The match has a team in each of the four corners to start the match, but as each team is eliminated another team takes its place, similar to a gauntlet match. Another variation of tag team turmoil took place at SummerSlam in 1999, Night of Champions in 2010, Night of Champions Kickoff Show in 2013, and Elimination Chamber in 2017. Two teams start, when one is eliminated a new team comes to the ring until all teams have competed, the remaining team is the winner. This was used on the May 31, 2011 episode of NXT, with a team consisting of a WWE Pro and his NXT Rookie. The winning team earned 3 Redemption Points for the Rookie in this version.


Tables and Stables[edit]

Tables and Stables are similar to table matches, however, in an elimination styled-manner. Two teams consisting of four compete, and one wrestler can be eliminated either getting dropped by his opponent through a table, or accidentally falling by themselves. The match is a no disqualification and a no countout match.


The West Texas Rednecks was a short-lived professional wrestling stable and country music band in World Championship Wrestling (WCW) in 1999. They are famous for the recording of two songs, "Rap is Crap (I Hate Rap)" and "Good Ol' Boys."


The West Texas Rednecks formed in June 1999 in WCW. The group developed from four wrestlers who fit the mold of a southern gimmick and had teamed with one another in the recent months. They were to be a heel group to feud with The No Limit Soldiers led by Master P.


Their main feuds were with Master P's No Limit Soldiers (Swoll, 4X4, Chase and BA)


The group was made up of leader Curt Hennig, brothers Barry and Kendall Windham, and Bobby Duncum, Jr..


Teddy Reade[1] is an American professional wrestler who is known for his short-lived stint in World Championship Wrestling. As of 2013 Reade was working on the independent circuit.[citation needed]


Contents [hide]

1 World Championship Wrestling

2 In wrestling

3 Championships and accomplishments

4 Personal life

5 References

6 External links

World Championship Wrestling[edit]

In 1999 Reade went under the ring 4x4 and debuted in World Championship Wrestling as a member of Master P's No Limit Soldiers along with BA, Chase Tatum, Konnan, Rey Mysterio, Jr. and Swoll.[2] They later feuded with The West Texas Rednecks due to the Rednecks hatred of rap music. After the soldiers broke up 4x4 changed his name to Cassius by joining a heel stable called Harlem Heat 2000 and acted as a bodyguard, the group consist of the leader Stevie Ray, Big T and manager J. Biggs then began feuding with Booker T. although the feud didn't last long and Harlem Heat 2000 began to split up.[3][4] Reade's presence would draw attention of the audience simply due to his enormous physical size.


The fourth is always different


The New World Order (commonly abbreviated NWO, in logo stylized as nWo) was a professional wrestling stable that originally consisted of "Hollywood" Hulk Hogan, Kevin Nash, and Scott Hall, best known for their appearances in World Championship Wrestling (WCW) from the mid to late 1990s.[1]


As WCW's annual pay-per-view Fall Brawl was drawing closer, WCW was preparing for another battle against the nWo. On the September 9 episode of Nitro, the nWo tricked fans and wrestlers into thinking that Sting had joined the nWo by putting wrestler Jeff Farmer into the group as a Sting clone, complete with Sting attire and face paint. This point was furthered when Farmer, as the fake Sting, attacked Luger, who had been lured into an attack by referee Nick Patrick. This led Luger, his longtime ally and tag team partner, to publicly question Sting. At Fall Brawl, as Team WCW was being interviewed, Sting told his teammates that he had nothing to do with the attack, but Luger did not believe him. Going into the match, only three wrestlers on each side had been officially named: Hogan and The Outsiders for the nWo, with Luger, Arn Anderson, and Ric Flair for Team WCW. Sting had originally been named the fourth man for WCW, but his participation was in doubt. The fourth man for the nWo was indeed the fake Sting, who convinced everyone (including the broadcast team) that the real Sting was nWo. The real Sting showed up moments later as the last man for Team WCW and took apart the nWo by himself. After assaulting Hogan, Hall, Nash and the fake Sting, Sting left the ring and Team WCW, yelling at an apologetic looking Luger "Now do you believe me?" as he did so. Team WCW, now fighting a 4-on-3 handicap match, lost when the nWo Sting locked Luger in the Scorpion Death Lock.

Four members


The group was formed in May 2013, when Irish wrestler Prince Devitt turned on his partner Ryusuke Taguchi and came together with American wrestler Karl Anderson and Tongan wrestlers Bad Luck Fale and Tama Tonga to form a villainous stable of foreigners, which they subsequently named "Bullet Club"


The four members of Bullet Club wrestled their first match together on May 22, when they defeated Captain New Japan, Hiroshi Tanahashi, Manabu Nakanishi and Ryusuke Taguchi in an eight-man tag team match.


Tama Tonga, one of the four founding members of Bullet Club


A figure-four is a Catch wrestling term for a joint-lock that resembles the number "4". A keylock or toe hold can be referred to as a figure-four hold, when it involves a figure-four formation with the legs or arms. If the figure-four involves grabbing the wrists with both hands, it is called a double wrist lock; known as kimura in MMA circles . A figure-four hold done with the legs around the neck and (usually) arm of an opponent is called figure-four (leg-)choke, better known as a triangle choke these days, and is a common submission in modern mixed martial arts, Submission wrestling and Brazilian jiu jitsu, and of course Catch wrestling from where it originates. The leg figure-four choke is also part of Japanese martial arts, where it is known as Sankaku-Jime.


The wrestling move figure 4 leg lock was made famous by WWE Hall of Famer Ric "The Nature Boy" Flair.

A four-in-hand is a carriage drawn by a team of four horses having the reins rigged in such a way that it can be driven by a single driver. The stagecoach and the tally-ho are usually four-in-hand coaches.

Before the four-in-hand rigging was developed, two drivers were needed to handle four horses. However, with a four-in-hand, the solo driver could handle all four horses by holding all the reins in one hand, thus the name.

The four-in-hand knot used to tie neckwear may have developed from a knot used in the rigging of the reins.

Today Four-in-hand driving is the top discipline of combined driving in sports. One of its major events is the FEI World Cup Driving series.


Cutting is a western-style equestrian competition in which a horse and rider work as a team before a judge or panel of judges to demonstrate the horse's athleticism and ability to handle cattle during a  2 1⁄2 minute performance, called a "run." Each contestant is assisted by four helpers: two are designated as turnback help to keep cattle from running off to the back of the arena, and the other two are designated as herd holders to keep the cattle bunched together and prevent potential strays from escaping into the work area. Cutting cattle are typically young steers and heifers that customarily range in size from 400 to 650 lb (180 to 290 kg). They are of Angus or Hereford lineage or possibly a mix of crossbred beef cattle with Charolais or Brahman lineage.


Four parts of the animals body, each accrue different numbers of points. The fourth is different.


Rodeo is a traditional sport in Chile. It was declared the national sport in 1962.


The fourth is different.


O-Mok-See or omoksee is the most common term used in the Western United States for events in the sport of pattern horse racing. Most events are run with contestants simultaneously running in 4 separate lanes (3 for small arenas), with each contestant riding in a 30 foot wide lane.

Four scoring possibilities. The fourth is different, outside of the circle around the thirty and fourty

More traditional skee ball machines like this one do not include the two additional "100 points" holes, located on the uppermost corners of the machine, on either side of the "50 points" hole.

16 is the squares of the quadrant model


Many course themes recur throughout the series. Most are based on an existing area in the Mario franchise (Bowser's Castle being among the most prominent), but there are a number of courses that have not appeared elsewhere, but still belong in the Mushroom Kingdom, such as Rainbow Road.[3] Each game in the series includes at least 16 original courses


Each game's tracks are divided into four "cups", or groups in which the player has to have the highest overall placing to win. Most courses can be done in three laps. The first game to feature courses from previous games was Mario Kart: Super Circuit, which contained all of the tracks from the original Super NES game. Starting with Mario Kart DS, each entry in the series has featured 16 "nitro" (courses belonging to its own game) and 16 "retro" tracks (courses from previous Mario Kart titles), spread across four cups each with four races. In Mario Kart 8, 16 additional tracks are available across two downloadable packages

16 is the squares of the quadrant model

Again 16 courses and 16 players can play simultaneously


Double Dash!! supports LAN play using the Nintendo GameCube Broadband Adapter, allowing up to 16 players to compete simultaneously. There are 20 characters to select from in total, each of which with a special item, and with eleven characters being new to the series.


Game modes[edit]

There are four game modes in Double Dash: Grand Prix, Time Trial, Versus, and Battle. Most of the modes can be played cooperatively, while some can only be played by themselves in single-player races.


Grand Prix – This mode has the player race against 7 (or 6) teams, which are controlled by the computer, in a series of predetermined courses. The player can choose to race using 3 different engine size classes: 50cc, 100cc and 150cc. A fourth unlockable class, Mirror Mode, allows the player to race through a mirrored version of the tracks using the 150cc engine size.[4] Since all karts go faster when using higher engine sizes, the 4 classes serve as difficulty levels. There are 16 tracks, divided into 4 cups: Mushroom, Flower, Star and Special. A 5th cup has the player race in every track called the All-Cup Tour. The tour always starts with Luigi Circuit and ends with Rainbow Road, but the remaining tracks show up in random order. Every race is three laps long except for Baby Park and Wario Colosseum, which have 7 and 2, respectively. After all the human players cross the finish line, the positions of the computer-controlled teams are immediately locked in and they are given points based on those eight positions, ranging from 0 to 10. At the end of the cup, there will be an award ceremony for the 3 teams, where they will get a trophy ranging from bronze to gold. No matter which position they earned after each race, everyone will move on because of these new rules.

Time Trial – This single-player mode has the player to finish any of the 16 courses in the fastest time possible, with the best time being saved as a ghost, a carbon copy of the player's performance that they can race against in later runs. Each character will receive a mushroom, which can be used at any time during the run. (1P only)

Versus – In this mode, players can choose any course and race against up to 3 (or 15 with LAN) human opponents with customized rules such as changing the item frequency or the number of laps in each race. (2P-16P only)

Battle – In battle mode, the player fights against up to 3 (or up to 15 with LAN) human-controlled opponents using items scattered throughout a battle arena. There is the traditional balloon-popping battle game, in which the player must use items to pop an opponent's three balloons while defending their own. Players can also steal items from one another by speeding towards them with a mushroom or star. In Co-op battles, the player in the back of the kart can perform a slide-attack on another driver, which can also steal balloons. Additionally, two new games have been implemented: the first involves capturing a Shine Sprite and maintaining possession of it for a certain amount of time, usually starting out with 55 to 60 seconds. Each time the Shine Sprite is lost, the counter will somewhat reset the time. For instance, if a player is able to keep possession of the Shine Sprite for only 30 seconds, the counter would reset to 40 instead of 60. The other mode involves throwing Bob-ombs at each other to collect points. With two players, 3 points are needed to win, but when playing with 3 or 4, 4 points are required to win. If two or more players throw a bomb at each other in unison, no points will be awarded to anybody. In a way, it's similar to a tie. As in previous installments, the battle arenas are enclosed (the exception being Tilt-A-Kart), with a varying layout and a replenishing arsenal of items. (2P-16P only)

LAN play – Double Dash also features LAN play using the Nintendo GameCube Broadband Adapter. Up to 8 GameCube consoles can be connected, allowing for 16-player multiplayer races, with 2 players controlling each kart.[5]


Unlike previous Mario Kart games, which featured 4 playable cups, Mario Kart DS features a total of 8 cups: Mushroom, Flower, Star, Special, Shell, Banana, Leaf and Lightning, with the latter 4 cups consisting entirely of tracks drawn from previous entries in the Mario Kart series. Each cup has four tracks for a grand total of 32.


16 is the squares of the quadrant model


Mario Kart Wii (マリオカートWii Mario Kāto Wī?) is a racing video game developed and published by Nintendo for the Wii video game console. It is the sixth installment in the Mario Kart series, and was released worldwide in April 2008.


Mario Kart Wii supports four different control schemes. The primary control scheme is the Wii Remote by itself, optionally used in conjunction with the plastic Wii Wheel accessory, which uses the controller's motion sensing to simulate operating a steering wheel. The other supported control schemes are the Wii Remote with the Nunchuk attachment; the Classic Controller; and the Nintendo GameCube controller.[3]


Mario Kart Wii features multiple game modes: Grand Prix, Time Trials, Versus, and Battle. All modes support single-player gameplay; Versus and Battle support local multiplayer for up to four players, with or without computer-controlled players.


16 is the squares of the quadrant model


Mario Kart 7 offers 32 different tracks, which consist of 16 tracks unique to the game and 16 "classic" tracks, remakes of tracks featured in the previous six installments.


Mario Kart 7 features four single-player game modes: Grand Prix, Time Trial, Balloon Battle, and Coin Runners. Some modes feature multiplayer options. In Grand Prix, the player races against seven computer-controlled opponents in one of eight different cups, each featuring four tracks. The player receives points based on his or her finishing position in each race. After all four races, there will be a trophy.

16 is the squares of the quadrant model

The game features 32 tracks, with an additional 16 later released as downloadable content (DLC).

The game continues the traditional gameplay of the Mario Kart series, in which characters from the Mario universe race against each other in go-karts, attempting to hinder their opponents or improve their racing performance using various tools found in item boxes. In addition, the game includes four different difficulties, which can be selected before beginning the race.

16 is the squares of the quadrant model

Pac-Man World Rally, known in Europe as Pac-Man Rally, is a kart racing game in the Pac-Man series. It is developed by Bandai Namco Games, and released in August 2006 for the PlayStation 2, Nintendo GameCube, PlayStation Portable, and Microsoft Windows. An Xbox version of the game was cancelled, even though there is a preview of it included in Pac-Man World 3.


The game has 15 race tracks and a battle mode similar to other kart racing games. In addition, there are four battle arenas for multiplayer action. You will also be able to collect power-ups to attack opponents or gain an edge in the race, as well as Pac-Man's signature fruit pickups, which in Pac-Man World Rally unlock secret shortcuts. There are 16 characters for the player to choose from.


16 is the squares of the quadrant model


The TurboGrafx-16 Entertainment SuperSystem, known in Japan and France as the PC Engine (PCエンジン Pī Shī Enjin?), is a home video game console jointly developed by Hudson Soft and NEC Home Electronics, released in Japan on October 30, 1987, in the United States on August 29, 1989, and in France on November 22, 1989. It was the first console released in the 16-bit era, albeit still utilizing an 8-bit CPU. Originally intended to compete with the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), it ended up competing with the Sega Genesis, and later on the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES).


16 bit era. 16 squares in the quadrant model


Fourth generation of video game consoles

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from History of video game consoles (fourth generation))


Part of a series on the

History of video games





v t e

In the history of computer and video games, the fourth generation (more commonly referred to as the 16-bit era) of games consoles began on October 30, 1987 with the Japanese release of NEC Home Electronics' PC Engine (known as the TurboGrafx-16 in North America). This generation saw strong console wars. Although NEC released the first fourth generation console, and was second to the Super Famicom in Japan, this era's sales were mostly dominated by the rivalry between Nintendo and Sega's consoles in North America: the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (the Super Famicom in Japan) and the Mega Drive (named the Genesis in North America due to trademark issues). Nintendo was able to capitalize on its previous success in the third generation and managed to win the largest worldwide market share in the fourth generation as well. Sega was extremely successful in this generation and began a new franchise, Sonic the Hedgehog, to compete with Nintendo's Mario series of games. Several other companies released consoles in this generation, but none of them were widely successful. Nevertheless, several other companies started to take notice of the maturing video game industry and began making plans to release consoles of their own in the future. This generation ended with the discontinuation of the Neo Geo in 2004.


Some features that distinguished fourth generation consoles from third generation consoles include:


More powerful 16-bit microprocessors

Multi-button game controllers (3 to 8 buttons)

Complex parallax scrolling, multi-layer tilemap backgrounds, with pseudo-3D scaling & rotation

Large sprites (up to 64×64 or 16×512 pixels), 80–380 sprites on screen, scalable on-the-fly, with pseudo-3D scaling & rotation

Elaborate colour, 64 to 4096 colours on screen, from palettes of 512 (9-bit) to 65,536 (16-bit) colours

Flat-shaded 3D polygon graphics

CD-ROM support via add-ons, allowing larger storage space and full motion video playback

Stereo audio, with multiple channels and digital audio playback (PCM, ADPCM, streaming CD-DA audio)

Advanced music synthesis (FM synthesis and 'wavetable' sample-based synthesis)

here it describes that all japanese stories even novels follow the four part structure…/…/on-narrative-structure-kishotenk…

The FOUR Part construction “Ki-Sho-Ten-Ketsu” – Japanese Manga 101 #049
Posted on 26/08/2016Sayuri KimizukaPosted in Japanese Manga 101

Today, we will talk about one subject, that great manga god Tezuka Osamu, as well as senseis like Tsukasa Hojo and Tetsuo Hara sensei,
ALL been telling over and over and over again.






While this is known as THE MOST BASIC thinking in Japanese manga creation,
but many of you outside Japan may never heard about it.
If this is the first time you heard this, then please do pay close attention!

The secret art:
MANGA is “Ki-Sho-Ten-Ketsu” 
– “Introduction / Development / Turn / Conclusion”






In Japan, not only Manga, but any story or novels are constructed in 4 parts.
Pretty much everything here is written, drawn or presented this way!


Internationally, “Three-act structure” is more widely adapted in education and production.
For example, any English teacher would tell you to write using,
the basic paragraph structure.

Topic sentence
Supporting sentence 
Concluding sentence






In film making, “Three-Act-Structure” is widely known as the standard:

The “Three-Act-Structure” is widely regarded as the standard,
Used in comic, TV Drama, Documentary or even computer games.
So why do the Japanese Love “Ki-Sho-Ten-Ketsu”, the FOUR part structure ?
We believe it’s all thanks to a Chinese Poet, whose works became a national hit,
influencing many poets and novelist in Japan, around fourteen hundred years ago.
Spring Dawn by Meng Haoran

In Spring one sleeps, unaware of dawn;
everywhere one hears crowing birds.
In the night came the sound of wind and rain;
who knows how many flowers fell?


This, is a very famous poem “Spring Dawn”, by Meng Haoran.
What does each of the 4 lines in poem tell us?

I slept too much this lovely spring morning, the sun’s already up.
From everywhere I hear the birds, chirping happily
Last night, I heard loud sound of wind and rain,
I hope the flowers are okay, but who knows how many flower petals had fallen?
This 4 line poem, is the classic example 4 part structure, “Ki-Sho-Ten-Ketsu”.
1, Introduction
2, Development
3, Twist
4, Conclusion

Introduction – The intro
Development – Develop further on the intro
Turn – Look at the event, from a completely different point of view
Conclusion – Bring both points of view, to a unified ending



To be frank, this 4 part structure is a bit, illogical.
Often doesn’t make instant sense especially compared to the three part structure.
And “being illogical” is often treated as bad, or perhaps a little immature.

BUT! The Japanese readers as well as the creators absolutely LOVE this 4 parts structure.
Japanese Manga creators use “Ki-Sho-Ten-Ketsu”
– NOT ONLY in story writing, but ALSO, how they layout the PANELS on each and every page.
Sound interesting, doesn’t it?

We’ll talk more about this mysterious 4 parts structure “Ki-Sho-Ten-Ketsu” next week.
Stay tuned!

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.


Abhinaya (Sanskrit abhi- 'towards' + nii- 'leading/guide') is the art of expression in Indian aesthetics. More accurately it means "leading an audience towards" the experience (bhava) of a sentiment (rasa). The concept, derived from Bharata Muni's Natya Shastra, is used as an integral part of all Indian classical dance styles.

Types of Abhinaya are four in number according to the natya shastra and they are: Angika abhinaya, Vanchika abhinaya, Aharya abhinaya and sattvika abhinaya

The Natya Shastra (Sanskrit: नाट्य शास्त्र, Nāṭyaśāstra) is an ancient Indian treatise on the performing arts,

Angika Abhinaya

This relates to body movement. How the thing is to be expressed is portrayed by movement of the anga or limbs which include facial expressions. Abhinaya has different schools with the expressions ranging from the grotesque to the understated, from the crude to the refined. Angika abhinaya forms either Padartha abhinaya or Vaakyartha abhinaya. Padartha Abhinaya is when the artiste delineates each word of the lyrics with gestures and expressions. Vaakyartha abhinaya is where the dancer acts out an entire stanza or a sentence.

Vachika Abhinaya

This is regarding how relates to how expression is carried out through speech. It is used more overtly in drama. In music also this is employed. Traces of it are preserved in dance forms of Kuchipudi and Melattur style of Bharatanatyam where the dancers often mouth the words of the songs to support Padartha abhinaya. There are some art forms in Kerala that still has on stage art forms: Koodiyattam, Nangyar Kooothu, Ottan, Seetangan & Parayan.

Sattvika Abhinaya Aharya Abhinaya

The costumes and physical decorations of the actors and the theatre are other means of representation of the play. The decoration of the stage theatre which include lights and accessories related to the scene enhances the rasa between the audience and artists comes under this category.

This abhinaya is very prominent in kathakali where there are different dress and makeup for different characters.

Sattvika Abhinaya

Sattvika Abhinaya is confused with facial expressions that belong to angika Abhinaya. This Abhinaya is the mental message, emotion or image communicated to the spectators through eyes. The dancer has to bring their own authentic experiences that would capture the attention of the audience.


Four-cross (4X), also called mountain-cross, not to be confused with fourcross, is a relatively new style of mountain bike racing where four bikers race downhill on a prepared, BMX like, track, simply trying to get down first. These bikes are generally either full suspension with 3 to 4 inches of travel, or hardtails, and typically have relatively strong frames. They run a chainguide on front and gears on the back. They have slack head angles, short chainstays and low bottom brackets for good cornering and acceleration. In recent years the tracks raced on have been rougher and less like those used in BMX.


Quarto is a board game for two players invented by Swiss mathematician Blaise Müller in 1991.[1][2]

It is played on a 4×4 board. There are 16 unique pieces, each of which is either:

tall or short;

red or blue (or a different pair of colors, e.g. light- or dark-stained wood);

square or circular; and

hollow-top or solid-top.

Players take turns choosing a piece which the other player must then place on the board. A player wins by placing a piece on the board which forms a horizontal, vertical, or diagonal row of four pieces, all of which have a common attribute (all short, all circular, etc.). A variant rule included in many editions gives a second way to win by placing four matching pieces in a 2x2 square.

Quarto is distinctive in that there is only one set of common pieces, rather than a set for one player and a different set for the other. It is therefore an impartial game.

16 is the squares of the quadrant model

Score Four is a 3-D version of the abstract strategy game Connect Four. It was first sold under the name "Score Four" by Funtastic in 1968. Lakeside issued 4 different versions in the 1970s. Later Hasbro sold the game as "Connect Four Advanced" in the UK. .
The object of Score Four is to position four beads of the same color in a straight line on any level or any angle. As in Tic Tac Toe, Score Four strategy centers around forcing a win by making multiple threats simultaneously, while preventing the opponent from doing so.


3D tic-tac-toe, also known by the trade name Qubic, is an abstract strategy board game, generally for two players. It is similar in concept to traditional tic-tac-toe but is played in a cubical array of cells, usually 4x4x4. Players take turns placing their markers in blank cells in the array. The first player to achieve four of their own markers in a row wins. The winning row can be horizontal, vertical, or diagonal on a single board as in regular tic-tac-toe, or vertically in a column, or a diagonal line through four boards.


Pencil and paper[edit]


3-D Tic-Tac-Toe for the Atari 2600

Like traditional 3x3 tic-tac-toe, the game may be played with pencil and paper. A game board can easily be drawn by hand, with players using the usual "naughts and crosses" to mark their moves.


In the 1970s 3M Games (a division of 3M Corporation) sold a series of "Paper Games", including "3 Dimensional Tic Tac Toe". Buyers received a pad of 50 sheets with preprinted game boards.[1]



"Qubic" is the brand name of equipment for the 4x4x4 game that was manufactured and marketed by Parker Brothers, starting in 1964.[2] It was reissued in 1972 with a more modern design. Both versions described the game as "Parker Brothers 3D Tic Tac Toe Game".


In the original issue the bottom level board was opaque plastic, and the upper three clear, all of simple square design. The 1972 reissue used four clear plastic boards with rounded corners. Whereas pencil and paper play almost always involves just two players, Parker Brothers' rules said that up to three players could play. The circular playing pieces resembled small poker chips in red, blue, and yellow.


The game is no longer manufactured.


Game play and analysis[edit]

The 3x3x3 version of the game cannot end in a draw, and is easily won by the first player. The following applies to the 4x4x4 version of the game.


There are 76 winning lines. On each of the four 4x4 boards, or horizontal planes, there are four columns, four rows, and two diagonals, accounting for 40 lines. There are 16 vertical lines, each ascending from a cell on the bottom board through the corresponding cells on the other boards. There are eight vertically-oriented planes parallel to the sides of the boards, each of these adding two more diagonals (the horizontal and vertical lines of these planes have already been counted). Finally, there are two vertically-oriented planes that include the diagonal lines of the 4x4 boards, and each of these contributes two more diagonal lines—each of these including two corners and two internal cells.


The 16 cells lying on these latter four lines (that is, the eight corner cells and eight internal cells) are each involved in seven winning lines; the other 48 cells (24 face cells and 24 edge cells) are each involved in four winning lines.


The corner cells and the internal cells are actually equivalent via an automorphism; likewise for face and edge cells. The group of automorphisms of the game contains 192 automorphisms. It is made up of combinations of the usual rotations and reflections that reorient or reflect the cube, plus two that scramble the order of cells on each line. If a line comprises cells A, B, C and D in that order, one of these exchanges inner cells for outer ones (such as B, A, D, C) for all lines of the cube, and the other exchanges cells of either the inner or the outer cells ( A, C, B, D or equivalently D, B, C, A) for all lines of the cube. Combinations of these basic automorphisms generate the entire group of 192 as shown by R. Silver in 1967.[3]


3D tic-tac-toe was weakly solved, meaning that the existence of a winning strategy was proven but without actually presenting such a strategy, by Eugene Mahalko in 1976.[4] He proved that in two-person play, the first player will win if there are two optimal players.


A more complete analysis, including the announcement of a complete first-player-win strategy, was published by Oren Patashnik in 1980.[5] Patashnik used a computer-assisted proof that consumed 1500 hours of computer time. The strategy comprised move choices for 2929 difficult "strategic" positions, plus assurances that all other positions that could arise could be easily won with a sequence entirely made up of forcing moves. It was further asserted that the strategy had been independently verified. As computer storage became cheaper and the internet made it possible, these positions and moves were made available online.[6]


The game was solved again by Victor Allis using proof-number search.[7]


A more general analysis of tic-tac-toe-like games, including Qubic, appears in Combinatorial Games: Tic-Tac-Toe Theory by József Beck.[8]


All of the analyses described above are for the two-player version of the game.


Computer implementations[edit]

Several computer programs that play the game against a human opponent have been written. The earliest used text or similar interaction: the human player would enter moves numerically (such as "4 2 3" for fourth level, second row, third column) on a console typewriter or time-sharing terminal and the program would respond similarly, as graphics displays were uncommon.


3-D Tic-Tac-Toe


Developer(s) Atari, Inc

Publisher(s) Atari Inc.

Designer(s) Carol Shaw

Platform(s) Atari 2600

Atari 8-bit family

Release date(s) 1978

William Daly Jr. wrote and described a Qubic-playing program as part of his Master's program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The program was written in assembler language for the TX-0 computer. It included lookahead to 12 moves and kept a history of previous games with each opponent, modifying its strategy according to their past behavior.[9]


An implementation in Fortran was written by Robert K. Louden and presented, with extensive description of its design, in his book Programming the IBM 1130 and 1800. Its strategy involved looking for combinations of one or two free cells shared among two or three rows with particular contents.[10]


A Qubic program in a DEC dialect of BASIC appeared in 101 BASIC Computer Games by David H. Ahi.[11] Ahi said the program "showed up," author unknown, on a G.E. timesharing system in 1968.


Atari released a graphical version of the game for the Atari 2600 console and Atari 8-bit computers in 1978.[12][13] The program was written by Carol Shaw, who went on to greater fame as the creator of Activision's River Raid.[14] It uses the standard joystick controller. It can be played by two players against each other, or one player can play against the program on one of eight different difficulty settings.[15] The product code for the Atari game was CX-2618.[16]


Three-dimensional tic-tac-toe on a 4x4x4 board (optionally 3x3x3) was included in the Microsoft Windows Entertainment Pack in the 1990s under the name TicTactics. In 2010 Microsoft made the game available on its Game Room service for its Xbox 360 console.


A program library named Qubist, and front-end for the GTK 2 window library are a project on SourceForge.[17]


Similar and related games[edit]

Besides the related tic tac toe, a popular variant is a commercial product called "Score Four". In Score Four the markers are small spheres with a hole drilled all the way through. The base of the game board provides 16 vertical spikes. To make a move, a player places a sphere on one of the spikes. Thus a move can only be made in a cell wherein all of the cells below it are already occupied.


Gomoku is an abstract strategy board game. Also called Gobang or Five in a Row, it is traditionally played with Go pieces (black and white stones) on a go board with 19x19 (15x15) intersections;[1] however, because pieces are not moved or removed from the board, gomoku may also be played as a paper and pencil game. This game is known in several countries under different names.
Twixt is played on a board comprising a 24×24 square grid of holes (minus four corner holes).

TwixT is a two-player strategy board game, an early entrant in the 1960s 3M bookshelf game series. It became one of the most popular and enduring games in the series. It is a connection game where players alternate turns placing pegs and links on a pegboard in an attempt to link their opposite sides. The rules are simple but the strategy complex, so young children can play it, but it also appeals to adults. The game has been discontinued except in Germany.


Crosstrack, the "unique track switching game", is an abstract strategy game created by Shoptaugh Games in 1994. Players place special track pieces onto an irregular octagon board, winning by being the first to create an unbroken path between two opposite sides.


Four-player game[edit]

Players choose one color each as well as a partner, and play as two opposing teams. Partners sit opposite each other, with play passing between teams every turn. Players have the power to rotate or relocate a team member's piece if it is already on the board, but do not have the ability to play unplayed pieces from their partners' stocks.


Initial positions that are commonly used (from left to right): cross, double cross, four crosses (only center of the board is shown)


Dots (Czech: Židi, Polish: Kropki, Russian: Точки) is an abstract strategy game, played by two or more people on a sheet of squared paper. The game is superficially similar to Go, except that pieces are not taken, and the primary target of dots is capturing enemy dots by surrounding them with a continuous line of one's own dots. Once surrounded, dots are not playable.


Dots is played on a grid of some finite size, usually 39x32 (this is the size of the grid that is often encountered on a page of squared copybook in Russia) but arbitrary sizes can be used. Players take turns by placing a dot of their own color (usually red and blue) on empty intersections of the grid.

Example game of Dots and Boxes on a 2 square × 2 square board.


Dots and Boxes is a pencil-and-paper game for two players (sometimes more). It was first published in the 19th century by Édouard Lucas, who called it la pipopipette.[1] It has gone by many other names,[2] including the game of dots,[3] boxes,[4] dot to dot grid,[5] and pigs in a pen.[6]


Starting with an empty grid of dots, two players take turns adding a single horizontal or vertical line between two unjoined adjacent dots. The player who completes the fourth side of a 1×1 box earns one point and takes another turn. (A point is typically recorded by placing a mark that identifies the player in the box, such as an initial). The game ends when no more lines can be placed. The winner is the player with the most points.[2][7] The board may be of any size. When short on time, a 2×2 board (a square of 9 dots) is good for beginners.[8] A 5×5 is good for experts.[9]


The diagram on the right shows a game being played on the 2×2 board. The second player (B) plays the mirror image of the first player's move, hoping to divide the board into two pieces and tie the game. But the first player (A) makes a sacrifice at move 7 and B accepts the sacrifice, getting one box. However, B must now add another line, and connects the center dot to the center-right dot, causing the remaining boxes to be joined together in a chain (shown at the end of move 8). With A's next move, player A gets them all and wins 3–1.


The double-cross strategy: faced with position 1, a novice player would create position 2 and lose. An experienced player would create position 3 and win.


Dots and Boxes need not be played on a rectangular grid – it can be played on a triangular grid or a hexagonal grid.[2] There is also a variant in Bolivia where it is played in a Chakana or Inca Cross grid, which adds more complications to the game.[citation needed]


Dots and Boxes has a dual graph form called "Strings-and-Coins". This game is played on a network of coins (vertices) joined by strings (edges). Players take turns cutting a string. When a cut leaves a coin with no strings, the player "pockets" the coin and takes another turn. The winner is the player who pockets the most coins. Strings-and-Coins can be played on an arbitrary graph.[2]


A variant played in Poland allows a player to claim a region of several squares as soon as its boundary is completed.[citation needed] In the Netherlands, it is called "kamertje verhuren" ("Rent-a-Room") and the outer border already has lines.[citation needed] In analyses of Dots and Boxes, starting with outer lines is called a Swedish board while the standard version is called an American board. An intermediate version with the outer left and bottom sides starting with lines is called an Icelandic board.[11]

Onyx is a two-player abstract strategy board game invented by Larry Back in 1995. The game features a rule for performing captures, making Onyx unique among connection games.

The initial setup has four black pieces and four white pieces pre-placed (see illustration). Black moves first by placing a black piece on any empty point of the board. White follows suit.[note 1] Turns continue to alternate. A piece can be place on the midpoint of a square only if all four corners of that square are currently unoccupied. Once placed, pieces do not move. Captured pieces are immediately removed from the game.

Made of quadrants

Quantum tic-tac-toe is a "quantum generalization" of tic-tac-toe in which the players' moves are "superpositions" of plays in the classical game. The game was invented by Allan Goff of Novatia Labs, who describes it as "a way of introducing quantum physics without mathematics", and offering "a conceptual foundation for understanding the meaning of quantum mechanics".[1]


Ultimate tic-tac-toe also known as super tic-tac-toe or meta tic-tac-toe is a board game composed of nine tic-tac-toe boards arranged in a 3-by-3 grid.[1][2] Players take turns playing in the smaller tic-tac-toe boards until one of them wins in the larger tic-tac-toe board. Strategy in this game is much more conceptually difficult, and has proven more challenging for computers.[3]


Wild tic-tac-toe is a game similar to Tic-tac-toe. However, in this game players can choose to play as X or O.[1][2] This game can also be played in its misere form where if a player creates a three-in-a-row of marks, that player loses the game.[3]

The fourth is always different

3-dimensional tic-tac-toe on a 3×3×3 board. In this game, the first player has an easy win by playing in the centre if 2 people are playing.


One can play on a board of 4x4 squares, winning in several ways. Winning can include: 4 in a straight line, 4 in a diagonal line, 4 in a diamond, or 4 to make a square. Another variant, Qubic, is played on a 4×4×4 board; it was solved by Oren Patashnik in 1980 (the first player can force a win).[9] Higher dimensional variations are also possible.[10]


Tic-tac-toe variants

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


It has been suggested that Wild tic-tac-toe be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since December 2016.


An complete game of Notakto, a misère variant of the game

Tic-tac-toe is an instance of an m,n,k-game, where two players alternate taking turns on an m×n board until one of them gets k in a row.[1] Harary's generalized tic-tac-toe is an even broader generalization. The game can also be generalized as a nd game.[2]


Many board games share the element of trying to be the first to get n-in-a-row, including Three Men's Morris, Nine Men's Morris, pente, gomoku, Qubic, Connect Four, Quarto, Gobblet, Order and Chaos, Toss Across, and Mojo.


Variants of tic-tac-toe date back several millennia.[3]


Contents [hide]

1 Historic

2 Variants in higher dimensions

3 Misère games

4 Variants with bigger boards

5 Isomorphic games

6 Other variants

7 References


An early variation of tic-tac-toe was played in the Roman Empire, around the first century BC.[4] It was called Terni Lapilli and instead of having any number of pieces, each player only had three, thus they had to move them around to empty spaces to keep playing. The game's grid markings have been found chalked all over Rome.[5] However, according to Claudia Zaslavsky's book Tic Tac Toe: And Other Three-In-A Row Games from Ancient Egypt to the Modern Computer, Tic-tac-toe could be traced back to ancient Egypt.[6][7] Another closely related ancient game is Three Men's Morris which is also played on a simple grid and requires three pieces in a row to finish.[8]


Variants in higher dimensions[edit]

3-dimensional tic-tac-toe on a 3×3×3 board. In this game, the first player has an easy win by playing in the centre if 2 people are playing.


One can play on a board of 4x4 squares, winning in several ways. Winning can include: 4 in a straight line, 4 in a diagonal line, 4 in a diamond, or 4 to make a square. Another variant, Qubic, is played on a 4×4×4 board; it was solved by Oren Patashnik in 1980 (the first player can force a win).[9] Higher dimensional variations are also possible.[10]


Misère games[edit]

In misère tic-tac-toe, the player wins if the opponent gets n in a row.[11][12][13][14] This game is also known as avoidance tic tac toe,[12] toe-tac-tic,[12] inverse tic tac toe,[13] or reverse tic tac toe.[14] A 3×3 game is a draw. More generally, the first player can draw or win on any board (of any dimension) whose side length is odd, by playing first in the central cell and then mirroring the opponent's moves.[10][13]


Notakto is a misere and impartial form of tic tac toe. This means unlike in misere tic tac toe, in Notakto, both players play as the same symbol, X.[15] It also can be played on one or multiple boards.[16]


Variants with bigger boards[edit]

The game Quixo is played on a 5 by 5 board of cubes with two players or teams.[17] On a player's turn, they select a blank cube or a cube with their symbol on it that is at the edge of the board. If a blank cube was selected, the cube is turned to be the player's symbol (either a X or O). The game ends when one player gets 5 in a row.[17][18][19][20]


Isomorphic games[edit]

There is a game that is isomorphic to tic-tac-toe, but on the surface appears completely different. It is called Pick15[21] or Number Scrabble.[22] Two players in turn say a number between one and nine. A particular number may not be repeated. The game is won by the player who has said three numbers whose sum is 15.[21][23] If all the numbers are used and no one gets three numbers that add up to 15 then the game is a draw.[21] Plotting these numbers on a 3×3 magic square shows that the game exactly corresponds with tic-tac-toe, since three numbers will be arranged in a straight line if and only if they total 15.[24]


eat bee less →e

air bits lip →i

soda book lot →o






Another isomorphic game uses a list of nine carefully chosen words, for instance "eat", "bee", "less", "air", "bits", "lip", "soda", "book", and "lot". Each player picks one word in turn and to win, a player must select three words with the same letter. The words may be plotted on a tic-tac-toe grid in such a way that a three in a row line wins.[25]


Numerical Tic Tac Toe is a variation invented by the mathematician Ronald Graham.[26] The numbers 1 to 9 are used in this game. The first player plays with the odd numbers, the second player plays with the even numbers. All numbers can be used only once. The player who puts down 15 points in a line wins (sum of 3 numbers).[27] This game can be generalized to a n by n board.[27]


Other variants[edit]


A complete game of Wild tic-tac-toe.

In the 1970s, there was a two player game made by Tri-ang Toys & Games called Check Lines, in which the board consisted of eleven holes arranged in a geometrical pattern of twelve straight lines each containing three of the holes. Each player had exactly five tokens and played in turn placing one token in any of the holes. The winner was the first player whose tokens were arranged in two lines of three (which by definition were intersecting lines). If neither player had won by the tenth turn, subsequent turns consisted of moving one of one's own tokens to the remaining empty hole, with the constraint that this move could only be from an adjacent hole.[28]


Quantum tic tac toe allows players to place a quantum superposition of numbers on the board, i.e. the players' moves are "superpositions" of plays in the original classical game. This variation was invented by Allan Goff of Novatia Labs.[29]


In wild tic-tac-toe, players can choose to place either X or O on each move.[7][30][31][32] It can be played as a normal game where the player who makes three in a row wins or a misere game where they would lose.[7] This game is also called your choice tic-tac-toe.[33]


In the game SOS, the players on each turn choose to play a "S" or an "O" in an empty square.[34] If a player creates the sequence, SOS vertically, horizontally or diagonally they get a point and also take another turn.[35] The player with the most points (SOSs) is the winner.[34][35]



A completed game of Treblecross

In Treblecross, both players play with the same symbol(a X[13] or black chip[36]). The game is played on a 1 by n board with k equal to 3.[13] The player who creates a three in a row of X's (or black chips) wins the game.[13][36]


In revenge n-in a row the player who creates a n-in a row wins unless the opponent can create a n-in a row in the next move where they lose.[37][13]


In the game random turn tic-tac-toe, a coin flip determines who's turn it is.[7]


In quick-tac-toe, the players can play their mark in any squares they want provided that all the marks are in the same vertical or horizontal row. The winner is the player who places the last mark.[38]


Notakto is a tic-tac-toe variant, also known as neutral or impartial tic-tac-toe.[1][2] The game is a combination of the games tic-tac-toe and Nim,[1][3] played across one or several boards with both of the players playing the same piece (an "X" or cross). The game ends when all the boards contain a three-in-a-row of Xs,[4][5] at which point the player to have made the last move loses the game.[6] However, in this game, unlike in the game tic-tac-toe, there will always be a player who wins any game of Notakto.[7]


Played on quadrants.


Renju (Japanese: 連珠) is the professional variant of Gomoku. It was named Renju by Japanese journalist Ruikou Kuroiwa (黒岩涙香) on December 6, 1899 in a Japanese newspaper Yorozu chouhou (萬朝報). The game is played with black and white stones on a 15×15 gridded Go board.


Quadrant board.


Irensei (Japanese: 囲連星) is an abstract strategy board game. It is traditionally played with Go pieces (black and white stones) on a Go board (19x19 intersections), but any equipment with which Go can be played is also suitable for Irensei.

Made of quadrants

Reversi is a strategy board game for two players, played on an 8×8 uncheckered board. There are sixty-four identical game pieces called disks (often spelled "discs"), which are light on one side and dark on the other. Players take turns placing disks on the board with their assigned color facing up. During a play, any disks of the opponent's color that are in a straight line and bounded by the disk just placed and another disk of the current player's color are turned over to the current player's color.…/File:Nintendo-TV-Game-Computer.j…
Othello was one of Nintendo's first arcade games, and was later ported to a dedicated home game console in 1980.
The historical version of Reversi starts with an empty board, and the first two moves by each player are in the four central squares of the board. The players place their disks alternately with their color facing up and no captures are made. A player may choose to not play both pieces on the same diagonal, different from the standard Othello opening. It is also possible to play variants of Reversi and Othello wherein the second player's second move may or must flip one of the opposite-colored disks (as variants closest to the normal games).

For the specific game of Othello (as technically differing from the historical Reversi), the rules state that the game begins with four disks placed in a square in the middle of the grid, two facing white side up, two pieces with the dark side up, with same-colored disks on a diagonal with each other. Convention has initial board position such that the disks with dark side up are to the north-east and south-west (from both players' perspectives), though this is only marginally meaningful to play (where opening memorization is an issue, some players may benefit from consistency on this). If the disks with dark side up are to the north-west and south-east, the board may be rotated by 90° clockwise or counterclockwise. The dark player moves first.

16 is the squares of the quadrant model


Pegity is a board game similar to Gomoku and tic-tac-toe, and is intended for two to four players. Parker Brothers introduced the game in 1925,[1] and continued to produce it through the 1960s. The box includes wooden pegs in four colors and a cardboard game board divided into a 16 by 16 grid. The object of the game is for a player to place five pegs of a single color in a row, vertically, horizontally, or diagonally. Its instructions also included patterns for creating designs on the game board as an alternative to playing the game.

16 is the squares of the quadrant model- four colors


Pegity is a board game similar to Gomoku and tic-tac-toe, and is intended for two to four players. Parker Brothers introduced the game in 1925,[1] and continued to produce it through the 1960s. The box includes wooden pegs in four colors and a cardboard game board divided into a 16 by 16 grid. The object of the game is for a player to place five pegs of a single color in a row, vertically, horizontally, or diagonally. Its instructions also included patterns for creating designs on the game board as an alternative to playing the game.

four power stones


quadrant board



Pente is a strategy board game for two or more players, created in 1977 by Gary Gabrel, a dishwasher at Hideaway Pizza, in Stillwater, Oklahoma.[1] Customers played Pente at Hideaway Pizza on checkerboard tablecloths while waiting for their orders to arrive. Thirty years later, patrons are still playing Pente at Hideaway Pizza, although now with roll-up Pente boards.[citation needed] Pente is based on the Japanese game ninuki-renju, a variant of renju or gomoku that is played on a Go board of 19x19 intersections with white and black stones. Like ninuki-renju, Pente allow captures, but Pente added a new opening rule. In the nineteenth century, gomoku was introduced to Britain where it was known as "Go Bang." (borrowed from Japanese "goban" 碁盤 meaning "go board")[2]


Pente is a registered trademark of Hasbro for strategy game equipment. Pente (πέντε) is the number five in Greek.


Hasbro ceased distribution of Pente in 1993. It later licensed the name to Winning Moves, a classic games publisher that resurrected the game in 2004. The 2004 version includes 4 extra stones, called power stones, that can be played in the Pente Plus version.

Connect Four

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Connect Four

Connect 4 Board and Box.jpg

Connect 4 game board and box

Designer(s) Howard Wexler[1]

Ned Strongin[2]

Publisher(s) Milton Bradley / Hasbro

Publication date 1974

Genre(s) Abstract strategy

Players 2

Age range 6 and up

Playing time 1 - 10 minutes

Connect Four (also known as Captain's Mistress, Four Up, Plot Four, Find Four, Fourplay[citation needed], Four in a Row, Four in a Line and Gravitrips (in Soviet Union)) is a two-player connection game in which the players first choose a color and then take turns dropping colored discs from the top into a seven-column, six-row vertically suspended grid. The pieces fall straight down, occupying the next available space within the column. The objective of the game is to be the first to form a horizontal, vertical, or diagonal line of four of one's own discs. Connect Four is a solved game. The first player can always win by playing the right moves.


The game was first sold under the famous Connect Four trademark by Milton Bradley in February 1974.


Contents [hide]

1 Gameplay

2 Mathematical solution

3 Rule variations

3.1 Pop Out

3.2 Pop 10

3.3 5-in-a-Row

3.4 Power Up

4 Other versions

5 Popular culture

6 See also

7 References

8 External links



Gameplay of Connect Four

Object: Connect four of your checkers in a row while preventing your opponent from doing the same.


— Milton Bradley, Connect Four "Pretty Sneaky, Sis" television commercial, 1977

The animation demonstrates Connect Four gameplay where the first player begins by dropping his/her yellow disc into the center column of the game board. The two players then alternate turns dropping one of their discs at a time into an unfilled column, until the second player, with red discs, achieves four discs in a row, diagonally, and wins. If the game board fills before either player achieves four in a row, then the game is a draw.


Mathematical solution[edit]

Connect Four is a two-player game with "perfect information". This term describes games where one player at a time plays, players have all the information about moves that have taken place, and all moves that can take place, for a given game state. Connect Four also belongs to the classification of an adversarial, zero-sum game, since a player's advantage is an opponent's disadvantage.


One measure of complexity of the Connect Four game is the number of possible games board positions. For classic Connect Four played on 6 high, 7 wide grid, there are 4,531,985,219,092 positions[3] for all game boards populated with 0 to 42 pieces.


The game was first solved by James Dow Allen (October 1, 1988), and independently by Victor Allis (October 16, 1988).[4] Allis describes a knowledge based approach,[5] with nine strategies, as a solution for Connect Four. Allen also describes winning strategies[6][7] in his analysis of the game. At the time of the initial solutions for Connect Four, brute force analysis was not deemed feasible given the game's complexity and the computer technology available at the time.


Connect Four has since been solved with brute force methods beginning with John Tromp's work in compiling an 8-ply database[4][8] (Feb 4, 1995). The artificial intelligence algorithms able to strongly solve Connect Four are minimax or negamax, with optimizations that include alpha-beta pruning, move ordering, and transposition tables. The code for solving Connect Four with these methods is also the basis for the Fhourstones[9] integer performance benchmark.


The solved conclusion for Connect Four is first player win. With perfect play, the first player can force a win,[4][5][6] on or before the 41st move[10] (ply) by starting in the middle column. The game is a theoretical draw when the first player starts in the columns adjacent to the center. For the edges of the game board, column 1 and 2 on left (or column 7 and 6 on right), the exact move-value score for first player start is loss on the 40th move,[10] and loss on the 42nd move,[10] respectively. In other words, by starting with the four outer columns, the first player allows the second player to force a win.


Rule variations[edit]

There are many variations of Connect Four with differing game board sizes, board arrangements, game pieces, and/or gameplay rules. Many variations are popular with game theory and artificial intelligence research, rather than with physical game boards and gameplay by persons.


The most commonly used Connect Four board size is 7 columns × 6 rows. Size variations include 8×7, 9×7, 10×7, 8×8, and Infinite Connect-Four.[11] Alternate board arrangements include Cylinder-Infinite Connect-Four.[12] One board variation available as a physical game is Hasbro's Connect 4x4.



A travel version of the Milton Bradley game.

Several versions of Hasbro's Connect Four physical gameboard make it easy to remove game pieces from the bottom one at a time. Along with traditional gameplay, this feature allows for variations of the game.[13]


Pop Out[edit]

Pop Out starts the same as traditional gameplay, with an empty board and players alternating turns placing their own colored discs into the board. During each turn, a player can either add another disc from the top or, if one has any discs of his or her own color on the bottom row, remove (or "pop out") a disc of one's own color from the bottom. Popping a disc out from the bottom drops every disc above it down one space, changing their relationship with the rest of the board and changing the possibilities for a connection. The first player to connect four of their discs horizontally, vertically, or diagonally wins the game.


Pop 10[edit]

Before play begins, Pop 10 is set up differently from the traditional game. Taking turns, each player places their opponent's color discs into the slots filling up only the bottom row, then moving on to the next row until it is filled and so forth until all rows have been filled.


Gameplay works by players taking turns removing a disc of one's own color through the bottom of the board. If the disc that was removed was part of a four-disc connection at the time of its removal, the player sets it aside out of play and immediately takes another turn. If it was not part of a "connect four", then it must be placed back on the board through a slot at the top into any open space and the turn ends, switching to the other player. The first player to set aside ten discs of his or her color wins the game.



The 5-in-a-Row variation for Connect Four is a game played on a 6 high, 9 wide, grid. Hasbro adds two additional board columns, already filled with player pieces in an alternating pattern, to the left and right sides of their standard 6 by 7 game board. The game plays similarly to the original Connect Four, except players must now get five pieces in a row to win. Notice this is still a 42-ply game, since the two new columns added to the game represent twelve game pieces already played, before the start of a game.


Power Up[edit]

In this variation of Connect Four, players begin a game with one or more specially marked, "Power Checkers" game pieces, which each player may choose to play once per game. When playing a piece marked with an anvil icon, for example, the player may immediately pop out all pieces below it, leaving the anvil piece at the bottom row of the game board. Other marked game pieces include one with a wall icon, allowing a player to play a second consecutive non winning turn with an unmarked piece, a "×2" icon, allowing for an unrestricted second turn with an unmarked piece, and a bomb icon, allowing a player to immediately pop out an opponent's piece.


Other versions[edit]

Hasbro also produce various sizes of Giant Connect Four, suitable for outdoor use. The largest is built from weather-resistant wood, and measures 120 cm in both width and height. Connect Four was released for the Microvision video game console in 1979, developed by Robert Hoffberg. It was also released for the Texas Instruments 99/4 computer the same year.


With the proliferation of mobile devices, Connect Four has regained popularity as a game that can be played quickly and against another person over an Internet connection.


In 2015 Winning Moves published Connect 4 Twist & Turn. This game variant features a game tower instead of the flat game grid. The tower has 5 rings that twist independently. Game play is similar to standard Connect 4 where players try to get 4 in a row of their own colored discs. However, with Twist & Turn, players have the choice to twist a ring after they have played a piece. It adds a subtle layer of strategy to game play.


Popular culture[edit]

Broadcaster and writer Stuart Maconie—while working at the NME—started a rumour that Connect 4 was invented by David Bowie, which became an urban myth.[14]

On The Hub's game show Family Game Night, there is a game under the name "Connect 4 Basketball" in which teams use colored balls.

During the second season of the History Channel competition series Top Shot, one challenge required teams to throw tomahawks at a square grid of 36 targets. The first team to hit four targets in a continuous line won the challenge.


Connect 4 Basketball[edit]

In this variation on the vertical checkers game Connect Four, the checkers are replaced with red and yellow balls. Family members take turns in family order throwing those balls into baskets on a 7x6 board, in order to get 4 in a row in any direction.


In an early episode, players from both teams shot their red and yellow balls at the same time. The first team to make 4 in a row won one round; the first to win two rounds won the game.

Quadrant board

Connect6 (Chinese: 六子棋; Pinyin: liùzǐqí; Chinese: 連六棋;Japanese: 六目並べ; Korean: 육목) introduced in 2003 by Professor I-Chen Wu at Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, is a two-player strategy game similar to Gomoku.[1]


Two players, Black and White, alternately place two stones of their own colour, black and white respectively, on empty intersections of a Go-like board, except that Black (the first player) places one stone only for the first move. The one who gets six or more stones in a row (horizontally, vertically or diagonally) first wins the game.

It is a two dimensional double tetrahedron Merkaba


Chinese checkers is a board game for two to six people. Each player tries to jump his marbles from one point of a six-pointed star shaped board to the opposite point. It is not a Chinese game – it got its name in the United States to make it sound more exotic.


The Go Board is featured in the cult classic Pi as the microcosm of existence

In the history of Go in Japan, the Four Go houses were the four academies of Go instituted, supported, and controlled by the state, at the beginning of the Tokugawa shogunate. At roughly the same time shogi was organised into three houses. Here "house" implies institution run on the recognised lines of the iemoto system common in all Japanese traditional arts. In particular the house head had, in three of the four cases, a name handed down: Inoue Inseki, Yasui Senkaku, Hayashi Monnyu. References to these names therefore mean to the contemporary head of house.

The four academies were the Honinbo Go house, Hayashi Go house, Inoue Go house and Yasui house. Theoretically these were on a par, and competed in the official castle games called oshirogo.


Go (traditional Chinese: 圍棋; simplified Chinese: 围棋; pinyin: wéiqí; Japanese: 囲碁; rōmaji: igo[nb 2]; Korean: 바둑; romaja: baduk[nb 3]; literally: "encircling game") is a board game involving two players, that originated in ancient China more than 2,500 years ago. It was considered one of the four essential arts of a cultured Chinese scholar in antiquity. The earliest written reference to the game is generally recognized as the historical annal Zuo Zhuan[2][3] (c. 4th century BC).[4]

The Go Board was seen by the Japanee to be a microcosm of the cosmos.

THe game board is made up of quadrants.

Players from the four schools (Honinbo, Yasui, Inoue and Hayashi) competed in the annual castle games, played in the presence of the shogun

The four points around a piece in the Go game are called the "four liberties", until one is filled and then it becomes the three liberties and so on and so fourth.


The four liberties (adjacent empty points) of a single black stone (A), as White reduces those liberties by one (B, C, and D). When Black has only one liberty left (D), that stone is "in atari".[13] White may capture that stone (remove from board) with a play on its last liberty (at D-1).

Checkers is a quadrant board


Draughts (UK /ˈdrɑːfts/) or checkers[1] (American English) is a group of strategy board games for two players which involve diagonal moves of uniform game pieces and mandatory captures by jumping over opponent pieces. Draughts developed from alquerque.[2] The name derives from the verb to draw or to move.

Checkers boards are made up of different color quadrants.

A similar game has been played for thousands of years.[3] A board resembling a draughts board was found in Ur dating from 3000 BC.[9] In the British Museum are specimens of ancient Egyptian checkerboards, found with their pieces in burial chambers, and the game was played by Queen Hatasu.[3][10] Plato mentioned a game, πεττεία or petteia, as being of Egyptian origin,[10] and Homer also mentions it.[10] The method of capture was placing two pieces on either side of the opponent's piece. It was said to have been played during the Trojan War.[11][12] The Romans played a derivation of petteia called latrunculi, or the game of the Little Soldiers.[10][13]

Alquerque board and setup


Main article: Alquerque

An Arabic game called Quirkat or al-qirq, with similar play to modern draughts, was played on a 5×5 board. It is mentioned in the 10th century work Kitab al-Aghani.[9] Al qirq was also the name for the game that is now called Nine Men's Morris.[14] Al qirq was brought to Spain by the Moors,[15] where it became known as Alquerque, the Spanish derivation of the Arabic name. The rules are given in the 13th century book Libro de los juegos.[9] In about 1100, probably in the south of France, the game of Alquerque was adapted using backgammon pieces on a chessboard.[16] Each piece was called a "fers", the same name as the chess queen, as the move of the two pieces was the same at the time.[citation needed]

It is a quadrant model with 16 squares

An Arabic game called Quirkat or al-qirq, with similar play to modern draughts, was played on a 5×5 board. It is mentioned in the 10th century work Kitab al-Aghani.[9] Al qirq was also the name for the game that is now called Nine Men's Morris.[14] Al qirq was brought to Spain by the Moors,[15] where it became known as Alquerque, the Spanish derivation of the Arabic name. The rules are given in the 13th century book Libro de los juegos.[9] In about 1100, probably in the south of France, the game of Alquerque was adapted using backgammon pieces on a chessboard.[16] Each piece was called a "fers", the same name as the chess queen, as the move of the two pieces was the same at the time.[citation needed]

16 is the squares of the quadrant model


Turkish draughts (also known as Dama) is a variant of draughts (checkers) played in Turkey, Egypt, Kuwait, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and several other locations in the Middle East.


On an 8×8 board, 16 men are lined up on each side, in two rows. The back rows are vacant. A traditional gameboard is mono-coloured. White moves first.

16 squares of quadrant model

Backgammon is one of the most popular games of all time. The game consists of four quadrants. I have watched numerous lectures of different Backgammon players talk about strategies for each of the quadrants


Quadrant backgammon video by professional

Backgammon Rules and Instructions : The Last Quadrant in Backgammon


One quarter of the playing area on a backgammon board. The first quadrant comprises a player's points 1 to 6, the second quadrant points 7 to 12, the third quadrant points 13 to 18, and the fourth quadrant points 19 to 24.

64 dice. 64 is four 16s, four quadrant models


Backgammon is a game for two players, played on a board consisting of twenty-four narrow triangles called points. The triangles alternate in color and are grouped into four quadrants of six triangles each. The quadrants are referred to as a player's home board and outer board, and the opponent's home board and outer board. The home and outer boards are separated from each other by a ridge down the center of the board called the bar.

Figure 1. A board with the checkers in their initial position.

An alternate arrangement is the reverse of the one shown here, with the home board on the left and the outer board on the right.

The points are numbered for either player starting in that player's home board. The outermost point is the twenty-four point, which is also the opponent's one point. Each player has fifteen checkers of his own color. The initial arrangement of checkers is: two on each player's twenty-four point, five on each player's thirteen point, three on each player's eight point, and five on each player's six point.


Both players have their own pair of dice and a dice cup used for shaking. A doubling cube, with the numerals 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 on its faces, is used to keep track of the current stake of the game.

Chess comes from the Indian game chatarang- which means "four arms of the army"


The earliest evidence of chess is found in the nearby Sassanid Persia around 600, where the game came to be known by the name chatrang. Chatrang is evoked in three epic romances written in Pahlavi (Middle Persian). Chatrang was taken up by the Muslim world after the Islamic conquest of Persia (633–44), where it was then named shatranj, with the pieces largely retaining their Persian names. In Spanish "shatranj" was rendered as ajedrez ("al-shatranj"), in Portuguese as xadrez, and in Greek as ζατρίκιον (zatrikion, which comes directly from the Persian chatrang),[33] but in the rest of Europe it was replaced by versions of the Persian shāh ("king"), which was familiar as an exclamation and became the English words "check" and "chess"

The Arabic word shatranj is derived from the Sanskrit chaturanga (catuḥ: "four"; anga: "arm").

The rules of chaturanga seen in India today have enormous variation, but all involve four branches (angas) of the army: the horse, the elephant (bishop), the chariot (rook) and the foot soldier (pawn), played on an 8×8 board.

The game was played within quadrants.


Chess is believed to have originated in Eastern India, c. 280 – 550,[28] in the Gupta Empire,[29][30][31][32] where its early form in the 6th century was known as chaturaṅga (Sanskrit: चतुरङ्ग), literally four divisions [of the military] – infantry, cavalry, elephants, and chariotry, represented by the pieces that would evolve into the modern pawn, knight, bishop, and rook, respectively.
Arimaa is played on an 8×8 board with four trap squares

Played on quadrant grid

A powerlifting competition takes place as follows:
Each competitor is allowed three to four attempts on each of the squat, bench press, and deadlift, depending on their standing and the organization they are lifting in. The lifter’s best valid attempt on each lift counts toward the competition total. For each weightclass, the lifter with the highest total wins. If two or more lifters achieve the same total, the lighter lifter ranks above the heavier lifter.


Finswimming is an underwater sport consisting of four techniques involving swimming with the use of fins either on the water's surface using a snorkel with either monofins or bifins (i.e. one fin for each foot) or underwater with monofin either by holding one's breath or using open circuit scuba diving equipment.

The fourth is always different


There are a number of speciality surf kayak designs available. They are often equipped with up to four fins with a three fin thruster set up being the most common.


There are four different strokes in swim racing. Butterfly is one of them.


There are four styles of butterfly stroke.

Two main styles of butterfly stroke seen today are: "arm pull up simultaneous with dolphin kick" and "arm pull down simultaneous with dolphin kick".[14]

"Arm pull up simultaneous with dolphin kick": After head goes underwater, both arms go underwater but still higher than head. After first dolphin kick, pull both arms immediately with downward motion. While pulling arms, legs are relaxed, both knees and waist are slightly bent to prepare dolphin kick. After arms push water backward, pull arms up simultaneous with dolphin kick. In this style, turning point from drowning to floating is at the time of downward arm motion.

"Arm pull down simultaneous with dolphin kick": After head goes underwater, both arms go underwater until lower than head. After first dolphin kick, raise both arms with relax. While rising arms, bend both knees and waist to send body back to the surface and prepare dolphin kick. Pull both arms downward while executing dolphin kick. After this sequence, immediately push the water backward. In this style, turning point from drowning to floating is at the time of waist bend.

Two additional styles of butterfly stroke is similar with two styles above, but without "second" dolphin kick [15] in order to save energy and be more relaxed.


Wallball is a type of school yard game similar to butts up, aces-kings-queens, Chinese handball, and American handball (American handball is sometimes actually referred to as wallball). The sport was played by a few schools in the San Francisco Bay Area and New York City, then began gaining much popularity, resulting in a popular worldwide sport. Wallball is now played globally with the international federation, Wall Ball International, promoting the game.[1] The game requires the ball to be hit to the floor before hitting the wall, but in other respects is similar to squash. It can be played as a singles, doubles or elimination game.

Wallball is derived from many New York City street games played by young people, often involving the Spalding hi-bounce balls created in 1949.

There are four main types of wallball: regular, teams, line-up, and random. Regular is where the players line up outside of the court on a bench (which is usually present) or standing if there is no bench, and two players enter the court. They play, and the losing player goes to the end of the line, and the next person comes up. Teams is the same as regular, except that there are four (or more, but even) players that come up (grouped in equal teams).

There are four main types of wallball: regular, teams, line-up, and random. Regular is where the players line up outside of the court on a bench (which is usually present) or standing if there is no bench, and two players enter the court. They play, and the losing player goes to the end of the line, and the next person comes up. Teams is the same as regular, except that there are four (or more, but even) players that come up (grouped in equal teams).

The game has four stages. The fourth is different


Following 1980's Space Panic, Donkey Kong is one of the earliest examples of the platform game genre[10]:94[11] even prior to the term being coined; the US gaming press used climbing game for titles with platforms and ladders.[12] As the first platform game to feature jumping, Donkey Kong requires the player to jump between gaps and over obstacles or approaching enemies, setting the template for the future of the platform genre.[13] With its four unique stages, Donkey Kong was the most complex arcade game at the time of its release, and one of the first arcade games to feature multiple stages, following 1980's Phoenix and 1981's Gorf and Scramble:66[14]


Competitive video gamers and referees stress the game's high level of difficulty compared to other classic arcade games. Winning the game requires patience and the ability to accurately time Mario's ascent.[15]:82 In addition to presenting the goal of saving Pauline, the game also gives the player a score. Points are awarded for the following: leaping over obstacles; destroying objects with a hammer power-up; collecting items such as hats, parasols, and purses (presumably belonging to Pauline); removing rivets from platforms; and completing each stage (determined by a steadily decreasing bonus counter). The player typically receives three lives with a bonus awarded for the first 7,000 points, although this can be modified via the game's built in DIP switches. One life is lost whenever Mario touches Donkey Kong or any enemy object, falls too far through a gap or off the end of a platform, or lets the bonus counter reach zero.


The game is divided into four different single-screen stages. Each represents 25 meters of the structure Donkey Kong has climbed, one stage being 25 meters higher than the previous. The final stage occurs at 100 meters. Stage one involves Mario scaling a construction site made of crooked girders and ladders while jumping over or hammering barrels and oil drums tossed by Donkey Kong. Stage two involves climbing a five-story structure of conveyor belts, each of which transport cement pans. The third stage involves the player riding elevators while avoiding bouncing springs. The final stage involves Mario removing eight rivets which support Donkey Kong. Removing the final rivet causes Donkey Kong to fall and the hero to be reunited with Pauline.[16] These four stages combine to form a level.


Upon completion of the fourth stage, the level then increments, and the game repeats the stages with progressive difficulty. For example, Donkey Kong begins to hurl barrels faster and sometimes diagonally, and fireballs get speedier. The victory music alternates between levels 1 and 2. The 22nd level is colloquially known as the kill screen, due to an error in the game's programming that kills Mario after a few seconds, effectively ending the game.[16]


In January 1983, the 1982 Arcade Awards gave it the Best Single-player video game award and the Certificate of Merit as runner-up for Coin-Op Game of the Year.[39] In September 1982, Arcade Express reviewed the ColecoVision port and scored it 9 out of 10.[40] Computer and Video Games reviewed the ColecoVision port in its September 1984 issue and scored it 4 out of 4 in all four categories of Action, Graphics, Addiction and Theme.[41]


A complete remake of the original arcade game on the Game Boy, named Donkey Kong or Donkey Kong '94 contains levels from both the original Donkey Kong and Donkey Kong Jr. arcades. It starts with the same damsel-in-distress premise and four basic locations as the arcade game and then progresses to 97 additional puzzle-based levels. It is the first game to have built-in enhancement for the Super Game Boy accessory. The arcade version makes an appearance in Donkey Kong 64 in the Frantic Factory level.

Reznors on the rotating platforms.

A group of Reznor, as they appear in New Super Mario Bros. 2.
Super Mario-Kun

Super Mario World[edit]

Reznor in Super Mario World.

Reznors on the rotating platforms.
In Super Mario World, Reznor spit fireballs at the player. Mario must hit their platforms from below or shoot fireballs at them to defeat them. The player has a limited amount of time available to knock off the first Reznor and then jump to one of their platforms as the floor begins breaking away exposing the molten lava below at the start of the battle. If the player does not defeat the rest of the Reznor promptly, they will have to jump onto one of the abandoned platforms and fight from there. It is, however, possible to defeat all four without doing so.

They are the bosses of four fortresses scattered through the areas of Dinosaur Land: the Vanilla Fortress, the Forest Fortress, the Chocolate Fortress, and the Valley Fortress. The four sets of Reznor all behave the same.

New Super Mario Bros. 2[edit]

A group of Reznor, as they appear in New Super Mario Bros. 2.
After a 22-year absence, Reznor reappear in New Super Mario Bros. 2 as the game's tower bosses, and their battle theme is a cover of the Super Mario World boss battle theme. They now roar before the battle starts. Their appearance has changed slightly, with their lower jaws and belly having a lighter tone, and their heads redesigned to resemble those of triceratops. The platforms they stand on are now coin-giving Rectangular Coin Blocks, and the word "REZNOR" on the boards behind the wheel is gone. Unlike in Super Mario World, where four of them always appear on a single four-plaform wheel, Reznor appear either in groups of two or four, and their wheel setups can also vary. They don't attack as frequently as they did in their debut game, and the bridge under them doesn't collapse as quickly. After defeating half of them, the remaining Reznor roar and stomp their blocks, causing the bridge below them to collapse, much like in Super Mario World. Reznor can be defeated when Mario hits the block underneath them, hits them with six fireballs or one gold fireball, or simply touches them while under the effects of the Invincibility Leaf. If defeated by a gold fireball, they will give thirty coins each.

Level Appearances[edit]
World 1-Tower: Two Reznor on one wheel with four Rectangular Coin Blocks.
World 2-Tower: Four Reznor on one wheel with four Rectangular Coin Blocks.
World 3-Tower: Same as World 2-Tower.
World 4-Tower: Four Reznor on two wheels; two Reznor per wheel, with each wheel having four Rectangular Coin Blocks. One bridge is positioned to the left of one wheel, while another bridge is positioned to the right of the other wheel.
World 5-Tower: Four Reznor on two wheels; two Reznor per wheel, with each wheel having four Rectangular Coin Blocks. One bridge is positioned between the two wheels.
World 6-Tower: Four Reznor on one giant wheel with eight Rectangular Coin Blocks.


The fourth is always different


Super Mario Bros. is divided into eight worlds, each of them containing four levels. Mario (or, in the case of a second player, his brother Luigi) has to get to the end of the level by jumping over various gaps and avoiding the enemies on his way. Mario can use several platforms (some of them collapse when Mario lands on them), stairs in the level, as well as Jumping Boards. There are also pipes along the way, some of which Mario can enter to visit various secret coin rooms before returning to the level, a bit further ahead than when he left.


The fourth level of each world plays inside a castle. They are usually filled with Fire Bars and Podoboos. At the end of a castle level, Mario is confronted with a Bowser Impostor in Worlds 1 through 7 and the actual Bowser in World 8. Mario and Luigi ordinarily have no way to hurt the Bowser Impostors or the actual Bowser, and have to either use the axe to destroy the bridge, causing either the false or real one to fall into the lava, or pelt him with a number of fireballs, which produces the same result and reveals the true forms of the fakes. After defeating an impostor, Mario frees one of the seven remaining mushroom retainers from the castle, at which point they say their iconic phrase: "Thank you, Mario! But our princess is in another castle!" At the end of the castle in World 8, Mario frees the grateful Princess Toadstool and completes his adventure, having the choice to continue playing in a "new quest." In this second quest, the player gets to choose a world, and replay some levels. However, all Goombas are replaced by Buzzy Beetles, all ground enemies are also considerably faster, some platforms and Elevators are shortened in length, and the level design is slightly changed for some levels (see below at "Hard mode").


All of the sprites and tiles in the game have at least four color schemes, one for each setting: either brown, beige, and black, or green, yellow, and white for overworld environments, blue, cyan, and black or teal, brown, and pink for underground environments, black, gray, and yellow or gray, yellow, and white for underwater environments, black, gray, and white for castle environments, and red, yellow, and white for all four. Bowser and Bowser Impostors are exceptions, as they are found in castles while having the overworld color scheme.


Four-wheel drive, 4×4 ("four by four"), 4WD, and AWD is a form of drivetrain most commonly capable of providing power to all wheel ends of a two-axled vehicle simultaneously. It may be full-time or on-demand, and may be linked via a transfer case to provide multiple gear ranges.

A four-wheeled vehicle with power supplied to both axles may be described as "all-wheel drive". However, not all "four-wheel drive" vehicles are "all-wheel drive", as vehicles with more than two axles may also be described as "four-wheel drive" regardless of how many axles, so long as two axles (of two wheel ends apiece) are powered.[

4WD/AWD systems were developed in many different markets and used in many different vehicle platforms. There is no universally accepted set of terminology to describe the various architectures and functions.[2] The terms used by various manufactures often reflect marketing rather than engineering considerations or significant technical differences between systems.[3][4]


Four-by-four (4×4) refers to the general class of vehicles. The first figure is normally the total wheels (more precisely, axle ends, which may have multiple wheels), and the second, the number that are powered. Syntactically, 4×2 means a four-wheel vehicle that transmits engine power to only two axle-ends: the front two in front-wheel drive or the rear two in rear-wheel drive.[5] Alternatively, a 6x4 vehicle has three axles, any two of which provide power to two wheel ends each. The number of wheels may be greater than six, as on ubiquitous ten-wheel tractor units, but the designation stays the same.[1]


Four wheel drive (4WD) refers to vehicles with two or more axles providing power to four wheel ends.[1] In the North American market the term generally refers a system that is optimized for severe off-road driving situations.[6] Four-wheel drive vehicles typically have a transfer case, which locks the front and rear axles, meaning that the front and rear drive shafts will be locked together when engaged. This provides maximum torque transfer to the axle with the most traction, but can cause binding in high traction turning situations.[7]


Main article: AWD (vehicle)

All wheel drive (AWD) historically was synonymous with "four-wheel drive" on four-wheeled vehicles, and six-wheel drive on 6x6s, and so on, being used in that fashion at least as early as the 1920s.[8][9] Today in the United States the term is applied to both heavy vehicles as well as light passenger vehicles. When referring to heavy vehicles the term is increasingly applied to mean "permanent multiple-wheel drive" on 2×2, 4×4, 6×6 or 8×8 drive train systems that include a differential between the front and rear drive shafts.[10] This is often coupled with some sort of anti-slip technology, increasingly hydraulic-based, that allows differentials to spin at different speeds but still be capable of transferring torque from a wheel with poor traction to one with better. Typical AWD systems work well on all surfaces, but are not intended for all consumers.[10] When used to describe AWD systems in light passenger vehicles it describes a system that applies power to all four wheels and targeted as improving on road traction and performance, particularly in inclement conditions, rather than for off road applications.[6]

Some all wheel drive electric vehicles solve this challenge using one motor for each axle, thereby eliminating a mechanical differential between the front and rear axles. An example of this is the dual motor variant of the Tesla Model S, which on a millisecond scale can control the power distribution electronically between its two motors.[11]


Individual-wheel drive (IWD) was coined to identify those electric vehicles whereby each wheel is driven by its own individual electric motor. This system essentially has inherent characteristics that would be generally attributed to four-wheel drive systems like the distribution of the available power to the wheels. However, because of the inherent characteristics of electric motors, torque can be negative, as seen in the Rimac Concept One and SLS AMG Electric. This can have drastic effects, as in better handling in tight corners.[12]

The term IWD can refer to a vehicle with any number of wheels. For example, the mars rovers are 6-wheel IWD.

Mario Bros. (マリオブラザーズ Mario Burazāzu?) is a platform game published and developed for arcades by Nintendo in 1983. It was created by Shigeru Miyamoto. It has been featured as a minigame in the Super Mario Advance series and numerous other games. Mario Bros. has been re-released for the Wii's, Nintendo 3DS's, and Wii U's Virtual Console services in Japan, North America, Europe and Australia.


There are four enemies: the Shellcreeper, which simply walks around; the Sidestepper, which requires two hits to flip over; the Fighter Fly, which moves by jumping and can only be flipped when it is touching a platform; and the Slipice, which turns platforms into slippery ice. When bumped from below, the Slipice dies immediately instead of flipping over; these enemies do not count toward the total number that must be defeated to complete a phase. All iced platforms return to normal at the start of each new phase.

The four ghosts of Pac Man- the fourth is different


The Ghosts (Japanese: モンスター monsutā, "monsters"), primarily Blinky, Pinky, Inky and Clyde, are the ghosts chasing the player in the Pac-Man franchise.


The Ghosts (Japanese: モンスター monsutā, "monsters"), primarily Blinky, Pinky, Inky and Clyde, are the ghosts chasing the player in the Pac-Man franchise.


In the 2013 TV series Pac-Man and the Ghostly Adventures, the four Ghosts come from the Netherworld. Though they are ruled by Lord Betrayus, they are actually good-natured spirits and often supply Pac-Man with information about Lord Betrayus' plots, while ensuring Betrayus doesn't catch them in the act. It is also suggested that they could be reunited with their bodies and brought back to life, though their 'living' forms are unknown. There were also some Ghosts that were exclusive to the TV series like Cyclops Ghosts (a race of heavyset, horned Ghosts with one eye), Fire Ghosts (a race of orange Ghosts who can emit fire from their body), Tentacle Ghosts (a race of 4-eyed purple-black Ghosts who look similar to jellyfish), Guardian Ghosts (a race of large Ghosts who guard the Netherworld), and Aqua Ghosts (a race of light blue Ghosts with fins on their head).


Known ghosts[edit]

Below is the description of each Ghost.[6]


Color Pac Man (Original)[7] Pac-Man (English version)


(Personality) Translation Nickname Translation Alternate

Character Alternate

Nickname Character

(Personality) Nickname

Red Oikake (追いかけ) Chaser Akabei (赤ベイ) Red guy Urchin Macky Shadow Blinky

Pink Machibuse (待ち伏せ) Ambusher Pinky (ピンキー) Pink guy Romp Micky Speedy Pinky

Cyan Kimagure (気まぐれ) Fickle Aosuke (青助) Blue guy Stylist Mucky Bashful Inky

Orange Otoboke (お惚け) Feigned Ignorance Guzuta (愚図た) Slow guy Crybaby Mocky Pokey Clyde


Blinky is a red ghost who, in the original arcade game, follows behind Pac-Man. He is considered the leader of the ghosts. In the Pac-Man cartoon, Blinky (voiced by Chuck McCann) is slow-witted and cowardly with grammar problems. In Pac-Man and the Ghostly Adventures, Blinky (voiced by Ian James Corlett in the TV series and by Lucien Dodge in the video game) is the default leader of the Ghost Gang Family and tends to help the winning side.[citation needed] Blinky receives a speed boost after a number of pac-pellets have been cleared. This mode has been informally referred to as "Cruise Elroy".[6][8] He is sometimes known as Clyde, mainly in the Pac-Man World games.



Pinky is a pink ghost who, in the original arcade game, positions him/herself in front of Pac-Man. In the Pac-Man cartoon, Pinky (voiced by Chuck McCann) is depicted as male dimwitted shape shifter. In recent games, and Pac-Man and the Ghostly Adventures, Pinky (voiced by Ashleigh Ball in the TV series and by Julie Kliewer in the video game and sequel) is depicted as a female with a crush on Pac-Man, which often puts her at odds with Cylindria.



Inky is a baby blue ghost who, in the original arcade game, has a fickle mood. He can be unpredictable. Sometimes he chases Pac-Man aggressively like Blinky; other times he jumps ahead of Pac-Man as Pinky would. He might even wander off like Clyde on occasion. In the Pac-Man cartoon, Inky (voiced by Barry Gordon) is depicted as dim and loony. In Pac-Man and the Ghostly Adventures, Inky (voiced by Lee Tockar in the TV series and by Bryce Papenbrook in the video game) is the youngest member. Though the smartest, he lacks focus most of the time. In Pac-Man, Inky likes to appear in front of Pac-Man's face.



Clyde is an orange ghost who, in the original arcade game, acts stupid. He will chase after Pac-Man in Blinky's manner, but will wander off to his home corner when he gets too close. In Ms. Pac-Man, this ghost is named Sue, and in Jr. Pac-Man, this ghost is named Tim. In the animated series, Clyde (voiced by Neil Ross) is the leader of the group. In recent games and Pac-Man and the Ghostly Adventures, Clyde (voiced by Brian Drummond in the TV series and by Orion Acaba in the video game) is depicted as a large ghost who is simple, but not unintelligent and has an appetite equal to Pac-Man's. He lacks the devious natures of his brothers and sister and is considerate towards others. He is sometimes known as Blinky, mainly in the Pac-M

16 is the squares of the quadrant model

Super Mario All-Stars, released in Japan as Super Mario Collection (Japanese: スーパーマリオコレクション Hepburn: Sūpā Mario Korekushon?) is a collection of Super Mario platforming video games developed and published by Nintendo for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System in 1993.


Super Mario All-Stars is a video game compilation that features complete remakes of the four Super Mario side-scrolling platform games that were originally released for the Nintendo Entertainment System and the Famicom Disk System between 1985 and 1990: Super Mario Bros., Super Mario Bros.: The Lost Levels (Super Mario Bros. 2 in Japan), Super Mario Bros. 2 (Super Mario Bros. USA in Japan), and Super Mario Bros. 3. The gameplay of each remade game is nearly identical to its original version, though some game physics as well as character and level designs are slightly modified, and some bugs, including the "Minus World" in Super Mario Bros., are fixed.


The four games each feature enhanced 16-bit graphics and updated soundtracks to take advantage of the Super NES hardware, including parallax scrolling.[2] All four games offer a save feature, which the original games lacked, allowing the player to save progress and resume play from the start of any previously accessed world (or in The Lost Levels, any previously accessed level). Up to four individual save files can be stored for each game. The games also allow the player to customize control configuration, allowing the "jump" and "dash" actions to be mapped to different buttons on the Super NES controller.

Tetra is four

Dr. Mario is a falling block tile-matching video game,[9] in which Mario assumes the role of a doctor, dropping two-colored medical capsules into a medicine bottle representing the playing field. This area is populated by viruses of three colors: red, yellow, and blue. In a manner and style considered similar to Tetris,[10] the player manipulates each capsule as it falls, moving it left or right and rotating it such that it is positioned alongside the viruses and any existing capsules. When four or more capsule halves or viruses of matching color are aligned in vertical or horizontal configurations, they are removed from play; any remaining capsules or capsule halves which are not supported by a virus, capsule, or the bottom of the playing field immediately below will then fall as far as needed until it lands on one, after which any new 4-in-a-row alignments created from this will be removed. The main objective is to complete levels, which is accomplished by eliminating all viruses from the playing field. A game over occurs if capsules fill up the playing field in a way that obstructs the bottle's narrow neck.[11]

A 16 bit game


Super Mario Bros. 2 is a 2D side-scrolling platform game. The objective of the game is to navigate the player's character through the dream world Subcon and defeat the main antagonist Wart.[4]:3–4 Before each stage, the player chooses one of four different protagonists to use: Mario, Luigi, Toad, and Princess Peach. All four characters can run, jump, and climb ladders or vines, but each character possesses a unique strength that causes them to be controlled differently. For example, Luigi can jump the highest; Princess Peach can jump the farthest; Toad's strength allows him to pick up items quickly. As opposed to the original Super Mario Bros., which only moved from left to right, players can move either left or right, as well as vertically in waterfall, cloud and cave levels. Unlike other Mario games, the characters cannot defeat enemies by jumping on them; but they can stand on, ride on, and jump on the enemies. Instead, the character picks up and throws objects at the enemies, or throws the enemies away, to defeat them. These objects include vegetables plucked from the ground or other enemies.[4]:13–16


In The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past & Four Swords (2002), set at some point before Ocarina of Time, Zelda goes to the Sanctuary of the Four Sword with her friend, Link, to check on the seal containing the evil Wind Mage, Vaati. The seal has weakened, however, and Vaati emerges, kidnaps Zelda, and defeats Link. Later, Link finds three fairies, who instruct him to draw the Four Sword. The magical Four Sword divides him into four identical Links. The first Link wears his traditional green outfit; the second, a red version; the third, blue; and the fourth, purple. The Links must cooperate to overcome obstacles, collect keys, and storm Vaati's Palace so they can rescue Zelda and seal the mage away again.[27]


The Legend of Zelda: Oracle of Seasons and The Legend of Zelda: Oracle of Ages[a] are two action-adventure games in the Legend of Zelda series, developed by Flagship (a subsidiary of Capcom). They were released in 2001 for Nintendo's Game Boy Color handheld console and re-released on the Virtual Console for the Nintendo 3DS in 2013.


The central item of Oracle of Seasons is the Rod of Seasons. By standing on a stump and swinging the rod, Link can change the season and affect his surroundings.[19] For example, to cross a body of water, Link can change the season to winter and walk on the ice. Changing the season to summer causes vines to flourish, which Link can use to scale cliffs. When Link obtains the rod, he initially cannot use it.[20] In the course of the game, Link visits four towers that house the four spirits of the seasons; each tower Link visits allows him to switch to an additional season.[20]

Radio-controlled aerobatics is the practice of flying radio-controlled aircraft in maneuvers involving aircraft attitudes that are not used in normal flight.
Four-point roll[edit]
The four-point roll is a quick series of quarter rolls. The pilot gives four separate, but very brief aileron inputs. The first rolls the aircraft to knife-edge, the second rolls the aircraft inverted, the third rolls the aircraft to opposite knife-edge, and the final input rolls the aircraft back to upright.
Rolling circle[edit]
Control stick inputs for the rolling circle (left-turning right-rolling), showing the typical amount of elevator and rudder input as a function of rolling position.
Rolling circle is a maneuver in which an aircraft rolls continuously while turning in a circle. This is arguably one of the most difficult maneuvers to perfect, since varying pitch and yaw corrections are necessary to keep the heading level while maintaining constant roll rate and turning radius.
The standard rolling circle involves 1 roll at each quadrant of the turn, resulting in a total of 4 rolls throughout the 360° horizontal turn. The most logical method to approach the rolling circle is to think of it as 4 slow rolls with turn. The procedure below describes a left-turning right-rolling quadrant

The eight point roll is two fours and it makes a crossing infinity sign.

Four quadrants

In the 1800s, George Pocock used kites of increased size to propel carts on land and ships on the water, using a four-line control system—the same system in common use today. Both carts and boats were able to turn and sail upwind


In Ireland, there are four main types of handball. There is 40x20 (small court), the traditional 60x30 Softball & Hardball (big alley) and One-wall handball. One-wall handball has become very popular over the past 3 years and it is the most popular version of international handball. It is played in over 74 countries including the USA, Mexico, Ecuador, Spain, the Basque Country.

Gaelic handball (known in Ireland simply as handball;[1][2][3][4] Irish: liathróid láimhe) is a sport played in Ireland where players hit a ball with a hand or fist against a wall in such a way as to make a shot the opposition cannot return,[5] and that may be played with two (singles) or four players (doubles). The sport is similar to American handball (a related and almost identical game), Basque pelota, racquetball and squash. It is one of the four Gaelic games organised by the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA).[6] In 2009, Irish Handball was rebranded as GAA Handball.

There are four Gaelic games


Gaelic games are sports played in Ireland under the auspices of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA). Gaelic football and hurling are the two main games. Other games organised by the GAA include Gaelic handball and rounders.


Racketlon is a combination sport where competitors play a sequence of the four most popular racket sports: table tennis, badminton, squash, and tennis.

In a regulation game, two individuals (or two pairs in doubles) play each other in four sets, one in each sport. Each set has the same format: the serve switches every two points, with the first serve of the two in badminton, squash and tennis always being from the right, and the set finishes when one player has earned 21 points with at least a 2-point margin. The sets are played from smallest racket to largest: first table tennis, then badminton, squash, and finally tennis. The player (or pair) who has won the most points overall wins the match. If the score is tied after all four sets, the tie is broken by one extra tennis point. Other than the scoring, each point follows the respective sport's international rules.


Squash is a racquet sport played by two (singles) or four players (doubles) in a four-walled court with a small, hollow rubber ball. The players must alternate in striking the ball with their racquet and hit the ball onto the playable surfaces of the four walls of the court.

Squash was invented in Harrow School out of the older game racquets around 1830 before the game spread to other schools, eventually becoming an international sport. The first courts built at this school were rather dangerous because they were near water pipes, buttresses, chimneys, and ledges. The school soon built four outside courts. Natural rubber was the material of choice for the ball. Students modified their racquets to have a smaller reach to play in these cramped conditions.

Squash balls are between 39.5 and 40.5 mm in diameter, and have a weight of 23 to 25 grams.[3] They are made with two pieces of rubber compound, glued together to form a hollow sphere and buffed to a matte finish. Different balls are provided for varying temperature and atmospheric conditions and standards of play: more experienced players use slow balls that have less bounce than those used by less experienced players (slower balls tend to "die" in court corners, rather than "standing up" to allow easier shots). Depending on its specific rubber composition, a squash ball has the property that it bounces more at higher temperatures. Squash balls must be hit dozens of times to warm them up at the beginning of a session; cold squash balls have very little bounce. Small colored dots on the ball indicate its dynamic level (bounciness), and thus the standard of play for which it is suited. The recognized speed colors indicating the degree of dynamism are:

Color Speed (of Play) Bounce Player Level

Double yellow Extra Super Slowest Very low Experienced

Yellow Super Slow Low Advanced

White Slow Low Advanced/Medium

Blue Fast Very high Beginner/Junior

Some ball manufacturers such as Dunlop use a different method of grading balls based on experience. They still have the equivalent dot rating, but are named to help choose a ball that is appropriate for one's skill level. The four different ball types are Intro (Blue dot), Progress (Red dot), Competition (single yellow dot) and Pro (double yellow dot).

The squash court is a playing surface surrounded by four walls. The court surface contains a front line separating the front and back of the court and a half court line, separating the left and right hand sides of the back portion of the court, creating three 'boxes' - the front half, the back left quarter and the back right quarter. Both the back two boxes contain smaller service boxes. All of the floor-markings on a squash court are only relevant during serves.

There are four walls to a squash court. The front wall, on which three parallel lines are marked, has the largest playing surface, whilst the back wall, which typically contains the entrance to the court, has the smallest. The out line runs along the top of the front wall, descending along the side walls to the back wall. There are no other markings on the side or back walls. Shots struck above or touching the out line, on any wall, are out. The bottom line of the front wall marks the top of the 'tin', a half metre-high metal area which if struck means that the ball is out. In this way the tin can be seen as analogous to the net in other racquet sports such as tennis. The middle line of the front wall is the service line and is only relevant during serves.


Four-line (or "quad-line") kites are controlled with a pair of handles, each with two lines attached to the top and bottom and attached to the kite correspondingly. To control the kite, the pilot pulls on the lower line to turn the kite in that direction. Skilled use of these handles allows a quad-line kite to perform in ways that are difficult or impossible with a dual-line kite. Unique quadline maneuvers include reverse flight, axis spins, hovers, and side to side flight.

Other aspects of sport kiting include power or traction kites, which can be used to tow wheeled kite buggies (kite buggying) or surfboards (kite surfing). Power kites vary in size from "trainers" which often have dual lines and a small sail area, to large full size traction kites with four lines, designed to pull people on kite boards or vehicles.…/File:Olympics_2012_Mixed_Doubles…

By 1875, returning officers had started a badminton club in Folkestone. Initially, the sport was played with sides ranging from 1–4 players but it was quickly established that games between two or four competitors worked the best.

Notice how there are four squares (a quadrant) on a badminton court, as well as ping pong and tennis.


In the 1800s, George Pocock used kites of increased size to propel carts on land and ships on the water, using a four-line control system—the same system in common use today. Both carts and boats were able to turn and sail upwind

Curling is a sport in which players slide stones on a sheet of ice towards a target area which is segmented into four concentric circles. It is related to bowls, boules and shuffleboard. Two teams, each with four players, take turns sliding heavy, polished granite stones, also called rocks, across the ice curling sheet towards the house, a circular target marked on the ice.

Not only are their four concentric circles that the players are aiming four but they are divided into quadrants.

Until four stones have been played (two from each side), stones in the free guard zone (those stones left in the area between the hog and tee lines, excluding the house) may not be removed by an opponent's stone (although they can be moved as long as they are not taken out of play). These are known as guard rocks. If the guard rocks are removed, they are replaced to where they were before the shot was thrown, and the opponent's stone is removed from play and cannot be replayed. This rule is known as the four-rock rule or the free guard zone rule (for a while in Canada, a "three-rock rule" was in place, but that rule has been replaced by the four-rock rule).

Originally, the Modified Moncton Rule was developed from a suggestion made by Russ Howard for the Moncton 100 cashspiel (with the richest prize ever awarded at the time in a tournament) in Moncton, New Brunswick, in January 1990. "Howard's Rule" (also known as the Moncton Rule), used for the tournament and based on a practice drill his team used, had the first four rocks in play unable to be removed no matter where they were at any time during the end. This method of play altered slightly and adopted as a Four-rock Free Guard Zone for international competition shortly after. Canada kept to the traditional rules until a three-rock Free Guard Zone rule was adopted, starting in the 1993-94 season. After several years of having the three-rock rule used for the Canadian championships and the winners then having to adjust to the four-rock rule in the World Championships, the Canadian Curling Association adopted the now-standard Free Guard Zone in the 2002-2003 season.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.


Biathlon is a winter sport that combines cross-country skiing and rifle shooting.

This sport has its origins in an exercise for Norwegian people, as an alternative training for the military. Norwegian skiing regiments organized military skiing contests in the 18th century, divided in four classes: shooting at mark while skiing at top speed, downhill race among trees, downhill race on big hills without falling, and a long race on flat ground while carrying rifle and military pack.

The competitions from 1958 to 1965 used high-power centerfire cartridges, such as the .30-06 Springfield and the 7.62×51mm NATO, before the .22 Long Rifle rimfire cartridge was standardized in 1978. The ammunition was carried in a belt worn around the competitor's waist. The sole event was the men's 20 kilometres (12 mi) individual, encompassing four separate ranges and firing distances of 100 metres (330 ft), 150 metres (490 ft), 200 metres (660 ft), and 250 metres (820 ft). The target distance was reduced to 150 metres (490 ft) with the addition of the relay in 1966. The shooting range was further reduced to 50 metres (160 ft) in 1978 with the mechanical targets making their debut at the 1980 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid

A biathlon competition consists of a race in which contestants ski around a cross-country trail system, and where the total distance is broken up by either two or four shooting rounds, half in prone position, the other half standing. Depending on the shooting performance, extra distance or time is added to the contestant's total running distance/time. The contestant with the shortest total time wins.

The 20 kilometres (12 mi) individual race (15 kilometres (9.3 mi) for women) is the oldest biathlon event; the distance is skied over five laps. The biathlete shoots four times at any shooting lane,[7] in the order of prone, standing, prone, standing, totaling 20 targets. For each missed target a fixed penalty time, usually one minute, is added to the skiing time of the biathlete. Competitors' starts are staggered, normally by 30 seconds.

In a pursuit, biathletes' starts are separated by their time differences from a previous race,[8] most commonly a sprint. The contestant crossing the finish line first is the winner. The distance is 12.5 kilometres (7.8 mi) for men and 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) for women, skied over five laps; there are four shooting bouts (two prone, two standing, in that order), and each miss means a penalty loop of 150 metres (490 ft). To prevent awkward and/or dangerous crowding of the skiing loops, and overcapacity at the shooting range, World Cup Pursuits are held with only the 60 top ranking biathletes after the preceding race. The biathletes shoot on a first-come, first-served basis at the lane corresponding to the position they arrived for all shooting bouts.

In the mass start, all biathletes start at the same time and the first across the finish line wins. In this 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) for men or 12.5 kilometres (7.8 mi) for women competition, the distance is skied over five laps; there are four bouts of shooting (two prone, two standing, in that order) with the first shooting bout being at the lane corresponding to the competitor's bib number (Bib #10 shoots at lane #10 regardless of position in race), with the rest of the shooting bouts being on a first-come, first-served basis (If a competitor arrives at the lane in fifth place, they shoot at lane 5). As in sprint and pursuit, competitors must ski one 150 metres (490 ft) penalty loop for each miss. Here again, to avoid unwanted congestion, World Cup Mass starts are held with only the 30 top ranking athletes on the start line (half that of the Pursuit as here all contestants start simultaneously).

The relay teams consist of four biathletes, who each ski 7.5 kilometres (4.7 mi) (men) or 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) (women), each leg skied over three laps, with two shooting rounds; one prone, one standing. For every round of five targets there are eight bullets available, though the last three can only be single-loaded manually one at a time from spare round holders or bullets deposited by the competitor into trays or onto the mat at the firing line. If after eight bullets there are still misses, one 150 m (490 ft) penalty loop must be taken for each missed target remaining. The first-leg participants start all at the same time, and as in cross-country skiing relays, every athlete of a team must touch the team's next-leg participant to perform a valid changeover. On the first shooting stage of the first leg, the participant must shoot in the lane corresponding to their bib number (Bib #10 shoots at lane #10 regardless of position in race), then for the remainder of the relay, the relay team shoots on a first-come, first-served basis (arrive at the range in fifth place, shoot at lane 5)

The most recent addition to the number of biathlon competition variants, the mixed relay is similar to the ordinary relay but the teams are composed of two women and two men. Legs 1 and 2 are done by the women, legs 3 and 4 by the men. The women's legs are 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) and men's legs are 7.5 kilometres (4.7 mi) as in ordinary relay competitions.

A team consists of four biathletes, but unlike the relay competition, all team members start at the same time. Two athletes must shoot in the prone shooting round, the other two in the standing round. In case of a miss, the two non-shooting biathletes must ski a penalty loop of 150 m (490 ft). The skiers must enter the shooting area together, and must also finish within 15 seconds of each other; otherwise a time penalty of one minute is added to the total time. Since 2004, this race format has been obsolete at the World Cup level.


Squash tennis is an American variant of squash, but played with a ball and racquets that are closer to the equipment used for lawn tennis, and with somewhat different rules. For younger players the game offers the complexity of squash and the speed of racquetball. It also has exercise and recreational potential for older players.

Squash tennis is played in various four-walled courts. The front wall (against which the ball is served) features a telltale (usually clad in tin) at the bottom couple feet from the floor, a service line about 6 feet (1.8 m) from the floor, and an out-of-bounds line around 16 feet (4.9 m) from the floor. The back wall out line is 4.5 feet (1.4 m) from the floor. There are two required lines on the floor: a service line about 10 feet (3.0 m) from the back wall, and a center court line running at least from the front wall to the service line. Unlike a squash racquets court, there are no service boxes. There are four types of courts:

North American squash court[edit]

A North American squash court is 18.5 by 32 feet (5.6 by 9.8 m). Originally designed for the related game of squash racquets, by the early 1930s the National Squash Tennis Association (NSTA) approved play on this kind of court. The dimensions are quite similar to the official squash tennis court. The only required modifications are the addition of a 4.5-foot (1.4 m) back wall line (in N. American squash the back wall line is 6.5 feet or 2.0 metres from the floor) and the center court line on the floor. Temporary lines can easily be added with blue painter's tape. The problem today is that as the North American version of squash becomes less popular, new courts are not being built, and many old ones are being converted to other uses.

Squash tennis court[edit]

In 1910 the NSTA adopted a standard court size of 17 by 32.5 feet (5.2 by 9.9 m). Although many of these were built in the New York area, after play was authorized on a N. American squash court they began to disappear. It did not make economic sense to maintain a specialty court when a more versatile one was acceptable.

International squash court[edit]

An International squash court is 21 by 32 feet (6.4 by 9.8 m). The additional lines will need to be added. The extra width of the court makes the various multi-walled shots more difficult or impossible, so experienced players prefer to use a N. American court. However, a 21-foot (6.4 m) court is often the only one generally available, particularly outside North America.

Non-standard courts[edit]

Originally the game was played on a racquets court, then on fives courts. Before 1911 there were no standards for court size, and ones constructed specifically for squash tennis varied from each other somewhat. They were constructed at private estates and clubs. At least one of these courts survives today in a playable condition. The court at Plum Orchard was fully restored in 2008 with the tins in place and working electric lights. It was added to George Lauder Carnegie's "Plum Orchard" estate on Cumberland Island, Georgia, in the winter of 1903/04, and is now owned by the National Park Service. An exhibit on squash tennis history has recently been installed in the mansion, which is occasionally open for public tours.


Four corners is a children's game, often played in elementary schools. The object of the game is for players to choose corners of the room and not get caught by the designated "It" player until they are the last remaining participant.



To begin, four corners (or general areas) of the room are marked from the numbers one to four. One player is designated to be "It," or the "counter." This player sits in the middle of the room and closes his or her eyes, or exits the room, and counts to ten. The remaining players choose any one of the corners and quietly go and stand in that area. When the "It" player has finished counting, he or she calls out one of the numbers. All players who had chosen that corner or area are out of the game, and they sit down. Then, "It" counts again and the remaining players move to a different corner. Unless the corner is out.


The last person to still be in the game wins, and usually becomes the new "It."


If "It" calls out a corner containing no players, she either calls out another number right away or the players rotate to a new corner, according to different versions of gameplay.


Canadian four corners[edit]

A very different 5-player children's game is played in Canada under the name "four corners" (also known as "king's court"). The Canadian version is played on a large square drawn in chalk, usually in a schoolyard or other similar area. Four of the children stand on one of the corners of the square, while the fifth player is designated "it" and stands in the middle of the square. The four corner players then attempt to trade places without being tagged by the player who is "it", or without vacating a corner long enough for the player who is "it" being able to stand in the vacant corner. If a corner player is tagged or stranded without a free corner to stand in, they become "it". Common strategy is to try to swap corners while the player who is "it" is chasing other players who are trying to swap corners.…/File:Mondial_Ping_-_Men%27s_Sing…

Table tennis, also known as ping pong, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball back and forth across a table using a small, round bat.
The table is kind of in the shape of a quadrant.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

Merk Diezle In women's gymnastics there are four events.
In men's there are six but gymnastics is considered a woman's sport.

Like · Reply · December 27, 2016 at 3:59pm



The fourth is different. Fifth is questionable


Half shower[edit]

Similar to the shower pattern, a half shower pattern (siteswap: 3[9]) is any pattern where both hands throw arcing cascade-like throws to the other hand, but the props from one hand always pass above the props from the other hand. The half shower may be performed with any number of props greater than or equal to three, and with more than four props, different versions of the half shower with varying heights of throw may be executed, even without taking into account both synchronous and asynchronous variations.


Half showers where hands throw at notably different heights may be executed with cascade-style inside throws; this style of half shower is popular in club juggling, where they go by the name of triple-doubles or double-singles due to the higher clubs naturally spinning a greater number of times than the lower clubs.




4-ball fountain, siteswap: 4[10]

Main article: Fountain (juggling)

Performed using an even number of props greater than or equal to four, the fountain is a symmetrical pattern where each hand independently juggles exactly half the total number of props, i.e. each hand always throws to itself. As with the cascade, a fountain where the throws are to the outside of the catches is known as a reverse fountain (siteswap: 4[11]). A fountain where only one hand juggles is generally known as an n in one hand, where n is the number of props juggled. Unlike the cascade, fountains can be performed both synchronously (each hand throws at the same time) and asynchronously (hands throw alternately)




Four balls can be juggled. Not really five. Three can be juggled the best. The nature of the quadrant model is the fourth is always different and transcendent.


Pass juggling[edit]


Four-count, or "Every others": <333P|333P>

Main article: Passing (juggling)

Siteswap may also be extended to pass juggling. Simultaneous juggling: <xxx|yyy> notation means one juggler does 'xxx' while another does 'yyy'. 'p' is used to represent a passing throw. For example the Four-count, or "Every others", pattern (one of the most basic forms of passing) every fourth throw — that is, every second right-handed throw — is a passing throw, thus the pattern is <333P|333P>. One-count (<3p|3p>), two-count (<33p|33p>), three-count (<333p|333p>), four-count (<3333p|3333p>).[33]
The fourth is always different/transcendent. Three is difficult, four is trancendent.

4 ball synchronous columns: "symmetrical",[3] "asymmetrical",[4] "splits", and "pistons"[5]


The fountain is a juggling pattern that is the method most often used for juggling an even number of objects. In a fountain, each hand juggles separately, and the objects are not thrown between the hands. To illustrate this, it can be seen that in the most common fountain pattern where four balls are juggled, each hand juggles two balls independently. As Crego states "In the fountain pattern, each hand throws balls straight up into the air and each ball is caught in the same hand that throws it."[3]


A fountain can be synchronous or asynchronous. In a synchronous fountain, both hands throw at the same time, while in an asynchronous fountain, the hands alternate throws. "The fountain pattern...can be stably performed in two can perform the fountain with different frequencies for the two hands, but that coordination is difficult because of the tendency of the limbs to synchronize."[4] The fountain is juggled in a circular fashion, distinguishing it from columns. The circular method means that the balls juggled travel in a circle like motion with the jugglers hands throwing the ball from a point close to their body centre line and catching the ball further away from their body centre line. This circle motion is called 'outside circles' and is the fountain pattern shown in the animation. This circle method can be reversed to create an 'inside circle' pattern whereby throws are from a position away from the body midline and catches are closer to the body midline. In the columns method the balls all travel vertically up and down in their own 'column', and are caught from where they are thrown.


Other fountain patterns[edit]

4 is the asynchronous asymmetrical fountain. (4,4) is the synchronous fountain. (4,4)(4,0) is a synchronous fountain with one ball missing (two in one, one in the other).


Wimpy, (4x,4x), is a crossing version of the synchronous fountain.[5]

Notice the fourth ball is different


The fourth is transcendent and fifth is questioanble. Five balls can be thrown but in a cascade where three are thrown at one time


Multiplex throws are generally grouped into four different categories: Stack, Split, Cut, and Slice.


4 ball multiplex, 3-ball-cascade, one "5" juggled with it: [53]3333


In pen spinning there are four main fundamental tricks spinners often learn first. The fundamentals do not represent all fields in pen spinning nor are they the smallest individual pen movements possible, but they are recognized as providing useful foundations for basic technique and concepts.


ThumbAround Normal[edit]

A ThumbAround is performed by pushing a pen using any finger (usually the middle finger if done in isolation) except the thumb to initiate the pen to spin around the thumb one time, then catching it between the thumb and a finger. Before the pen spinning community became significantly organized, the ThumbAround Normal was known by a multitude of names, including 360 Degree Normal, Forward, Normal, and ThumbSpin (now the name of a separate trick).[23][24]


Sonic Normal[edit]

The primary goal of a Sonic is to transfer the pen from one finger slot to another quickly. In the Sonic Normal, a pen is held in a finger slot not involving the thumb and is spun in a conic-like motion behind a finger (or fingers) to another finger slot further up the hand, making a single revolution.[25] Hideaki Kondoh is generally accredited with giving the Sonic its name, which he did because of the rapid speed at which the pen would move compared to the ThumbAround.[9]


Charge Normal[edit]

A Charge does not involve spinning the pen over any fingers or any body parts, rather, the pen is spun conically in a single finger slot.[26] When viewing the palm-side of the hand during the Charge Normal, the pen spins clockwise in the right hand and counterclockwise in the left hand. The Charge forms the basis for all tricks that rely on conical movement, including the Sonic. This trick is often performed by drummers using drumsticks rather than pens.


Fingerpass Normal[edit]

A single Pass involves rotating a pen 0.5 times from one finger slot to another. When performing the Pass Normal on the palm-side of hand, the pen goes downward. When performing a Pass Normal on the other side of the hand, the pen goes upward. A small combination of Passes involving the pen rotating fully around the hand, starting and ending in the 12 slot, is called a Fingerpass, with the Fingerpass Normal being constructed out of Pass Normals.[27] This short combo is consistently considered the hardest fundamental to master because Passes between the little finger and the ring finger are often difficult to make smooth. A Pass combo similar to a Fingerpass was performed by the character Boris Grishenko in the James Bond film GoldenEye, using only three fingers instead of the usual four.[28]

Timing and Direction[edit]

Split, Same, and Hybrid Timing

Fig.1-Poi Timings

Timing and Direction is a concept used by poi spinners to refer to how the props and hands move in relation to each other.[1] There are currently four major categories of timing and direction that prop movements commonly fall into. These categories are:


Together Time, Same Direction (also referred to as Same Time[2] and abbreviated TS[3] ): Props are spinning in the same direction and in phase with each other so that a doubling effect occurs in the audience's perception of the resulting trick.[4]


Together Time, Opposite Direction (also referred to as Opposites[2] and abbreviated TO[3]): Props are spinning in opposite directions and in phase with each other so that the trick they produce appears to reflect across a vertical line of symmetry.[4]


Split Time, Same Direction (also referred to as Split Time[2] and abbreviated SS[3]): Props are spinning in the same direction and 180 degrees out of phase with each other so that the trick they produce appears to reflect along a line of symmetry that rotates from the center of the trick.[4]


Split Time, Opposite Direction (abbreviated SO[3]): Props are spinning in opposite directions and 180 degrees out of phase with each other so that the trick they produce appears to reflect across a horizontal line of symmetry.[4]


Cross country equestrian jumping is an endurance test that forms one of the three phases of the sport of eventing; it may also be a competition in its own right, known as hunter trials or simply "cross-country", although these tend to be lower level, local competitions.

The object of the endurance test is to prove the speed, endurance and jumping ability of the true cross-country horse when he is well trained and brought to the peak of condition. At the same time, it demonstrates the rider's knowledge of pace and the use of this horse across country.

Historically, the so-called 'long format' endurance test included four phases: Phases A and C, Roads and Tracks; Phase B, the Steeplechase; and Phase D, the Cross-Country. Each phase had to be completed in a set time. Phase A of the roads and tracks was a warming-up period, usually done at a brisk trot, for the purpose of relaxing and loosening up both horse and rider. Phase A led directly to the start for Phase B, the steeplechase. This phase was ridden at a strong gallop to achieve an average speed of 24 miles per hour with six to eight jumps. At the end of the steeplechase, the horse and rider went directly into Phase C, the second roads and tracks. This phase was very important for allowing the horse to relax and recover and to get his wind back to normal. The pace is usually a quiet trot, interspersed with periods of walking and an occasional relaxed canter. Some riders also dismounted and ran next to their horse during this section of the test.

The end of Phase C brought the pair to the ten-minute Vet Box prior to starting out on Phase D, the cross-country. Here the horse had a compulsory ten-minute rest allowing a panel of judges and veterinarians to check the horse's temperature, pulse, respiration and soundness. If, in the opinion of the panel, the horse was not fit or sound enough to continue, it was withdrawn from the competition. At this time the horse was sponged down, the tack adjusted and they were prepared for the next phase. Those passing the inspection went to the start box ready for the most exciting phase of the whole endurance test.

Disobediences from the horse[edit]

First refusal or crossing tracks (circling) in front of an obstacle: 20 penalties per obstacle

2nd refusal or crossed tracks at the same obstacle: 40 additional penalties

3rd refusal or crossed tracks at the same obstacle (an "obstacle" includes all its elements): elimination

4th cumulative refusal or crossed tracks on the entire course: elimination


The QUADRUPED was an NFL draft day competition held in April 1996 for the Jacksonville Jaguars. This competition format is older than all other disc dog competition formats other than the Ashley Whippet and the FDDO formats. Originally a halftime show for football games with four frisbee dog teams competing to be the last team standing. It turned into an open competition where many more than four teams were able to compete. Today we have The QUADRUPED Series, a group of competitions that are a points championship in the United States. The popularity has been so great within the frisbee dog world that it has spread to Europe where it has occurred in several countries.


In horse polo each team consists of four mounted players, which can be mixed teams of both men and women.


Each position assigned to a player has certain responsibilities:


Number One is the most offence-oriented position on the field. The Number One position generally covers the opposing team's Number Four.

Number Two has an important role in offence, either running through and scoring themselves, or passing to the Number One and getting in behind them. Defensively, they will cover the opposing team's Number Three, generally the other team's best player. Given the difficulty of this position, it is not uncommon for the best player on the team to play Number Two so long as another strong player is available to play Three.

Number Three is the tactical leader and must be a long powerful hitter to feed balls to Number Two and Number One as well as maintaining a solid defence. The best player on the team is usually the Number Three player, usually wielding the highest handicap.

Number Four is the primary defence player. They can move anywhere on the field, but they usually try to prevent scoring. The emphasis on defence by the Number Four allows the Number Three to attempt more offensive plays, since they know that they will be covered if they lose the ball.

Polo must be played right-handed

The sword and broadsword are among the four main weapons taught in the Chinese martial arts, the others being the staff and spear. The order in which these weapons is taught may vary between schools and styles, but the jian is generally taught last among the four.


The sword in ancient Egypt was known by several names, but most are variations of the words sfet, seft or nakhtui. The earliest bronze swords in the country date back 4000 years. Four types of sword are known to have been used: the ma or boomerang-sword based on the hunting stick, the kat or knife-sword, the khopesh or falchion based on the sickle, and a fourth form of straight longsword. The khopesh was used region-wide and is depicted as early as the Sixth Dynasty (3000 BC). It was thick-backed and weighted with bronze, sometimes even with gold hilts in the case of pharaohs. The blade may be edged on one or both sides, and was made from iron or blue steel. The double-edge sword had a leaf-shaped blade, and a handle which hollows away at the centre and thickens at each end. These swords are of various lengths, and were paired with shields. Middle Eastern swords became dominant throughout North Africa after the introduction of Islam, after which point swordsmanship in the region becomes that of Arabian or Middle Eastern fencing.

16 is the squares of the quadrant model. There are 16 techniques, four of which are very important (different the fourth quadrant)


Silambam is a weapon-based Indian martial art from Tamil Nadu, but also traditionally practised by the Tamil community of Sri Lanka and Malaysia. It is closely related to Keralan kalaripayat and Sri Lankan angampora. It derives from the Tamil word silam meaning "hill" and the Kannada word bambu from which the English "bamboo" originates. The term silambambu referred to a particular type of bamboo from the Kurinji hills in present-day Kerala. Thus silambam was named after its primary weapon, the bamboo staff. The related term silambattam often refers specifically to stick-fighting.

Beginners are first taught footwork (kaaladi) which they must master before learning spinning techniques and patterns, and methods to change the spins without stopping the motion of the stick. There are sixteen of them among which four are very important. Footwork patterns are the key aspects of silambam. Traditionally, the masters first teach kaaladi for a long time before proceeding to unarmed combat. Training empty-handed allows the practitioner to get a feel of silambam stick movements using their bare hands, that is, fighters have a preliminary training with bare hands before going to the stick.

16 is the number of squares in the quadrant model. There are four very important patterns in the techniques, reflecting the quadrant four.


I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

The following are principles that Lee incorporated into Jeet Kune Do.[6] Lee felt these were universal combat truths that were self-evident, and would lead to combat success if followed. Familiarity with each of the "Four ranges of combat", in particular, is thought to be instrumental in becoming a "total" martial artist.

Four ranges of combat





Jeet Kune Do students train in each of the aforementioned ranges equally. According to Lee, this range of training serves to differentiate JKD from other martial arts. Lee stated that most but not all traditional martial arts systems specialize in training at one or two ranges. Lee's theories have been especially influential and substantiated in the field of mixed martial arts, as the MMA Phases of Combat are essentially the same concept as the JKD combat ranges. As a historic note, the ranges in JKD have evolved over time. Initially the ranges were categorized as short or close, medium, and long range.[3] These terms proved ambiguous and eventually evolved into their more descriptive forms, although some may still prefer the original three categories.

Savate (French pronunciation: [saˈvat]), also known as boxe française, French boxing, French kickboxing or French footfighting, is a French martial art which uses the hands and feet as weapons combining elements of western boxing with graceful kicking techniques.
In competitive or competition savate which includes Assaut, Pre-Combat, and Combat types, there are only four kinds of kicks allowed along with four kinds of punches allowed:
fouetté (literally "whip", roundhouse kick making contact with the toe—hard rubber-toed shoes are worn in practice and bouts), high (figure), medium (médian) or low (bas)
chassé (side ("chassé lateral") or front ("chassé frontal") piston-action kick, high (figure), medium (médian) or low (bas)
revers, frontal or lateral ("reverse" or hooking kick) making contact with the sole of the shoe, high (figure), medium (médian), or low (bas)
coup de pied bas ("low kick", a front or sweep kick to the shin making contact with the inner edge of the shoe, performed with a characteristic backwards lean) low only[15][16]
direct bras avant (jab, lead hand)
direct bras arrière (cross, rear hand)
crochet (hook, bent arm with either hand)
uppercut (either hand)
Savate did not begin as a sport, but as a form of self-defence and fought on the streets of Paris and Marseille. This type of savate was known as savate de rue. In addition to kicks and punches, training in savate de rue (savate defense) includes knee and elbow strikes along with locks, sweeps, throws, headbutts, and takedowns.[17][18][19][20]


Jūnshì Sǎndǎ (Mandarin Chinese, Military Free Fighting): A system of unarmed combat that was designed by Chinese Elite Forces based upon their intense study of traditional martial arts such as traditional Kung Fu, Shuai Jiao, Chin Na and modern hand-to-hand fighting and combat philosophy to develop a realistic system of unarmed fighting for the Chinese military. Jùnshì Sǎndǎ employs all parts of the body as anatomical weapons to attack and counter with, by using what the Chinese consider to be the four basic martial arts techniques:

Da – Upper-Body Striking – using fists, open hands, fingers, elbows, shoulders, forearms and the head

Ti – Lower-Body Striking – including kicks, knees and stomping

Shuai – Throws – using Wrestling and Judo-like takedowns and sweeps, and

Chin-Na – Seizing – which includes jointlocks, strangulation and other submissions



Pradal Serey (Khmer: ប្រដាល់សេរី) or Kun Khmer (Khmer: គុណខ្មែរ) is an unarmed martial art and combat sport from Cambodia.[1] In Khmer, pradal means fighting or boxing and serey means free. Thus, pradal serey may be translated as "free fighting". The sport consists of stand up striking and clinch fighting where the objective is to knock an opponent out, force a technical knockout, or win a match by points.

Pradal Serey is most well known for its kicking technique, which generates power from hip rotation rather than snapping the leg, Pradal Serey consists of four types of strikes: punches, kicks, elbows and knee strikes.


Capoeira (/ˌkæpuːˈɛərə/; Portuguese pronunciation: [kapuˈejɾɐ]) is a Brazilian martial art that combines elements of dance,[1][2][3] acrobatics[4] and music, and is sometimes referred to as a game.

There are four basic kinds of songs in capoeira, the Ladaínha, Chula, Corrido and Quadra. The Ladaínha is a narrative solo sung only at the beginning of a roda, often by a mestre (master) or most respected capoeirista present. The solo is followed by a louvação, a call and response pattern that usually thanks God and one's master, among other things. Each call is usually repeated word-for-word by the responders. The Chula is a song where the singer part is much bigger than the chorus response, usually eight singer verses for one chorus response, but the proportion may vary. The Corrido is a song where the singer part and the chorus response are equal, normally two verses by two responses. Finally, the Quadra is a song where the same verse is repeated four times, either three singer verses followed by one chorus response, or one verse and one response.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.


Flatland BMX occupies a position somewhat removed from the rest of freestyle BMX. People who ride in the above disciplines will generally take part in at least one of the others, but flatlanders tend to only ride flatland. They are often very dedicated and will spend several hours a day perfecting their technique.

A variety of options are commonly found on flatland bikes. The most unifying feature of flatland bikes is the use of four pegs, one on the end of each wheel axle. Flatland riders will choose to run either a front brake, a rear brake, both brakes, or no brakes at all, depending on stylistic preference.


Fourcross is a form of four-wheeled downhill mountain biking, pioneered in Canada and the United States. It has the benefit of being suitable for disabled riders. The sport each year is part of the Crankworx festival

Four-cross (4X), also called mountain-cross, not to be confused with fourcross, is a relatively new style of mountain bike racing where four bikers race downhill on a prepared, BMX like, track, simply trying to get down first. These bikes are generally either full suspension with 3 to 4 inches of travel, or hardtails, and typically have relatively strong frames. They run a chainguide on front and gears on the back. They have slack head angles, short chainstays and low bottom brackets for good cornering and acceleration. In recent years the tracks raced on have been rougher and less like those used in BMX.

The current world champion is Joost Wichman.

Four-cross was added to the UCI Mountain Bike World Cup and the UCI Mountain Bike & Trials World Championships in 2002, replacing dual slalom. It was removed from the World Cup following the 2011 series. A replacement world series, the 4X Pro Tour, was launched in 2012.


The "Core Four" are the former New York Yankees baseball players Derek Jeter, Andy Pettitte, Jorge Posada, and Mariano Rivera. All four players were drafted or originally signed as amateurs by the Yankees in the early 1990s. They played together in the minor leagues, and made their Yankee major league debuts in 1995. Each of them was a key contributor to the Yankees' late-1990s dynasty that won four World Series championships in five years. By 2007, they were the only remaining Yankees from the franchise's dynasty of the previous decade. All four players were on the Yankees' active roster in 2009 when the team won the 2009 World Series—its fifth championship in the previous 14 years.

Three members of the Core Four—Jeter, Rivera and Posada—played together for 17 consecutive years (1995–2011), longer than any other similar group in North American professional sports.[1] Pettitte had a sojourn away from the team when he played for the Houston Astros for three seasons, before returning to the Yankees in 2007. He retired after the 2010 season,[2] reducing the group to the so-called Key Three.[3] Posada followed suit after 2011, ending his 17-year career with the Yankees.[4] Pettitte came out of retirement prior to the 2012 season and played for two more years.[5] Both Pettitte and Rivera retired after the 2013 season, and Jeter retired after the 2014 season.[6]

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

Normally pool has 16 balls. 16 is the squares of the quadrant model.
Four-ball billiards (often abbreviated to simply four-ball, and sometimes spelled 4-ball or fourball) is a carom billiards game, played on a pocketless table with four billiard balls, usually two red and two white, one of the latter with a spot to distinguish it (in some sets, one of the white balls is yellow instead of spotted). Each player is assigned one of the white (or yellow) balls as a cue ball. A point is scored when a shooter's cue ball caroms on any two other balls in the same shot (with the opponent's cue ball serving as an object ball, along with the reds, for the shooter). Two points are scored when the shooter caroms on each of the three object balls in a single shot.[1] A carom on only one ball results in no points, and ends the shooter's inning.
A variant of four-ball is the East Asian game yotsudama (四つ球?, Japanese for 'four balls'), or sagu (사구, Korean for 'four balls').

Basic Seat An astride position (the vaulter sits on the horse as a rider would), with the arms held to the side and the hands raised to ear level. Hands should be held with closed fingers and palms facing downward, with the fingers arching slightly upward. Legs are wrapped around the horse's barrel, soles facing rearward, with toes down and feet arched. Vaulter holds this position for four full strides.
Flag From the astride position, the vaulter hops to his or her knees and extends the right leg straight out behind, holding it slightly above his or her head so the leg is parallel to the horse's spine. The other leg should have pressure distributed through the shin and foot, most weight should be on the back of the ankle, to avoid digging the knee into the horse's back. The left arm is then stretched straight forward, at a height nearly that of the right leg. The hand should be held as it is in basic seat (palm down, fingers together). The right foot should be arched and the sole should face skyward. This movement should be held for four full strides after the arm and leg are raised.
Mill From the astride position, the vaulter brings the right leg over the horse's neck. The grips must be ungrasped and retaken as the leg is brought over. The left leg is then brought in a full arc over the croup, again with a change of grips, before the right leg follows it, and the left leg moves over the neck to complete the full turn of the vaulter. The vaulter performs each leg movement in four strides each, completing the Mill movement in sixteen full strides. During the leg passes, the legs should be held perfectly straight, with the toes pointed. When the legs are on the same side of the horse, they should be pressed together.
Stand The vaulter moves from the astride position onto the shins and immediately onto both feet, and releases the grips. The vaulter then straightens up with both knees bent, the buttocks tucked forward, and the hands held as they are in basic seat. The vaulter must hold the position for four full strides. [1


Short track racing, the grassroots of NASCAR, began experimenting with ideas to help the entry-level racer. In 2001, the United Speed Alliance Racing organization, sanctioning body of the USAR Hooters Pro Cup Series, a short-track stock car touring series, devised a five-race system where the top teams in their Hooters ProCup North and Hooters ProCup South divisions would participate in a five-race playoff, the Four Champions, named for the four Hooters Racing staff members (including 1992 NASCAR Winston Cup Series champion and pilot Alan Kulwicki) killed in an April 1, 1993 plane crash in Blountville, Tennessee. The system organized the teams with starting points based on the team's performance in their division (division champions earn a bonus), and the teams would participate in a five-race playoff. The five races, added to the team's seeding points, would determine the winner. The 2001 version was four races, as one was canceled because of the September 11 terrorist attacks; however, NASCAR watched as the ProCup's Four Champions became a success and drivers from the series began looking at NASCAR rides. The idea was to give NASCAR, which was becoming in many areas the fourth-largest sport (after Major League Baseball, the NFL, the NBA and surpassing in some regions the NHL) attention during baseball's road to the World Series and the outset of the pro and college football, NHL and NBA seasons.

16 is the squares of the quadrant model


The playoffs system was announced on January 21, 2004 as the "Chase for the Championship", and first used during the 2004 Nextel Cup season. The format used from 2004 to 2006 was modified slightly starting with the 2007 season. A major change to the qualifying criteria was instituted in 2011, along with a major change to the points system. Even more radical changes to the qualifying criteria, and to the format of the playoffs itself, were announced for the upcoming 2014 Sprint Cup Series. As of 2014, the 10-race playoff format involves 16 drivers chosen primarily on wins during the "regular season"; if fewer than 16 drivers win races during the regular season, the remaining field is filled on the basis of regular season points. These drivers compete against each other while racing in the standard field of 40 cars. The driver with the most points after the final 10 races is declared the champion.


On January 30, 2014, a new Chase system resembling the playoff systems used in other major league sports was announced at Media Day.[8] On July 15, NASCAR announced various design changes to identify Chase drivers in the field: on these drivers, their cars' roof numbers, front splitters and fascia, and the windshield header are colored yellow, and the Chase logo on the front quarter panel.[9]


Under the new system, the Chase field is expanded to 16 drivers for the 10-race Chase. The 16 drivers are chosen primarily on wins during the "regular season"; if fewer than 16 drivers win races during the regular season, the remaining field is filled on the basis of regular season points. These drivers compete against each other while racing in the standard field of 43 cars. The driver with the most points after the final 10 races is declared the champion.


The new playoff system means that drivers are eliminated from title contention as the Chase progresses. The bottom four of the top-16 drivers are eliminated from title contention after the third race (Dover) in what was called the "Challenger Round", reducing the size of the field by 25%. The bottom four winless drivers have their points reset based on the standard points system, while the remaining 12 Chase drivers' points are reset to 3,000 points. The new bottom four are eliminated after the sixth Chase race (Talladega) in the "Contender Round", reducing the size of the field another 33%. Those who continue have their points all reset to 4,000. Then the "Eliminator Round" involves axing 50% of the Chase grid, cutting the drivers 5th-8th in the points after the penultimate race at Phoenix, and the top four drivers have their point totals reset to 5,000 so that they are tied for the final race at Homestead-Miami for the title run. Of these four drivers, the driver with the best finish at Homestead is then the crowned series champion (these drivers do not earn bonus points for leading a lap or leading the most laps).[10] Any Chase driver who wins a race is automatically guaranteed a spot in the next round. Up to three drivers thus can advance to the next round of the Chase through race wins, regardless of their actual points position when the elimination race in that round happens. The remaining drivers advance on points. The round names were removed starting in 2016, being changed to "Round of 16", "Round of 12", "Round of 8", and "Championship Round".[11]


The previous championship format will be maintained for the 2017 season, but with changes. A revised regular-season points system will be adopted, splitting races into three stages. The top 10 drivers at the end of the first two stages each race will earn additional bonus points towards the championship, 10 points for the first place car down to 1 point for the 10th place car. At the end of the race, the normal championship point scheme will be used to award points to the entire field. Additionally, "playoff points" will be awarded during the regular season for winning stages, winning races, and finishing the regular season in the top 16 on the championship points standings. 1 playoff point for the winner of a stage, 5 playoff points plus an automatic birth into the round of 16 for the race winner. (unless there are more than 16 race winners in the season, then the top 16 in race wins move on). If a driver qualifies for the championship, these playoff points will be carried into their reset points totals until the final round. [12][13][14] So a driver can have less regular season points than another driver, but be seeded higher due to more wins.


NASCAR also stated that it intended to drop the "Chase" branding for the post-season and re-brand them as the "Playoffs" for 2017.[14]


The Kevin Harvick Rule – Fifth Place[edit]

The idea of NASCAR driver Kevin Harvick, drivers eliminated in each of the three rounds will be eligible to race for fifth place during the final races. Drivers eliminated in the first round will retain their Chase score (for example, a driver with one win during the season eliminated after scoring 75 points during the first round will score 2,078 points) and start the fourth race the same score after the first three races, and will accumulate points for the remainder of the season.[15]


Drivers eliminated in the second or third round will have their score reverted to the score at the end of the first round, then their individual race scores for the three (eliminated in the second round) or six races (eliminated in the third round), respectively, before their eliminiation will be combined with the score after the third race of the first round for the driver's total score.


After ten races, the drivers positions 5–16 will be determined by the total number of points accumulated in the ten races (bonus points will apply), without the points resets of the second or third rounds, added to the driver's base Chase score with bonuses added.

A restrictor plate or air restrictor is a device installed at the intake of an engine to limit its power. This kind of system is occasionally used in road vehicles (e.g., motorcycles) for insurance purposes, but mainly in automobile racing, to limit top speed to provide equal level of competition, and to lower costs; insurance purposes have also factored in for motorsports.


To become an eligible FIA Formula 4 engine, the engine must meet the homologation requirements. According to the homologation requirements a FIA Formula 4 engine must last at least 10,000 km and have a maximum purchasing price of €9,500.[3] According to the FIA Formula 4 technical regulations only four cylinder engines are allowed. Both normally aspirated and turbocharged engines are permitted. The power output has been maximized at 160hp. The engine displacement is unlimited.[4] Currently four engines are homologated for use in the FIA Formula 4.[5]


The Daytona 500 is a 500-mile-long (805 km) Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series motor race held annually at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. It is the first of two Cup races held every year at Daytona, the second being the Coke Zero 400. It is one of the four restrictor plate races on the Cup schedule. The inaugural Daytona 500 was held in 1959 coinciding with the opening of the speedway and since 1982, it has been the season-opening race of the Cup series.[1]

16 squares quadrant model

New Chase format[edit]

On January 30, 2014, NASCAR announced radical changes to the format for the season-ending Chase for the Sprint Cup.[64]


The group of drivers in the Chase will now officially be called the NASCAR Sprint Cup Chase Grid.

The number of drivers qualifying for the Chase Grid will expand from 12 to 16.

Fifteen of the 16 slots in the Chase Grid are reserved for the drivers with the most race wins over the first 26 races, provided that said drivers are in the top 30 in series points and have attempted to qualify for each race (with rare exceptions). The remaining spot is reserved for the points leader after 26 races, if that driver does not have a victory. If fewer than 16 drivers have wins in the first 26 races, the remaining Chase Grid spots are filled by winless drivers in order of season points. As in the recent past, all drivers on the Chase Grid have their driver points reset to 2,000 prior to the Chase, with a 3-point bonus for each win in the first 26 races.

The Chase will be divided into four rounds. After each of the first three rounds, the four Chase Grid drivers with the fewest season points are eliminated from the Grid and championship contention. Any driver on the Chase Grid who wins a race in the first three rounds automatically advances to the next round. Also, all drivers eliminated from the Chase have their points readjusted to the regular-season points scheme.

Challenger Round (races 27–29)

Begins with 16 drivers, each with 2,000 points plus a 3-point bonus for each win in the first 26 races.

Contender Round (races 30–32)

Begins with 12 drivers, each with 3,000 points.

Eliminator Round (races 33–35)

Begins with eight drivers, each with 4,000 points.

NASCAR Sprint Cup Championship (final race)

The last four drivers in contention for the season title start the race at 5,000 points, with the highest finisher in the race winning the Cup Series title.


A typical oval track consists of two parallel straights, connected by two 180° turns. Although most ovals generally have only two radii curves, they are usually advertised and labeled as four 90° turns.


Rounded-off rectangle or square One prominent, but now uncommon shape is the "rounded-off rectangle". Pursuant to its name, the track shape resembles a rectangle, with two long straights and two short straights, connected by four separate turns. The primary characteristic of a rounded-off rectangle that differentiates it from a traditional oval shape, is the presence of two "short chutes", one between turns one and two, and one between turns three and four. While most traditional ovals have two continuous 180° radii (advertised as four 90° turns), this shape actually has four distinct 90° curves. When it was first constructed, the Homestead-Miami Speedway was designed to this layout and touted as a "mini-Indy." However, at only 1.5 miles (one mile shorter than Indy), the track proved to be uncompetitive, owing largely to the sharp corners, and was soon reconfigured as a traditional oval. Indianapolis remains as the only major track to this specification. Tracks of this shape have been avoided due to grandstand sight line issues, slow corners, and dangerous impact angles. However, numerous private manufacturers' test tracks use this type of layout. The only major short track with a rectangular layout has the shape of a rounded-off square with four nearly identical straights and turns.

Flemington Speedway, a square

Indianapolis Motor Speedway



Homestead (original design)

Rounded-off trapezoid A very rare layout is a trapezoid oval course. The difference to rounded-off rectangle is the shorter back straight and longer front straight. So, the Turns 1 und 4 are tighter than the Turns 2 and 3. 

Emerson Fittipaldi Speedway
Rockingham Motor Speedway


Dogleg Some oval tracks have minor variations, such as kinks or doglegs. A "dogleg" is a defined as a soft curve down one of the straights, either inward or outward, which skews the oval into a non-symmetric or non-traditional shape. While the extra curve would seemingly give the oval five turns, the dogleg is normally omitted from identification, and the ovals are still labeled with four turns.

Nazareth Speedway


Phoenix International Raceway


I-70 Speedway


The classical four-vertex theorem states that the curvature function of a simple, closed, smooth plane curve has at least four local extrema (specifically, at least two local maxima and at least two local minima). The name of the theorem derives from the convention of calling an extreme point of the curvature function a vertex. This theorem has many generalizations, including a version for space curves where a vertex is defined as a point of vanishing torsion.


Contents [hide]

1 Examples

2 History

3 Proof

4 Converse

5 Application to mechanics

6 Discrete variations

7 Generalizations to space curve

8 See also

9 References

10 External links


An ellipse has exactly four vertices: two local maxima of curvature where it is crossed by the major axis of the ellipse, and two local minima of curvature where it is crossed by the minor axis. In a circle, every point is both a local maximum and a local minimum of curvature, so there are infinitely many vertices.



The four-vertex theorem was first proved for convex curves (i.e. curves with strictly positive curvature) in 1909 by Syamadas Mukhopadhyaya.[1] His proof utilizes the fact that a point on the curve is an extremum of the curvature function if and only if the osculating circle at that point has 4th-order contact with the curve (in general the osculating circle has only 3rd-order contact with the curve). The four-vertex theorem was proved in general by Adolf Kneser in 1912 using a projective argument.[2]



For many years the proof of the four-vertex theorem remained difficult, but a simple and conceptual proof was given by Osserman (1985), based on the idea of the minimum enclosing circle.[3] This is a circle that contains the given curve and has the smallest possible radius. If the curve includes an arc of the circle, it has infinitely many vertices. Otherwise, the curve and circle must be tangent at at least two points. At each tangency, the curvature of the curve is greater than that of the circle (else the curve would continue from the tangency outside the circle rather than inside). However, between each pair of tangencies, the curvature must decrease to less than that of the circle, for instance at a point obtained by translating the circle until it no longer contains any part of the curve between the two points of tangency and considering the last point of contact between the translated circle and the curve. Therefore, there is a local minimum of curvature between each pair of tangencies, giving two of the four vertices. There must be a local maximum of curvature between each pair of local minima, giving the other two vertices.[3][4]



The converse to the four-vertex theorem states that any continuous, real-valued function of the circle that has at least two local maxima and two local minima is the curvature function of a simple, closed plane curve. The converse was proved for strictly positive functions in 1971 by Herman Gluck as a special case of a general theorem on pre-assigning the curvature of n-spheres.[5] The full converse to the four-vertex theorem was proved by Björn Dahlberg shortly before his death in January 1998, and published posthumously.[6] Dahlberg's proof uses a winding number argument which is in some ways reminiscent of the standard topological proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra.[7]


Application to mechanics[edit]

One corollary of the theorem is that a homogeneous, planar disk rolling on a horizontal surface under gravity has at least 4 balance points. A discrete version of this is that there cannot be a monostatic polygon. However, in three dimensions there do exist monostatic polyhedra, and there also exists a convex, homogeneous object with exactly 2 balance points (one stable, and the other unstable), the Gömböc.



illustration of the Four-vertex theorem at an ellipse

Discrete variations[edit]

There are several discrete versions of the four-vertex theorem, both for convex and non-convex polygons.[8] Here are some of them:


(Bilinski) The sequence of angles of a convex equilateral polygon has at least four extrema.

The sequence of side lengths of a convex equiangular polygon has at least four extrema.

(Musin) A circle circumscribed around three consecutive vertices of the polygon is called extremal if it contains all remaining vertices of the polygon, or has none of them in its interior. A convex polygon is generic if it has no four vertices on the same circle. Then every generic convex polygon has at least four extremal circles.

(Legendre–Cauchy) Two convex n-gons with equal corresponding side length have either zero or at least 4 sign changes in the cyclic sequence of the corresponding angle differences.

(A.D. Alexandrov) Two convex n-gons with parallel corresponding sides and equal area have either zero or at least 4 sign changes in the cyclic sequence of the corresponding side lengths differences.

Some of these variations are stronger than the other, and all of them imply the (usual) four-vertex theorem by a limit argument.


Generalizations to space curve[edit]

The stereographic projection from the sphere to the plane preserves critical points of geodesic curvature. Thus simple closed spherical curves have four vertices. Furthermore, on the sphere vertices of a curve correspond to points where its torsion vanishes. So for space curves a vertex is defined as a point of vanishing torsion. In 1994 V. D. Sedykh [9] showed that every simple closed space curve which lies on the boundary of a convex body has four vertices. In 2015 Mohammad Ghomi [10] generalized Sedykh's theorem to all curves which bound a locally convex disk.

Quad oval


Texas Motor Speedway is a speedway located in the northernmost portion of the U.S. city of Fort Worth, Texas – the portion located in Denton County, Texas. The track measures 1.5 miles (2.4 km) around and is banked 20° in turns 1 and 2 and banked 24° in turns 3 and 4. Texas Motor Speedway is a quad-oval design, where the front straightaway juts outward slightly. The track layout is similar to Atlanta Motor Speedway and Charlotte Motor Speedway (formerly Lowe's Motor Speedway). The track is owned by Speedway Motorsports, Inc., the same company that owns Atlanta and Charlotte Motor Speedways, as well as the short-track Bristol Motor Speedway.

Quad oval


Charlotte Motor Speedway, formerly Lowe's Motor Speedway, is a motorsports complex located in Concord, North Carolina 13 miles (21 km) from Charlotte. The complex features a 1.5 mile (2.4 km) quad oval track that hosts NASCAR racing including the prestigious Coca-Cola 600 on Memorial Day weekend, the NASCAR All-Star Race, and the Bank of America 500. The speedway was built in 1959 by Bruton Smith and is considered the home track for NASCAR with many race teams located in the Charlotte area. The track is owned and operated by Speedway Motorsports, Inc. (SMI) with Marcus G. Smith (son of Bruton Smith) as track president.


The 2,000 acres (810 ha) complex also features a state-of-the-art quarter mile (0.40 km) drag racing strip, ZMAX Dragway. It is the only all-concrete, four-lane drag strip in the United States and hosts NHRA events. Alongside the drag strip is a state-of-the-art clay oval that hosts dirt racing including the World of Outlaws finals among other popular racing events.

Quad oval

The Thunderdome is a purpose-built 1.8 km (1.1 mi) quad-oval speedway located on the grounds of Calder Park Raceway. It was originally known as the Goodyear Thunderdome to reflect the naming rights sponsorship bought by the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company.


With its "double dogleg" front stretch and the start/finish line located on a straight section rather than the apex of a curve, the Thunderdome is technically a quad-oval in shape, though since its opening it has generally been referred to as a tri-oval. The track, modelled on a scaled down version of the famous Charlotte Motor Speedway, has 24° banking on Turns 1, 2, 3 and 4 while the front stretch is banked at 4° and the back straight at 6°.


Calder Park Raceway is a motor racing circuit in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. The complex includes a dragstrip, a road circuit with several possible configurations, and the "Thunderdome", a high-speed banked oval equipped to race either clockwise (for right-hand-drive cars) or counter-clockwise (for left-hand-drive cars such as NASCAR).

Four turn


Twin Ring Motegi (ツインリンクもてぎ Tsuin Rinku Motegi?) is a motorsport race track located at Motegi, Japan. Its name comes from the facility having two race tracks: a 2.493-kilometer (1.549 mi) oval and a 4.8-kilometer (2.98 mi) road course. It was built in 1997 by Honda, as part of the company's effort to bring the IndyCar Series to Japan, helping to increase their knowledge of American open-wheel racing.

The oval course is the only one of its kind in Japan, and currently is only used once a year for racing. It is a low-banked, 1.549-mile-long egg-shaped course, with turns three and four being much tighter than turns one and two. On March 28, 1998, CART held the inaugural race at Twin Ring Motegi Speedway. The race was won by Mexican driver Adrian Fernandez. CART continued racing at Twin Ring Motegi Speedway from 1998–2002. In 2003, Honda entered the Indy Racing League and the race became a part of the IRL schedule. In addition to Indycar racing, the track has also hosted a single NASCAR exhibition race in 1998.


Darlington Raceway is a race track built for NASCAR racing located near Darlington, South Carolina. It is nicknamed "The Lady in Black" and "The Track Too Tough to Tame" by many NASCAR fans and drivers and advertised as "A NASCAR Tradition." It is of a unique, somewhat egg-shaped design, an oval with the ends of very different configurations, a condition which supposedly arose from the proximity of one end of the track to a minnow pond the owner refused to relocate. This situation makes it very challenging for the crews to set up their cars' handling in a way that will be effective at both ends.


Turns 4

Banking Turns 1 and 2: 25°

Turns 3 and 4: 23°

Front Straight: 3°

Back Straight: 2°

Four turn dogleg

Phoenix Raceway (PIR) is a 1 mile, low-banked tri-oval race track located in Avondale, Arizona. It is named after the nearby metropolitan area of Phoenix. The motorsport track opened in 1964 and currently hosts two NASCAR race weekends annually. Phoenix Raceway has also hosted the IndyCar Series, CART, USAC and the Rolex Sports Car Series. The raceway is currently owned and operated by International Speedway Corporation.

Phoenix Raceway was built in 1964 around the Estrella Mountains on the outskirts of Avondale, Arizona. Because of the terrain and the incorporation of a road course and drag strip, designers had to build a "dogleg" into the backstretch. The original roadcourse was 2 miles (3.2 km) in length and ran both inside and outside of the main oval track.[3] The hillsides adjacent to the track also offer a unique vantage point to watch races from. "Monument Hill", located alongside turns 3 and 4, is a favorite among race fans because of the unique view and lower ticket prices. At the top of this hill lies a USGS bench marker known as Gila and Salt River Meridian, now listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Long before Phoenix Raceway existed, this spot was the original land survey point for all of what later became the state of Arizona.[4]

Turns 4
Banking Turns 1 & 2: 10–11°
Dogleg: 10–11°
Turn 3: 8°
Turn 4: 8–9°
Backstretch: 10°, 8°
Frontstretch: 3°

In November 2010, ISC and the Avondale City Council announced plans for a $100 million long-term development for hoenix Raceway. $15 million would go towards repaving the track for the first time since 1990 and building a new media center. The plans also include a reconfiguration of the track.[6] The front stretch was widened from 52 feet to 62 feet (19 m), the pit stalls were changed from asphalt to concrete, the dogleg (between Turn 2 and Turn 3) was moved outward by 95 feet (29 m), tightening the turn radius of the dogleg from 800 feet to 500 feet (152 m). Along with the other changes, progressive banking was added to the turns: Turns 1 and 2, which had 11 degrees of banking, changed to 10 degrees on the bottom and 11 degrees on the top. Turns 3 and 4, which had 9 degrees of banking, changed to 8 degrees on the bottom and 9 on the top. Project leader Bill Braniff, Senior Director of Construction for North American Testing Corporation (NATC), a subsidiary of hoenix Raceway’s parent company International Speedway Corporation, said "All of the changes – including the adjustment of the dog-leg – will be put in place in order to present additional opportunities for drivers to race side-by-side. We’re very confident that we’ll have multi-groove racing at Phoenix from Day 1 because of the variable banking that will be implemented.”[7][8] The infield road course was also sealed off and removed from use, making Phoenix Raceway an oval-only facility.[9] The reconfiguration project was completed by mid-August 2011, and on August 29–30, five drivers tested the new track, describing the new dogleg and backstretch as a "rollercoaster" as now when they enter it dips, then rises on exit and dips down going into turn 3, due to the elevation changes. On October 4–5, several NASCAR Cup Series teams tested the oval which was open to the public. Seven–eight million dollars went towards connecting the track property to the Avondale water and sewer systems. Work began following the 2011 Subway Fresh Fit 500.[6]

Kidney bean shape four turn
Trenton Speedway was a racing facility located near Trenton, New Jersey at the New Jersey State Fairgrounds. Races for the United States' premier open-wheel and full-bodied racing series of the times were held at Trenton Speedway.

The first race at the Fairgrounds was held on September 24, 1900, but there was no further racing there until 1907. Regular racing began in 1912 and continued until 1941. A new 1 mile dirt oval was opened in 1946. In 1957 the track was paved. It operated in that configuration until 1968 when the track was expanded to 1.5 miles (2.41 km) and a "kidney bean" shape with a 20° right-hand dogleg on the back stretch and a wider turn 3 & 4 complex than turns 1 & 2. The track closed in 1980 and the Fairgrounds itself closed 3 years later. The former site of the speedway is now occupied by the Grounds for Sculpture, a UPS shipping facility, and the housing development known as "Hamilton Lakes".[1]

Turns 1 & 2: 10°
Dogleg: 4°
Turns 3 & 4: 15°


Four turns


The Bristol Motor Speedway, formerly known as Bristol International Raceway and Bristol Raceway, is a NASCAR short track venue located in Bristol, Tennessee. Constructed in 1960, it held its first NASCAR race on July 30, 1961. Despite its short length, Bristol is among the most popular tracks on the NASCAR schedule because of its distinct features, which include extraordinarily steep banking, an all concrete surface, two pit roads, and stadium-like seating. It has also been named one of the loudest NASCAR tracks.[2]


Another anomaly is that the short overall length means that there are two sets of pits, which also prevents a garage from being built due to limited space. Until 2002, slower starters were relegated to those on the backstretch. That year, the rules were changed to form essentially one long pit road. Thus, Bristol has unique rules about pit road — during caution, drivers who are wanting to pit must enter pit road in turn 2, drive all the way down the back stretch through the apron of turns 3 and 4 and down the front stretch, exiting pit road in turn 1. This rule eliminated the inherent disadvantage of pitting on the back stretch. During green flag pit stops, cars with pit stalls on the back stretch enter the pits in turn 2 and exit in turn 3; those with pits on the front stretch enter in turn 4 and exit in turn 1. Since the new pit rules were instituted, several drivers (most notably Jeff Gordon)[5] have made major mistakes during green flag pit stops by driving through both pit roads when only one is necessary for green flag pit stops.


Turns 4

Banking Turns: 26–30°

Straights: 6–10°

Lap record 0:12.742 (Brian Gerster, , 2011, Must See Racing X-treme Speed Classic)

Temporary Dirt Oval

Surface Clay

Length 0.533 mi (0.858 km)

Turns 4

Banking Turns: 22–24°

Straights: 9°

Lap record 0:13.86 (Sammy Swindell, Swindell Motorsports, 2000, World of Outlaws Sprint Car Series)


Four turns


Fairgrounds Speedway is an independent racetrack located at the Tennessee State Fairgrounds near downtown Nashville, Tennessee. The track is the second oldest continually operating track in the United States.[1] The track held NASCAR Grand National/Winston Cup (now Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series) races from 1958 to 1984.


Turns 4


Turns: 18°

Straights: 3°

Four turns


Lucas Oil Raceway (formerly Indianapolis Raceway Park and O'Reilly Raceway Park at Indianapolis) is a drag racing track. The complex in Brownsburg, Indiana, also has a 0.686-mile (1.104 km) oval, 2.5-mile (4.0 km) road course. The 4,400-foot (1,300 m) drag strip is among the main drag racing venues in the world.


Turns 4

Banking 12°

Lap record 0:19.581 (Mark Smith, Ralt of America, 1989, Formula Super Vee[1])ódromo_Miguel_E._Abed

Oval has four turns


Autódromo Miguel E. Abed

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Autódromo Internacional Miguel E. Abed

Miguel E. Abed logo.png

Location Amozoc, near Puebla, Mexico

Time zone UTC-6

Major events WTCC

NASCAR Corona Series

LATAM Challenge Series

24 Hours of Mexico

Jetta TDI Cup USA

Mexican Super Turismo Championship

Road course

Length 3.363 km (2.090 mi)

Turns 18


Length 2.01 km (1.25 mi)

Turns 4

The Autódromo Internacional Miguel E. Abed is a racing track located in the town of Amozoc, 30 kilometres (18.64 mi) east of the city of Puebla in the Mexican state of the same name.


The first NASCAR sanctioned event was held on July 4, 1948. In 1951, only 4 cars were running at the finish, the fewest of any race held at the speedway. In 1960, Richard Petty became the youngest winner at Martinsville, at 22 years, 283 days; to date Petty has the most wins (15). In 1991, Harry Gant became the oldest winner at 51 years, 255 days. It was Gant's fourth win in a row, earning him the nickname Mr. September.

The oldest nascar race track had four turns

Martinsville Speedway is an International Speedway Corporation-owned NASCAR stock car racing track located in Henry County, in Ridgeway, Virginia, just to the south of Martinsville. At 0.526 miles (847 m) in length, it is the shortest track in the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series. The track was also one of the first paved oval tracks in NASCAR, being built in 1947 by H. Clay Earles. It is also the only race track that has been on the NASCAR circuit from its beginning in 1948. Along with this, Martinsville is the only NASCAR oval track on the entire NASCAR track circuit to have asphalt surfaces on the straightaways, then concrete to cover the turns.


The track is often referred to as paper clip-shaped and is banked only 12° in the turns. The combination of long straightaways and flat, narrow turns makes hard braking going into turns and smooth acceleration exiting turns a must. The track was paved in 1955 and in 1956 it hosted its first 500 lap event. By the 1970s, a combination of high-traction slick tires and high speed were putting excessive wear on the asphalt surface. In 1976 the turns were repaved with concrete (a rare concept in the 1970s).[2] By 2004, the then 28-year-old concrete had shown significant wear. On April 18, 2004 a large chunk of concrete had become dislodged from the track's surface and caused severe damage to the body of Jeff Gordon's car. In reaction to this, the track was fully repaved with new concrete and asphalt.[3]


Until 1999, Martinsville was notorious for having two pit roads. The backstretch pit road was generally avoided because if a team had to pit there during a caution, any car pitting on the frontstretch had the advantage of pitting first and not having to adhere to pace car speed upon exiting their pit road. This was rectified when pit road was reconfigured to extend from the entrance of turn 3 to the exit of turn 2.[4] This move allowed for a garage to be built inside the track, and leaves Bristol as the only active NASCAR track with two pit roads.


Turns 4

Banking Turns 12°

Straights 0°

Lap record 18.746 seconds (Greg Sacks, , 1986, NASCAR Whelen Modified Tour)


Four turns


Dover International Speedway (formerly Dover Downs International Speedway) is a race track in Dover, Delaware, United States. Since opening in 1969, it has held at least two NASCAR races. In addition to NASCAR, the track also hosted USAC[4] and the Verizon IndyCar Series. The track features one layout, a 1 mile (1.6 km) concrete oval, with 24° banking in the turns and 9° banking on the straights. The speedway is owned and operated by Dover Motorsports.


Turns 4

Banking Turns: 24°

Straights: 9°[3]

Four turn oval started as- became paperclip


Homestead-Miami Speedway is a motor racing track located in Homestead, Florida. The track, which has several configurations, has promoted several series of racing, including NASCAR, the Verizon IndyCar Series, the Grand-Am Rolex Sports Car Series, and the Championship Cup Series.


The track opened as a four-turn, rectangular-oval, based on the Indianapolis Motor Speedway's layout, coincidental considering that circuit and Miami Beach were developed by Carl G. Fisher. However, due to its shorter distance, the track was not able to maintain the racing characteristics of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. Instead, the sharp, flat turns and aprons made passing difficult and lowered overall speed. The geometry also created unfavorably severe crash angles. In 1996, track management attempted to correct the problems by widening the aprons of the turns by as much as 24 feet (7.3 m). The movie Super Speedway was shot at the speedway before the track was reconfigured to an oval. In the summer of 1997, an $8.2 million reconfiguration project changed the turns from a rectangle to a traditional, continuous turn oval.


In 2003, the track was reconfigured once again. The turns were changed from mostly flat to steep variable banking. In 2005, lights were installed to allow night racing for the first time. The renovations were praised by fans, and the track has produced a number of close finishes, including 2005's last-lap battle between Greg Biffle and Mark Martin.

Four turn paperclipódromo_Ciudad_de_Rafaela


The Autódromo Ciudad de Rafaela is a motor racing circuit in Rafaela, Santa Fe, Argentina built in 1952 and paved in 1966. The venue – owned by Atlético de Rafaela – hosted the 500 Millas Argentinas race until 1971. The USAC Rafaela Indy 300 race was held at the Autódromo in 1971, won by Al Unser in a Colt-Ford Turbo. Current major race series using the circuit include TC2000, Turismo Carretera, TRV6, Formula Three Sudamericana, and the South American Super Touring Car Championship.



Surface Asphalt (since 1966)

Length 4.624 km (2.873 mi)

Turns 4



Four turn


The Milwaukee Mile is an approximately one mile-long (1.6 km) oval race track in the central United States, located on the grounds of the Wisconsin State Fair Park in West Allis, Wisconsin, a suburb west of Milwaukee. Its grandstand and bleachers seat approximately 37,000 spectators. Paved 63 years ago in 1954, it was originally a dirt track. In addition to the oval, there is a 1.8 mile (2.8 km) road circuit located on the infield.



Surface Asphalt

Length ~ 1.0 mi (~ 1.6 km)

Turns 4

Banking Turns – 9.25°

Straights – 2.5°

Lap record 198.2 mph, November 2, 1985 (Sam Jones, Billy Ballew Motorsports, 1964)

North Wilkesboro Speedway was a short track that held races in NASCAR's top three series, including 93 Winston Cup Series races. The track, a NASCAR original, operated from 1949, NASCAR's inception, until the track's closure in 1996. The speedway briefly reopened in 2010 and hosted several Stock Car Series races, including the now-defunct ASA Late Model Series, USARacing Pro Cup Series, and PASS Super Late Models, before closing again in the spring of 2011. The track is located on U.S. Route 421, about five miles east of the town of North Wilkesboro, North Carolina. It measures five-eighths of a mile and features a unique uphill backstretch and downhill frontstretch.




Darel Dieringer completely dominated the 1967 Gwyn Staley 400, driving for Junior Johnson. Dieringer got the pole with a lap of 21.50 seconds / 104.693 mph and lead all 400 laps. He was the first driver to run a Grand National Series race of over 250 miles while leading from start to finish. He lapped the whole field twice at one point. Dieringer took the checked flag after he ran out of gas in Turn Four of the last lap and coasted to the finish line. This was Dieringer's last Grand National victory. Cale Yarborough, driving the No. 21 Wood Brothers Ford, finished second, one lap behind Dieringer. A 20-lap qualifying race to make the field was won by Clyde Lynn.

New Hampshire Motor Speedway is a 1.058-mile (1.703 km) oval speedway located in Loudon, New Hampshire, which has hosted NASCAR racing annually since the early 1990s, as well as the longest-running motorcycle race in North America, the Loudon Classic. Nicknamed "The Magic Mile", the speedway is often converted into a 1.6-mile (2.6 km) road course, which includes much of the oval.



In 2000, the track was the site of a pair of fatal collisions which took the lives of two promising young drivers. In May, while practicing for a Busch Series race, Adam Petty perished when his throttle stuck exiting the second turn, resulting in a full speed crash head-on in the middle of the third and fourth turns. When the NASCAR Cup Series made their first appearance of the season, a similar fate befell 1998 Rookie of the Year Kenny Irwin, Jr. For safety reasons, track owners decided to run restrictor plates on the cars during their return trip to the speedway in September 2000, making it the first track in recent history outside of Daytona and Talladega to use them. It would be the last one as well; an uneventful Dura Lube 300 won by Jeff Burton, which had no lead changes, was the result of the experiment. It was the first wire-to-wire race since the 1970s.


Four turns


Salem Speedway is a .555 miles (0.893 km) long paved oval motor racetrack in Washington Township, Washington County, near Salem, Indiana, approximately 100 miles (160 km) south of Indianapolis. It opened in 1947. Major auto racing series that run at Salem are ARCA, USAR and USAC.


The track has 33° degrees of banking in the corners. The first ARCA race was 1955.


The qualifying record is 16.785 seconds/119.035 mph by Gary Bradberry in 1994.[1]



ARCA Lincoln Welders Truck Series Trucks at Salem, September 16, 2006

Rich Vogler[edit]

On the 21st night of July, 1990, during the Joe James / Pat O'Connor Memorial sprint car event at the Salem Speedway, which was nationally broadcast on ESPN Thunder, sprint car driver Rich Vogler sustained severe head injuries and was killed after a crash in turn 4. Vogler, who was leading the event at the time and was about to take the white flag signaling one lap to go, hit head on with the turn 4 wall, violently throwing tires, Vogler's helmet, and other pieces of Vogler's car all over the track. The race was red flagged and would never restart. Vogler, now dead at the age of 39, was declared the winner posthumously because of USAC National Sprint Car Series rules on a red flag reverting to the previous completed lap. This was his 170th win. Finishing first among the survivors was a young driver from Pittsboro, Indiana, named Jeff Gordon.

Four turns- 16 is the squares of the quadrant model

Thompson Speedway Motorsports Park (TSMP), formerly Thompson International Speedway, is a motorsports park in Thompson, Connecticut, featuring a 5⁄8-mile (1.0 km) paved oval racetrack and a 1.7-mile (2.7 km) road racing course. Once known as the "Indianapolis of the East", it was the first asphalt-paved racing oval track in the United States and is now under the NASCAR Whelen All-American Series banner. Each year Thompson hosts one of the great fall variety events "The World Series of Auto Racing" highlighted by the International Supermodified Association and the NASCAR Whelen Modified Tour. This event frequently draws over 350 race cars in 16 separate divisions over three days.



Surface Asphalt

Length 5/8 mi (1 km)

Turns 4


Four turns

Flemington Speedway was a motor racing circuit in Flemington, New Jersey which operated from 1915 to 2002. The track was known for being the fastest 5/8 dirt track in the United States. Later it was for hosting four NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series races and its pioneering use of foam blocks used to lessen the impact of crashes, which led to the adoption of the SAFER barrier and was America's longest-running Saturday night shorttrack until its closing.

Flemington Speedway was created as a nineteenth century fairgrounds horse track. It was a half mile, four-cornered dirt oval.


Rectangle Oval

Surface Asphalt

Length 0.625 mi (1.000 km)

Turns 4

Banking Semi-banked

Lap record 0:18.817 (Stacy Compton, Impact Motorsports, 1998, NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series)


Also there is four dominant groups for Black rights one is the NAAC{


Ontario Motor Speedway was a motorsport venue located in Ontario, California. It was the first and only automobile racing facility built to accommodate major races sanctioned by all of the four dominant racing sanctioning bodies: USAC (and now IndyCar Series) for open-wheel oval car races; NASCAR for a 500-mile (800 km) oval stock car races; NHRA for drag races; and FIA for Formula One road course races. Constructed in less than two years,[2] the track opened in August 1970 and was considered state of the art at the time.[3][4]



Four dominant racing sanctioning bodies

Four turns

Ontario Motor Speedway was a motorsport venue located in Ontario, California. It was the first and only automobile racing facility built to accommodate major races sanctioned by all of the four dominant racing sanctioning bodies: USAC (and now IndyCar Series) for open-wheel oval car races; NASCAR for a 500-mile (800 km) oval stock car races; NHRA for drag races; and FIA for Formula One road course races. Constructed in less than two years,[2] the track opened in August 1970 and was considered state of the art at the time.[3][4]


The property remained vacant for several years until the mid-1980s when a Hilton Hotel was built on turn 4 of the old speedway site. It was the first multiple-story building of its kind in the City of Ontario.


As of the mid-2000s, development on the property has increased. Over half of the old speedway property, adjacent to Interstate 10, has been developed commercially. However, a minor tribute to the racing heritage of the property can be seen in the street names of the developed area (ex: Duesenburg Drive, Ferrari Lane, and others), in much the same way that the developed area that was formerly Riverside International Raceway reflects the same heritage, with roads named after famous drivers.


In 2007, much of the remainder of the property became Piemonte, a mixed-use development with condominiums, business offices, and some retail stores. In the fall of 2008, the centerpiece of Piemonte opened: the Citizens Business Bank Arena, an 11,000-seat sports and entertainment venue. The arena is home to the AHL Ontario Reign, and is built in the general area of Turn 3 of the old Ontario track.


The Ontario Mills is located to the east, across the street from the former site of the Ontario Motor Speedway.ódromo_Internacional_Nelson_Piquet


The Autódromo Internacional Nelson Piquet (Nelson Piquet International Autodrome), also known as Jacarepaguá after the neighbourhood in which it was located, was a motorsport circuit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Opened in 1977, it hosted the Formula One Brazilian Grand Prix on ten occasions, and was also used for CART, motorcycle racing and stock car racing. In 2012, it was demolished to make way for facilities to be used in the 2016 Summer Olympics.


Emerson Fittipaldi Speedway (1996–2005)

Surface Asphalt

Length 3 km (1.864 mi)

Turns 4

Lap record 38.565 (Brazil Christian Fittipaldi, Newman-Haas, 1999, Cart FedEx Championship Series)

Four turn oval

Oval Circuit

Length1.479 mi (2.38 km)


Banking3.5 – 7.9º

Lap record0:24.719 [2] ( Tony KanaanLolaFord, 2001, CART)

Handling Circuit

Surface Tarmac

Length 0.97 mi (1.56 km)

Turns 4


Rockingham Motor Speedway is a modern motorsport venue in the United Kingdom, that hosts corporate driving days, driver training, conferencing and exhibitions, vehicle manufacturing events, track days, testing, driving experiences and motor racing. It claims to be Europe's fastest racing circuit,[4] and was the first banked oval constructed in Britain since the closure of Brooklands in 1939.[5]



The Oval Circuit[edit]

The 1.48 mile American-style banked oval circuit is 18.3 metres wide and has a maximum bank angle of 7 degrees and comprises four very distinct corners. Rockingham's oval is unique in the UK and one of only two speedways in Europe. The oval circuit can also be converted to a road course layout for events by positioning temporary chicanes and curves both on the main area and apron of the circuit.


Over the weekend of 20–22 September 2001, the Champ cars came to England for the first time to contest the Rockingham 500, a round of the CART (Championship Auto Racing Teams) Fedex Championship Series. For various reasons the race distance was shortened to 300 km and victory was snatched on the exit of Turn Four of the last lap by Gil de Ferran driving the Marlboro Team Penske Honda –powered Reynard 01i at a race average speed of 153.41 mph from Kenny Bräck at the wheel the Team Rahal Lola-Ford Cosworth B1/00, and the Newman-Haas Racing Lola-Toyota B1/00 driven by Cristiano da Matta. The fastest lap, and therefore outright lap record was set by Patrick Carpentier in 25.551secs (210.59 mph) in the Player’s Forsythe Racing Reynard-Cosworth. Carpentier became for first Canadian to ever hold the outright lap record at an English circuit.[6]

Four turns oval

Oval & Road Course

Surface Asphalt

Length 1.00 mi (1.61 km)

Turns 4

Banking 10°


Pikes Peak International Raceway (PPIR) is a racetrack in a Colorado Springs annexed area of the Fountain, Colorado, postal zone that by October 12, 1997, was "the fastest 1-mile paved oval anywhere".[2] The speedway hosted races in several series including the Indy Racing League and 2 NASCAR series (Busch and Truck) until operations were suspended 2005–08. A wide variety of amateur racing groups use PPIR for racing and training, and many NASCAR teams use PPIR for testing[citation needed] (the design is similar to the California Speedway in Fontana.)[3] PPIR Is more similar to Phoenix International Raceway than Fontana Raceway.


Short Oval

Surface Asphalt

Length 0.25 mi (0.40 km)

Turns 4

D shaped oval four turns

D-shaped oval

Surface Asphalt

Length 2.0 mi (3.22 km)

Turns 4

Banking Turns: 14°

Frontstretch: 11°

Backstretch: 3°

Lap record 241.428 miles per hour (Gil de Ferran, Penske Racing, October 28, 2000, CART)


Auto Club Speedway, formerly California Speedway,[3] is a two-mile (3 km), low-banked, D-shaped oval superspeedway in Fontana, California which has hosted NASCAR racing annually since 1997. It is also used for open wheel racing events. The racetrack is located near the former locations of Ontario Motor Speedway and Riverside International Raceway. The track is owned and operated by International Speedway Corporation and is the only track owned by ISC to have naming rights sold. The speedway is served by the nearby Interstate 10 and Interstate 15 freeways as well as a Metrolink station located behind the backstretch.


In 1999, the speedway was purchased by International Speedway Corporation (ISC) and in 2000 the track was renamed to its original name of Michigan International Speedway. In 2000 10,800 seats were added via a turn 3 grandstand bringing the speedway to its current capacity. In 2004-2005 the largest renovation project in the history of the facility was ready for race fans when it opened its doors for the race weekend. The AAA Motorsports Fan Plaza—a reconfiguration of over 26 acres (110,000 m2) behind the main grandstand—provided race fans a new and improved area to relax and enjoy sponsor displays, merchandise, and concessions during breaks of on-track activity. A new, three-story viewing tower housing the Champions Club presented by AAA and 16 new corporate suites also awaited VIP guests, while a state-of-the-art press box and an expansive race operations facility high above the two-mile (3.2 km) oval welcomed the media and race officials.[3] Michigan was repaved prior to the 2012 season. This marks the first time since 1995 that the oval was resurfaced, along with 1967, 1975, and 1986. Also new for 2012 was the addition of a new 20-space trackside luxury campsite to be known as APEX. Situated in turn 3, each site will offer a 20-by-55-foot (6.1 by 16.8 m) area, with water and electric hookups, a picnic table and grill. Besides front-row seating for the racing action, the APEX area will offer personalized service to its guests, including a concierge to address any of their needs during race weekend. To accommodate these new campsites, the remaining silver grandstands in turns 3 and 4 were removed.[4]

Four turn oval


Surface Asphalt

Length 2 mi (3.2 km)

Turns 4

Texas World Speedway was built in 1969 and is one of only seven superspeedways of two miles (3 km) or greater in the United States used for racing, the others being Indianapolis, Daytona, Pocono, Talladega, Auto Club, and Michigan (there are several tracks of similar size used for vehicle testing). TWS is located on approximately 600 acres (2.4 km²) on State Highway 6 in College Station, Texas. There is a 2-mile (3 km) oval, and several road course configurations. The full oval configuration is closely related to that of Michigan and is often considered the latter's sister track, featuring steeper banking, at 22 degrees in the turns, 12 degrees at the start/finish line, and only 2 degrees along the backstretch,[1] compared to Michigan's respective 18, 12, and 5 degrees. The last major race occurred at the track in 1981. The track is still used by amateur racing clubs such as the SCCA, NASA, Porsche Club of America, Corinthian Vintage Auto Racing, CMRA, driving schools and car clubs, as well as hosting music concerts and the like.

Four turns D Shaped Oval

D-shaped oval (1988-present)

Surface Asphalt

Length 0.75 mi (1.21 km)

Turns 4

Banking 14° in turns

8° on frontstretch

2° on backstretch

Lap record 0:15.3197 seconds (176.244 mph) (Sam Hornish Jr., Team Penske, 2005, IndyCar)




Richmond International Raceway (RIR) is a 0.75 miles (1.21 km), D-shaped, asphalt race track located just outside Richmond, Virginia in Henrico County. It hosts the Monster Energy NASCAR Cup Series and NASCAR Xfinity Series. Known as "America's premier short track", it formerly hosted a NASCAR Camping World Truck Series race, an IndyCar Series race, and two USAC sprint car races.



Racing under the 944 Cup rule set is possible in four different chapters and a National runoff event each year. The following are the only currently recognized official chapters of the 944 Cup National Series:






The FIM classifies motorcycle racing in the following four main categories.[1] Each category has several sub categories.[2]

Road racing[edit]
Main article: Road racing
Road racing is the sport of racing motorcycles on hard surfaces resembling roads, usually paved with tarmac. Races can take place either on purpose-built racing circuits or on closed public roads.

Traditional road racing[edit]

Competitors line up at the start of the 2010 Senior TT race. This form of road racing differs from others insofar as it takes the form of a Time Trial
Historically, "road racing" meant a course on closed public road. This was once commonplace but currently only a few such circuits have survived, mostly in Europe. Races take place on publics roads which have been temporarily closed to the public by legal orders from the local legislature. Two championships exist, the first is the International Road Racing Championship, the other is the Duke Road Racing Rankings. The latter accounts for the majority of road races that take place each season, with an award for the highest placed rider. Prominent road races include the Isle of Man TT, North West 200 and the Ulster Grand Prix. Ireland has many road racing circuits still in use. Other countries with road races are the Netherlands, Spain, Belgium, Germany, Great Britain, the Czech Republic, Ukraine, New Zealand and Macau.

Motorcycle Grand Prix[edit]

MotoGP racing
Main article: Grand Prix motorcycle racing
Grand Prix motorcycle racing refers to the premier category of motorcycle road racing. It is divided into three distinct classes:

Moto3: Introduced in 2012, motorcycles in this class are 250cc with single-cylinder four-stroke engines Previously it featured 125 cc two-stroke motorcycles. This class is also restricted by rider age, with an upper limit of 25 for newly signed riders and wild card entries and an absolute upper limit of 28 for all riders.
Moto2: Introduced by Dorna Sports, the commercial rights holder of the competition, in 2010 as a 600 cc four-stroke class. Prior to that season, the intermediate class was 250 cc with two-stroke engines. Moto2 races in the 2010 season allowed both engine types; from 2011 on, only the four-stroke Moto2 machines were allowed.
MotoGP: is the current term for the highest class of GP racing. The class was contested with prototype machines with varying displacement and engine type over the years. Originally contested by large displacement four stroke machines in the early years it eventually switched to 500 cc two strokes. In 2002 990 cc four-stroke bikes were allowed to compete alongside the 500 cc two strokes and then completely replaced them in 2003. 2007 saw a reduction to 800 cc four stroke engines to unsuccessfully slow things down a bit before finally settling on 1000 cc four strokes in 2012.[3]
Grand prix motorcycles are prototype machines not based on any production motorcycle.

Superbike racing[edit]

Superbike racing
Main article: Superbike racing
Superbike racing is the category of motorcycle road racing that employs modified production motorcycles. Superbike racing motorcycles must have four stroke engines of between 800 cc and 1200 cc for twins, and between 750 cc and 1000 cc for four cylinder machines. The motorcycles must maintain the same profile as their roadgoing counterparts. The overall appearance, seen from the front, rear and sides, must correspond to that of the bike homologated for use on public roads even though the mechanical elements of the machine have been modified.

Supersport racing[edit]

Supersport racing
See also: AMA Supersport Championship, British Supersport Championship, and Supersport World Championship
Supersport racing is another category of motorcycle road racing that employs modified production motorcycles. To be eligible for Supersport racing, a motorcycle must have a four-stroke engine of between 400 and 600 cc for four-cylinder machines, and between 600 and 750 cc for twins, and must satisfy the FIM homologation requirements. Supersport regulations are much tighter than Superbikes. Supersport machines must remain largely as standard, while engine tuning is possible but tightly regulated.

Endurance racing[edit]

Endurance racing
Main article: Endurance racing (motorsport)
Endurance racing is a category of motorcycle road racing which is meant to test the durability of equipment and endurance of the riders. Teams of multiple riders attempt to cover a large distance in a single event. Teams are given the ability to change riders during the race. Endurance races can be run either to cover a set distance in laps as quickly as possible, or to cover as much distance as possible over a preset amount of time. Reliability of the motorcycles used for endurance racing is paramount.

Sidecar racing[edit]

Sidecar racing
Main article: Sidecar World Championship
Sidecar racing is a category of sidecar motorcycle racing. Older sidecar road racers generally resembled solo motorcycles with a platform attached; modern racing sidecars are purpose built low and long vehicles. Sidecarcross resembles MX motorcycles with a high platform attached. In sidecar racing a rider and a passenger work together to make the machine perform optimally; the way in which the passenger shifts their weight across the sidecar is crucial to its performance around corners.

Sidecar racing has many sub-categories including:

Sidecarcross (sidecar motocross)
Sidecar trials
F1/F2 road racing
Historic (classic) road racing

Start of a Motocross race
Main article: Motocross
Motocross (or MX) is the direct equivalent of road racing, but off road, a number of bikes racing on a closed circuit. Motocross circuits are constructed on a variety of non-tarmac surfaces such as dirt, sand, mud, grass, etc., and tend to incorporate elevation changes either natural or artificial. Advances in motorcycle technology, especially suspension, have led to the predominance of circuits with added "jumps" on which bikes can get airborne. Motocross has another noticeable difference from road racing, in that starts are done en masse, with the riders alongside each other. Up to 40 riders race into the first corner, and sometimes there is a separate award for the first rider through (see holeshot). The winner is the first rider across the finish line, generally after a given amount of time or laps or a combination.

Motocross has a plethora of classes based upon machine displacement (ranging from 50cc 2-stroke youth machines up to 250cc two-stroke and 450cc four-stroke), age of competitor, ability of competitor, sidecars, quads/ATVs, and machine age (classic for pre-1965/67, Twinshock for bikes with two shock absorbers, etc.).

Main article: Supercross
Supercross (or SX) is simply indoor motocross. Supercross is more technical and rhythm like to riders. Typically situated in a variety of stadiums and open or closed arenas, it is notable for its numerous jumps. In North America, this has been turned into an extremely popular spectator sport, filling large baseball, soccer, and football stadiums, leading to Motocross being now termed the "outdoors". However, in Europe it is less popular sport, as the predominate focus there is on Motocross.


A Supermoto rider on a tarmac section
Main article: Supermoto
Supermoto is a racing category that is a crossover between road-racing and motocross. The motorcycles are mainly motocross types with road-racing tyres. The racetrack is a mixture of road and dirt courses (in different proportions) and can take place either on closed circuits or in temporary venues (such as urban locations).

The riding style on the tarmac section is noticeably different from other forms of tarmac-based racing, with a different line into corners, sliding of the back wheel around the corner, and using the leg straight out to corner (as opposed to the noticeable touching of the bent knee to the tarmac of road racers).

Enduro and cross-country[edit]

Former World Enduro Champion Stefan Merriman
Main article: Enduro
Enduro is a form of off road motorcycle sport that primarily focuses on the endurance of the competitor. In the most traditional sense ("Time Card Enduros"), competitors complete a 10+ mile lap, of predominately off road going, often through forestry. The lap is made up of different stages, each with a target time to complete that stage in exactly, there are penalties for being early and late, thus the goal is to be exactly "on time". Some stages are deliberately "tight", others are lax allowing the competitor to recuperate. There are also a variety of special tests, on variety of terrain to further aid classification, these are speed stages where the fastest time is desired. A normal event lasts for 3 to 4 hours, although longer events are not uncommon. Some events, particularly national and world championship events take place over several days and require maintenance work to be carried out within a limited time window or while the race is running. To prevent circumvention of the maintenance restrictions, the motorcycles are kept overnight in secure storage.

There is a World Enduro Championship (WEC) that has events across Europe, with a few excursions to North America. The most significant event in the Enduro calendar is the International Six Days Enduro (formerly the International Six Days Trial), where countries enter teams of riders (i.e. Enduro's "World Cup"), as well as club teams – the event combines amateur sport with the professional level sport, it also takes place in a much more geographically dispersed range of locations.

In addition to traditional Time Card Enduros held over a long lap, a variety of other forms of sport have been taken up; notably "Short Course Enduros", a shorter (in lap length) form of Time Card Enduros Hare scrambles and "Hare and Hounds".

Hare Scramble[edit]
Main article: Hare scramble

Hare Scramble racer at Hyden, Ky
Hare scramble is the name given to a particular form of off-road motorcycle racing. Traditionally a hare scramble can vary in length and time with the contestants completing multiple laps around a marked course through wooded or other rugged natural terrain. The overall winner is the contestant who maintains the highest speed throughout the event. In Florida, Hare scrambles start the race with a staggered starting sequence. Once on the course, the object of the competitor is to complete the circuit as fast as possible. The race consists of wooded areas and/or open fields.

Cross-country rally[edit]
Main article: Rally raid
Cross-country rally events (also called Rallye Raid or simply Rallye, alternate spelling Rally) are much bigger than enduros. Typically using larger bikes than other off road sports, these events take place over many days, travelling hundreds of miles across primarily open off road terrain. The most famous example is the Dakar Rally, previously travelling from Western Europe (often Paris) to Dakar in Senegal, via the Sahara desert, taking almost two weeks. Since 2009 the Dakar Rally has been held in South America traveling through Peru, Argentina and Chile. A FIM Cross-Country Rallies World Championship also exists encompassing many events across the world, typically in desert nations. These events often run alongside "car" rallies (under the FIA).

Track racing[edit]
Main article: Track racing
Track racing is a form of motorcycle racing where teams or individuals race opponents around an oval track. There are differing variants, with each variant racing on a different surface type.

Indoor short track and TT Racing[edit]

Track racing motorcycles
Indoor races consist of either a polished concrete floor with coke syrup or other media sprayed or mopped onto the concrete for traction for the tyres of the motorcycles, or on dirt that has been moistened and hard packed, or left loose (often called a cushion). Similar to size of the Arenacross Arenas or sometimes smaller the riders must have accurate throttle control to negotiate these tight Indoor Race Tracks.

In the U.S., flat-track events are held on outdoor dirt ovals, ranging in length from one mile to half-mile, short-tracks and TTs. All are usually held outdoors, though a few short-track events have been held in indoor stadiums. A Short Track event is one involving a track of less than 1⁄2 mile in length, while a TT event can be of any length, but it must have at least one right turn and at least one jump to qualify.

In the A.M.A. Grand National Championship, mile, half-mile, short-track and TT races are part of a specific discipline labelled "Dirt track" or sometimes "Flat track" (also called Flat Track). However the AMA Sanction rule books refer to this discipline as Dirt track racing. Whether mile, half-mile, short-track or TT, traction is what defines a dirt track race. The bikes cannot use "knobbies", they must use "Class C" tires which are similar to street tires. On mile, half-mile, short-track course, the track is an oval, all turns to the left only, and only a rear brake is allowed. On the TT courses, there must be at least one right hand turn with a jump being optional, front and rear brakes are allowed, but the same "Class C" tires are required.

Although not mandated, most flat track racers wear a steel "shoe" on the left boot which is actually a fitted steel sole that straps onto the left boot. This steel shoe lets the rider slide more easily and safely on their left foot when needed as they lean the bike to the left while sliding through the corners, though riders can often perform what is known as a "feet-up slide", using throttle control, body lean and steering alone to power-slide through the turns, without sliding on their steel shoe.

Hard-packed tracks are generally referred to as "groove" tracks, loosely packed tracks are called "cushions". The composition of the track surface is usually decided by the race promoter and track preparation team, the latter using various methods and materials including combinations of clay, decomposed granite, sand, calcium (to allow the surface to retain water moisture) and other materials. An optimum "groove" track will have enough moisture to be "tacky", without being slick, and will develop what is called a "blue groove" as the motorcycle tires lay down a thin layer of tire rubber on the racing line.

A "cushion" track consists of similar materials to the groove track, but mixed in a way that allows the surface to maintain a more sandy, loose composition. While power-sliding is common on both groove and cushion tracks, a cushion track allows more power-sliding, into, through and out of the turns. Though the "Class C" tires allowed by the rules are the same for both cushion and groove tracks, riders are allowed to modify the tires by cutting some rubber off the tire grooves for improved traction, but are not allowed to add materials to the tires.


Main article: Motorcycle speedway
Speedway racing takes place on a flat oval track usually consisting of dirt or loosely packed shale, using bikes with a single gear and no brakes. Competitors use this surface to slide their machines sideways (powersliding or broadsliding) into the bends using the rear wheel to scrub-off speed while still providing the drive to power the bike forward and around the bend.


Grass track racing
Main article: Grasstrack
Grasstrack is outdoor speedway. The track are longer (400 m+, hence it is often also referred to as Long Track at world level), often on grass (although other surfaces exist) and even feature elevation changes. Machinery is very similar to a speedway bike (still no brakes, but normally two gears, rear suspension, etc.).

Ice speedway[edit]

Ice Racing using full-rubber tyres
Main article: Ice Racing
Ice racing includes a motorcycle class which is the equivalent of Speedway on ice. Bikes race anti-clockwise around oval tracks between 260 and 425 metres in length. Metal tire spikes or screws are often allowed to improve traction. The race structure and scoring are similar to Speedway.

Board track[edit]

Board track racing
Main article: Board track racing
Board track racing was a type of track racing popular in the United States between the second and third decades of the 20th century, where competition was conducted on oval race courses with surfaces composed of wooden planks. By the early 1930s, board track racing had fallen out of favor, and into eventual obsolescence.

16 is the squares of the quadrant model

From the astride position, the vaulter brings the right leg over the horse's neck. The grips must be ungrasped and retaken as the leg is brought over. The left leg is then brought in a full arc over the croup, again with a change of grips, before the right leg follows it, and the left leg moves over the neck to complete the full turn of the vaulter. The vaulter performs each leg movement in four strides each, completing the Mill movement in sixteen full strides. During the leg passes, the legs should be held perfectly straight, with the toes pointed. When the legs are on the same side of the horse, they should be pressed together.

The 16 strides are the 16 squares of the quadrant model

In a television series that followed Bobby Knight, Knight in one of the episodes said "the basketball court looks like a cross, with the free throw line as the cross"

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

Four basesäpallo

Pesäpallo (Finnish pronunciation: [pesæpɑlːo]; Swedish: boboll, both names literally meaning "nest ball", also referred to as "Finnish baseball") is a fast-moving bat-and-ball sport that is quite often referred to as the national sport of Finland and has some presence in other countries including Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, Australia, and Canada's northern Ontario (the latter two countries have significant Scandinavian populations.) The game is similar to brännboll, rounders, and lapta, as well as baseball.

The game has four bases


Old cat (also known as ol' cat or cat-ball) games were bat-and-ball, safe haven games played in North America The games were numbered according to the number of bases. The number of bases varied according to the number of players.


Three old cat had a triangular base layout and three strikers, while four old cat had four strikers and four bases in a square pattern. The Mills Commission, formed in 1905 to ascertain the origins of baseball, recorded many reminiscences of people playing three and four old cat in their youth. Baseball historian Harold Seymour reported that old cat games were still being played on the streets and vacant lots of Brooklyn in the 1920s.


Albert Spalding suggested that four old cat was the immediate ancestor of town ball, from which baseball evolved.


Corkball is a "mini-baseball" game featuring a 1.6-ounce (45 g) ball, which is stitched and resembles a miniature baseball. The bat has a barrel that measures 1.5 inches (3.8 cm) in diameter. Originally played on the streets and alleys of St. Louis, Missouri as early as 1890,[1] today the game has leagues formed around the country as a result of St. Louis servicemen introducing the game to their buddies during World War II and the Korean War. It has many of the features of baseball, yet can be played in a very small area because there is no base-running.

It also has four bases.ännboll


Brännboll is a form of baseball in Norway with four bases. There is no pitcher as the hitter throws the ball in the air and then hits it.


Generic penalty system (Several varieties exist)


First time – warning.

Second time – 5 penalty points.

Third time – 10 penalty points.

Fourth time – disqualification, the opponent wins.


Scoring system – In British baseball a player scores a run for every base he/she reaches after hitting the ball. He or she will not subsequently score when moving around the bases on another player's hit. The equivalent of a home run scores four runs. As in cricket a bonus run can be awarded for excessively-wide deliveries. In North American baseball, a player scores a run only on a successful circuit of all four bases, whether on his own or another player's hit, or by other means such as a walk or stolen base.


Bat and trap is an English bat-and-ball pub game. It is still played in Kent, and occasionally in Brighton. By the late 20th century it was usually only played on Good Friday in Brighton, on the park called The Level, which has an adjacent pub called The Bat and Ball, whose sign depicts the game. Brighton & Hove City Council plans to start a Bat and Trap club based at The Level in 2013, as part of the Activities Plan associated with a £2.2m Heritage Lottery Fund and Big Lottery Fund-funded restoration of the park.

In the American rules of bat and trap, there are several differences in the equipment and game mechanics as well as the layout of the pitch. Each team is limited to 4 players. The trap is 6 inches by 6 inches, and it has a yellow background with a black "X" mark across the front. The posts are 1-2 feet high. There are two additional lines, one of which extends across the field at a right angle 10 yards in front of the trap; this line is the "foul line". Balls put into play must not touch the ground prior to hitting this line or the batter is called out. In addition, there is an additional line 5 yards behind the posts; this line is known as the "back line", and fair hit balls that cross the line, either before touching a fielder or after, or on the ground or in the air but below the imaginary line demarcating the fair zone, score 4 runs for the batting side. This is known as a "four", and the fielding team does not have the opportunity to roll out the batter following a four. Since the posts are only 1-2 feet, the top of the fair hit zone is demarcated by an imaginary line running from the top of the tallest fielding player's head. Batted balls that travel above this imaginary line are automatically out.


Four rows of shuffleboard (the fourth is different)- four light disks four dark disks played with


16 is the squares of the quadrant model


In deck or floor shuffleboard, players use a cue (cue-stick), to push their colored disks, down a court (a flat floor of concrete, wood or other hard material, marked with lines denoting scoring zones), attempting to place their disks within a marked scoring area at the far end of the court. The disks themselves are of two contrasting colors (usually yellow and black), each color belonging to a player or team. The scoring diagram is divided by lines, into six scoring zones, with the following values: 10, 8, 8, 7, 7, 10-off. (See Court Description below for details.) After 8 disks (four per team, taking alternating shots) have been played from one end of the court (a frame), the final score values of disks for each player (or team) in the scoring zones is assessed: If a disk is completely within a scoring zone without touching (overlapping) any part of the border-line of the zone, it is good and that zone value is added to the correct player's score for the frame, and then to the player's total points. Both players good disks are added to their respective scores (As opposed to being subtracted to give only one player a net score for a frame.) Players (or teams of two players, one at each end) take turns going first during a game, so that the advantageous last shot of a frame (the hammer) also alternates between players. The winner of the game may be the first to reach any total decided upon, or may be the higher score after playing a certain number of frames (e.g. 8, 12 or 16). There is also the 'first to 75-points' game. Ties are broken by playing extra frames (two for singles, four for doubles). [2]


Disks: Modern floor shuffleboard is played with 8 round, hard, durable 6 inch diameter plastic disks - New disks are about 1" in thickness, weighing 15 ounces. There should be four (4) discs of a light color, usually yellow, and four of a dark color, usually black. These eight (8) discs comprise a set. (Other colored combinations may be used, but black and yellow will be used here.) One player or team uses the yellow disks, the other player or team, the black disks. Cue-Sticks: Each player uses a cue (cue-stick) to push their disks down the court to the opposite end. The cue length is six feet, three inches (6'3") or less, with hard plastic feet on the end (metal would damage the court surface). Scoreboard: There are two basic types (1) - Resort Type uses two sliders that can move up and down a numbered scale, like a thermometer, with values running from zero at the bottom to 75 at the top (First to 75 points is a common shuffleboard game). Each team used their own slider to record their total score. The advantages of the Resort-type include simplicity, durable and weather proof, needs no other items such as chalk or eraser. The disadvantage is that scoring mistakes are impossible to determine, and a frames played cannot be tracked unless a separate recording method (e.g. pen and paper) is used.(2)- Blackboard (Whiteboard) Type is ruled with four or eight horizontal lines and each teams total score is written after each frame, yellow on the left and black on the right. When all the lines have been filled with scores the top lines are erased and scores are again written from the top. The advantage of the blackboard type is that mistakes in adding and recording the score are easier to spot, because previous scores should always be seen. As well, it is easy to keep track of frames played using small numbers written down the scoreboard. (Note that in western USA and western Canada, scoreboards (blackboards) run from side-to-side, but the principal is the same.)[3]

Four rows of triangle


Players take turns sliding, or "shuffling," the weights to the opposite end of the board, trying to score points, bump opposing pucks off the board, or protect their own pucks from bump-offs. Points are scored by getting a weight to stop in one of the numbered scoring areas. A weight has to completely cross the zone line to count as a full score (if a weight is partially in zone 2 and 3 the weight's score is 2). A weight that's hanging partially over the edge at the end of the table in the 3-point area, called a "hanger" (or sometimes a "shipper"), usually receives an extra point (count as 4). If a puck hangs off the end corner, it receives no additional scoring points other than being a 4 for hanging over the back edge of the board.


The objective of the game is to slide, by hand, all four of one's weights alternately against those of an opponent, so that they reach the highest scoring area without falling off the end of the board into the alley. Furthermore, a player's weight(s) must be farther down the board than his opponent's weight(s), in order to be in scoring position. This may be achieved either by knocking off the opponent's weight(s), or by outdistancing them. Horse collar, the most common form of the game, is played to either 15 or, more typically, 21. Below is an image of the weights on the board. Only the weights in front score.[1]


Paper football (also called FIKI Football, Finger football, Chinese Football, Flick Football, or Tabletop Football) refers to a table-top game, loosely based on American football, in which a sheet of paper folded into a small triangle is slid back and forth across a table top by two opponents. This game is widely practiced for fun, mostly by students in primary, middle school, and high school age in the United States and by bored employees.[1]


Advancing the ball[edit]

The primary activity of the game is to slide the paper football across the football field by flicking it. The legal flick or shot or throw is any method which advances the ball through flicking or hitting, but pushing the ball is disallowed. The ball is generally flicked either with the thumb and forefinger in a manner similar to shooting marbles, or another manner comfortable to the player. Striking with objects such as pencils is more rare.


Players have four chances (downs) to score a touchdown. They may attempt a field goal on fourth down.



A team scores points by the following plays:



A touchdown (TD) is worth 6 points, as in American football. A touchdown is scored when a player advances the ball such that it comes to rest with part of the ball extending over the edge the opponent's end of the table without falling to the ground. If the ball falls to the ground it is considered a touchback. If on fourth down a player feels that they are not close enough to have a good chance at scoring a touchdown then they can attempt a field goal for 3.

Players are allowed only one chance to advance the ball over the goal line per turn (instead of the aforementioned four tries). If a player pushes the ball off of their opponent's end of the table a "strike" is awarded and their opponent gets to kick the ball back into play. After 3 strikes a player's opponent has the option of kicking a field goal for 3 points.

Tabletop football was played in Connecticut in the 1950s using an American quarter. Each player had 4 downs to advance the quarter up the field, and hang it over the edge of the table for a touchdown. If the quarter fell off the edge or the player failed to hang it within 4 downs, the opponent was given possession. The shooting player could try a field goal at any time by hanging the quarter over his own edge of the table, and "kicking" it with his index finger toward the opponents field goal "posts." The player with the highest score won the opponent's quarter. Due to the excessive noise of the quarter during play, the quarter variation was often avoided in school.


Fourth is always different


Penny football (also coin football, sporting coin, spoin, table football, tabletop football,[1] or shove ha'penny football[2]) is a coin game played upon a table top. The aim of the game is for a player to score more goals with the pennies ("Spucks") than their opponent.[3] An electronic version of the game has also been produced.[4] The game has been in existence since at least 1959.[5]


There is another variation of the game in which players use four coins, the fourth coin representing a goalkeeper. Again, the opposing player puts out his index and pinky finger, but also puts the fourth coin under his index finger. The coin acts as a "goalkeeper", and may be used to block shots. He then sticks out his pinky finger of his other hand and places it right next to the other hand. The two hands should be touching. If the player blocks the shot with his index finger, the shot counts as a goal.

The fourth is always different/transcendent. In ancient times the quadrivium (four) was seen as advanced, whereas the trivium (three) was seen as elementary

The trivia (singular trivium) are three lower Artes Liberales, i.e. grammar, logic, and rhetoric. These were the topics of basic education, foundational to the quadrivia of higher education, and hence the material of basic education and an important building block for all undergraduates.

The ancient Romans used the word triviae to describe where one road split or forked into two roads. Triviae was formed from tri (three) and viae (roads) – literally meaning "three roads", and in transferred use "a public place" and hence the meaning "commonplace."[2]

The pertaining adjective is triviālis. The adjective trivial was adopted in Early Modern English, while the noun trivium only appears in learned usage from the 19th century, in reference to the Artes Liberales and the plural trivia in the sense of "trivialities, trifles" only in the 20th century.[citation needed]

The Latin adjective triviālis in Classical Latin besides its literal meaning could have the meaning "appropriate to the street corner, commonplace, vulgar." In late Latin, it could also simply mean "triple." In medieval Latin, it came to refer to the lower division of the Artes Liberales, namely grammar, rhetoric, and logic. (The other four Liberal Arts were the quadrivium, namely arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy, which were more challenging.) Hence, trivial in this sense would have meant "of interest only to an undergraduate."[citation needed]

The fourth is always different/transcendent. In ancient times the quadrivium (four) was seen as advanced, whereas the trivium (three) was seen as elementary

Modern darts have four parts: The points, the barrels, the shafts and the flights.[15] The steel points come in 2 common lengths, 32mm and 41mm and are sometimes knurled or coated to improve grip. Others are designed to retract slightly on impact to lessen the chance of bouncing out.[16]

The image is a cross/quaddrant- throw four


Indoor or table quoits[edit]


A game of indoor quoits, being played in the Forest of Dean

Exclusively a pub game, this variant is predominantly played in mid and south Wales and in England along its border with Wales.


Matches are played by two teams (usually the host pub versus another pub) and typically consist of four games of singles, followed by three games of doubles. Players take it in turns to pitch four rubber rings across a distance of around 8½ feet onto a raised quoits board. The board consists of a central pin or spike and two recessed sections: an inner circular section called the dish and a circular outer section.


Five points are awarded for a quoit landing cleanly over the pin, two points for a quoit landing cleanly in the dish, and one point for a quoit landing cleanly on the outer circular section of the board. The scoreboard consists of numbers running from 1 to 10, 11 or 12, and the object of the game is to score each of these numbers separately using four or fewer quoits, the first side to achieve this being the winner.


Deck quoits[edit]

See also: Deck tennis

Deck quoits is a variant which is popular on cruise ships. The quoits are invariably made of rope, so as to avoid damaging the ship's deck, but there are no universally agreed standards or rules - partly because of the game's informal nature and partly because the game has to adapt to the shape and area of each particular ship it is played upon.


Players take it in turn to throw three or four hoops at a target which usually, though not always, consists of concentric circles marked on the deck. The centre point is called the jack. Occasionally this may take the form of a raised wooden peg, but more usually it is marked on the surface in the same way that the concentric circles are.


Slate-board quoits[edit]

This is a popular outdoor variation played principally in and around Pennsylvania, USA (specifically the 'Slate Belt' which is in the Lehigh Valley). This game uses two one-pound rubber quoits per player, which are pitched at a short metal pin mounted on a heavy 24x24x1 inch slab of slate. The common pronunciation of quoits in the Slate Belt region is (qwaits).


Players take turns throwing a quoit at the pin. The quoit nearest the pin gets one point. If one player has two quoits nearer the pin than either of his opponent's quoits, he gets two points. A quoit that encircles the pin (called a ringer) gets three points. If all four quoits are ringers, the player who threw the last ringer gets three points only; otherwise, the first player to make 21 points wins the game. For two or four players.


Garden quoits or hoopla[edit]


Typical set of garden quoits

This version of the game exists largely as a form of recreation, or as a game of skill found typically at fairgrounds and village fetes.


There are no leagues or universally accepted standards of play and players normally agree upon the rules before play commences.


Garden quoit and hoopla sets can be purchased in shops and usually involve players taking it in turns to throw rope or wooden hoops over one or more spikes.


The fairground version typically involves a person paying the stallholder for the opportunity to throw one or more wooden hoops over a prize, which if done successfully, they can keep. Generally speaking, the odds of winning are normally heavily weighted in favour of the stallholder unless the cost of play is higher than the value of the prize.


Horseshoes is an outdoor game played between two people (or two teams of two people) using four horseshoes and two throwing targets (stakes) set in a sandbox area. The game is played by the players alternating turns tossing horseshoes at stakes in the ground, which are traditionally placed 40 feet (12 m) apart. Modern games use a more stylized U-shaped bar, about twice the size of an actual horseshoe.


16 is the squares of the quadrant model


In the Central Illinois Washers variant, the game uses wooden boxes with 2 × 4 sides (15 inches outside / 12 inches inside). The boxes have plywood bottoms ( 1⁄2- 3⁄4 innc thick – 15 inches × 15 inches square) and are lined with carpet - (12 inch × 12 inch – thickness optional, short/medium is preferable). A 4-inch PVC pipe is cut to a height that is level with the top of the side boards. The boxes are placed 30 ft apart (front of Box 1 to front of Box 2) on level ground, preferably going North and South to avoid sunlight distraction for one side/player.


Four steel or brass washers are used, having (2 1⁄2-inch outer diameter and 1-inch inside diameter and approximately  1⁄8-inch thickness. Two small opposing holes are drilled in two of the four washers for team designation.


Players throw the washers in attempt to get in, on or near to the box or in the pipe. When throwing, the player may stride forward of the front of the box or remain entirely in back of the box, but at least one foot must remain behind the front of the box. (The front is the side facing the opponent.) In other words, players may stand next to the box and stride past it with one foot. In the traditional four-player game, players throw two washers each, throwing both before the opponent throws their two. A player may throw both washers at once, but this may decrease accuracy. The style of throw is dependent only upon player preference, and the scoring team throws first in the next round.


Players earn one point for a washer landing within one foot of the box, or leaning next to the box, or under the box. Two points are scored if a washer rests lying on the top edge of the box. Three points are scored for washers landing inside the box, but not in the pipe, and five points when the washer lands inside the pipe.


Only one team/player scores per round, as illustrated in the following scenarios:


Player 1 throws both washers five feet away from the box while Player 2 throws one in the box and one 10 inches from the box. Player 2 scores 4 (3 + 1).

Player 1 throws one away and one within 5 inches of the box. Player 2 throws one away and one in the pipe. Even though Player 1 has a valid 1-pt. throw, his washer is cancelled out by Player 2's throw in the pipe. Player 2 scores 5.

Player 1 throws one in the box and one within 10 inches of the box. Player 2 throws both within 5 inches of the box. Player 2 cancelled out Player 1's 1-pt. throw, but is still outside of Player 1's box throw. Because player 1 was in the box, it cancelled out both of player 2's close throws. Player 1 scores 3.

If each team throws a washer under the box or both throw a leaner, they cancel each other out and neither scores. If one team throws a washer under the box and the other team throws a leaner, the team under the box scores (under beats leaner). However, any throw in the box or pipe cancels ALL opposing washers outside the box, whether they are within 12 inches, leaning, or under the box.


After all 4 washers have been thrown, points are tallied. It is possible for a washer to knock another washer into a better OR worse position during play. If one washer should move, shift or alter another washer during a throw, the final resting places of both washers are noted and scores tallied accordingly. Because washers can hit each other during play and affect their final position, do not move any washers until all are thrown.


In Illinois, the traditional four-player game, with two teams of two players, is played to 21 points. Three-player games, with three teams of one player, play to 31 points. Two-player games play to 51 points.


Note: All end scores must be reached exactly. If a player scores too many points in a round, they must subtract that round's point value from their score previous to the round and continue play. Example: In a 4-player game to 21 points, Team 1 has 19 points, but throws one in the box. Team 1 loses 3 points, going back to 16 points, and the next round begins. All scoring washers in the round are counted toward the negative score, not just the throw that exceeded the limit. Example: Team 1 has 16 points, then throws one in the box for an interim 3 points, but then throws the second in the box as well for a total of 6 points. Adding that 6 points to the beginning score of 16 exceeds the 21-pt goal, so the team deducts 6 points from 16 and starts the next round with 10 points.




In Connecticut, there is yet another variation of the game. The backyard game of Washers in Connecticut is played with the Fender Washer. The game is played with two teams, consisting of two players per team, four players total.

There are four types of kubb that you knock over.

The alleged Viking origin of the game has led some players and kubb fans to nickname the game “Viking chess”.


There are typically twenty-three game pieces used in kubb- and four types:[3]


Ten kubbs, rectangular wooden blocks 15 cm tall and 7 cm square on the end.

One king, a larger wooden piece 30 cm tall and 9 cm square on the end, sometimes adorned with a crown design on the top.

Six batons, 30 cm long and 4.4 cm in diameter.

Six field marking pins, four to designate the corners of the pitch, and two to mark the centreline.

The four types of wooden pieces in "Viking Chess" (allegedly the game comes from the Vikings)

Make A Kubb Set

King Kubbs Batons - Dowels
Buy these here! Markers
1 10 6 4
4x4x16 in. 3x3x8 in. 1.75"x12" 0.5x12 in.

Buy a "hardwood" Kubb set instead - Click Here!


Pictured in the table above are the four types of wooden pieces you will need to play Kubb. Kubb is played with one king, ten kubbs, six throwing batons ( dowels ) and four markers. 


Some Tips, Before You Get Started
Use a hard wood. The kubbs and batons ( dowels ) get knocked around a lot.
Use sandpaper to smooth the edges. This will help prevent splinters.
Coat the pieces with enamel to help ensure long term usage.
Paint can make your new kubb set more attractive and fun.
A burlap or cloth bag is perfect for transporting your new kubb set to a picnic or BBQ.
The King
The King is 4x4x16 inches. 4x4 is a standard size for wood and can be found at most hardware stores. The King in the picture above has a "crown" on it. Here is a simpler version of cuts for the Kubb King. 

You can go as simple or elegant as you wish with this part. The easiest thing to do is angle your table saw blade at 45°, set your sliding stop so the edge of the blade cuts down the center of the 3-1/2" square end of the piece, then cut. This step can also be dangerous as well so use caution. Be sure to maintain a strong hold on the wood as well as keeping it firmly against the saw bed and sliding stop as you guide it over the blade. Rotate the Kung 90° about its long axis, make the pass again, repeat two more times and a simple crown will have been formed.

The Kubbs
The Kubbs are 3x3x8 inches. There is nothing complicated about them at all. 3x3 is also a standard size for wood.

The Throwing Batons ( dowels )
The batons are 1.75 inches in diameter and 12 inches long. The wood for these can be a bit harder to come by. Some large hardware stores carry this type of rounded wood. If you are having problems finding the right size, you might also try furniture factories. The legs of stools are often just about the right shape and size. If you've lost your tossing dowel or are making a Kubb set yourself and need inexpensive dowels, then you can now buy them individually. 

The Markers
The markers are just sticks of wood that you will be driving into the ground. Their exact shape and size does not really matter. You can probaly just make them from the wood you have left over from making the other pieces. You might also try metal wire with a small red flag or reflector on top. You can usually find these at Wal-mart in the home and garden section.

Round off all the edges of your parts to reduce the possibility of slivers and enhance their appearance. Sand them with consecutively higher grit sand paper until reaching 220-grit. Finish your parts by staining them the color(s) of your choice.


Kickball is a playground game and league game, similar to baseball, invented in the United States in the first half of the 20th century.

The game has four bases like baseball.


Equipment and court layout[edit]

Cornhole matches are played with two sets of bags, two platforms and two to four players.[1]


There are four bags to a set. Each set should be identifiable from the other; different colors work well. The American Cornhole Organization Official Cornhole Rules call for double-seamed fabric bags measuring 6 by 6 inches (150 by 150 mm) and weighing 15 to 16 ounces (430 to 450 g)[1] Bags should be filled with dried corn kernels. The final weight of the bag may vary due to the material of the bag itself.




Cornhole being played during a pre-game tailgate at Texas A&M University–Commerce

Cornhole matches are broken down into innings or frames of play.[1] During each frame, every player throws four bags. A player may deliver the bag from either the left or right pitcher's box, but, in any one inning, all bags must be delivered from the same pitcher's box. It is possible that both players can throw from the same pitcher's box. Also, the player gets a three-foot box to throw in. Each player must deliver the bag within twenty seconds. The time starts when the player steps onto the pitcher's box with the intention of pitching. The player who scored in the preceding inning pitches first in the next inning. If neither pitcher scores, the contestant or team who pitched last in the preceding inning pitches first in the next inning. Note: No foot can land past the front of the board until the corn bag leaves the hand, otherwise the point does not count. At the end of the round there is a 10-second window to allow beans to fall within the bag, possibly allowing additional points.



A typical cornhole board, with two colors of bag

Cornhole can be played as either doubles or singles. In doubles play, four players split into two teams. One member from each team pitches from one cornhole platform and the other members pitch from the other. The first side of players alternate pitching bags until both players have thrown all four of their bags, then the players pitching from the opposing cornhole board continue to alternate in the same manner until all four of their bags are delivered and the inning or frame is completed. In singles play, two players play against each other. Delivery is handled in the same manner as doubles play. Both contestants pitch from the same cornhole platform and alternate their pitches until all of their bags have been pitched, completing the inning or frame.[


Cornucopia: Achieved when a player throws all four bags into the hole in one inning.

GRAND BAG, Four Bagger Jumanji, double deuce, Cornholio, Catorce Four Bagger or Four Pack: Four cornholes by a single player in a single round.[6]

Trip Dip: When a single player cornholes 3 out of the 4 bags in a single round.

There are four scoring options- like the four levels in shuffleboard
The fourth is different

Come in packs of four


Lawn darts (also known as Javelin darts, jarts or yard darts) is a lawn game for two players or teams. A lawn dart set usually includes four large darts. The game play and objective are similar to both horseshoes and darts. The darts are similar to the ancient Roman plumbata. They are typically 12 inches (30 cm) long with a weighted metal or plastic tip on one end and three plastic fins on a rod at the other end. The darts are intended to be tossed underhand toward a horizontal ground target, where the weighted end hits first and sticks into the ground. The target is typically a plastic ring, and landing anywhere within the ring scores a point.


After each competitor has delivered all of their bowls (four each in singles and pairs, three each in triples, and two bowls each in fours), the distance of the closest bowls to the jack is determined (the jack may have been displaced) and points, called "shots", are awarded for each bowl which a competitor has closer than the opponent's nearest to the jack. For instance, if a competitor has bowled two bowls closer to the jack than their opponent's nearest, they are awarded two shots. The exercise is then repeated for the next end, a game of bowls typically being of twenty-one ends.


Scoring systems vary from competition to competition. Games can be decided when:


a player in a singles game reaches a specified target number of shots (usually 21 or 25).

a team (pair, triple or four) has the higher score after a specified number of ends.

Games to a specified number of ends may also be drawn. The draw may stand, or the opponents may be required to play an extra end to decide the winner. These provisions are always published beforehand in the event's Conditions of Play.


In the Laws of the Sport of Bowls[3] the winner in a singles game is the first player to score 21 shots. In all other disciplines (pairs, triples, fours) the winner is the team who has scored the most shots after 21/25 ends of play. Often local tournaments will play shorter games (often 10 or 12 ends). Some competitions use a "set" scoring system, with the first to seven points awarded a set in a best-or-three or best-of-five set match. As well as singles competition, there can be two (pairs), three (triples) and four-player (fours) teams. In these, teams bowl alternately, with each player within a team bowling all their bowls, then handing over to the next player. The team captain or "skip" always plays last and is instrumental in directing his team's shots and tactics. The current method of scoring in the professional tour (World Bowls Tour) is sets. Each set consists of nine ends and the player with the most shots at the end of a set wins the set. If the score is tied the set is halved. If a player wins two sets, or gets a win and a tie, that player wins the game. If each player wins a set, or both sets end tied, there is a 3-end tiebreaker to determine a winner.


Bowls have symbols unique to the set of four for identification. The side of the bowl with a larger symbol within a circle indicates the side away from the bias. That side with a smaller symbol within a smaller circle is the bias side toward which the bowl will turn. It is not uncommon for players to deliver a "wrong bias" shot from time to time and see their carefully aimed bowl crossing neighbouring rinks rather than heading towards their jack.


Singles, triples and fours and Australian pairs are some ways the game can be played. In singles, two people play against each other and the first to reach 21, 25 or 31 shots (as decided by the controlling body) is the winner. In one variation of singles play, each player uses two bowls only and the game is played over 21 ends. A player concedes the game before the 21st end if the score difference is such that it is impossible to draw equal or win within the 21 ends. If the score is equal after 21 ends, an extra end is played to decide the winner. An additional scoring method is set play. This comprises two sets over nine ends. Should a player win a set each, they then play a further 3 ends that will decide the winner.


Pairs allows both people on a team to play Skip and Lead. The lead throws two bowls, the skip delivers two, then the lead delivers his remaining two, the skip then delivers his remaining two bowls. Each end, the leads and skips switch positions. This is played over 21 ends or sets play. Triples is with three players while Fours is with four players in each team and is played over 21 ends.


Another pairs variation is 242 pairs (also known as Australian Pairs). In the first end of the game the A players lead off with 2 bowls each, then the B players play 4 bowls each, before the A players complete the end with their final 2 bowls. The A players act as lead and skip in the same end. In the second end the roles are reversed with the A players being in the middle. This alternating pattern continues through the game which is typically over 15 ends.



Main article: Rounders

The British game most similar to baseball, and most mentioned as its ancestor or nearest relation, is rounders. Like baseball, the object is to strike a pitched ball with a baton or paddle and then run a circuit of four bases. While the game in many respects is quite different from modern baseball, it preserves a number of features which were characteristic of "town ball", the earlier form of American baseball.

The court has four squares like a quadrant

Pickleball is a racquet sport that combines elements of badminton, tennis, and table tennis.[1] Two, three, or four players use solid paddles made of wood or composite materials to hit a perforated polymer ball, similar to a wiffle ball, over a net. The sport shares features of other racquet sports, the dimensions and layout of a badminton court, and a net and rules similar to tennis, with a few modifications. Pickleball was invented in the mid 1960s as a children's backyard pastime but quickly became popular among adults as a fun game for players of all levels.


Lightweight carts or "trikes" (called "quads" if they have four wheels) can be mounted on powered paragliders for those who prefer not to, or are unable to, foot launch. Some are permanent units.ă


Oină (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈoj.nə]) is a Romanian traditional sport, similar in many ways to baseball and lapta.

The attacking side player that has commenced a run will have to cross the following four lines in order:

the start line (the left side of the batting line)

the arrival line (the left side of the back line)

the return line (the right side of the back line)

the escape line (the right side of the batting line)



Since its inception, quidditch has sought gender equality on the pitch.[54] One of the most important requirements within the sport is its 'four maximum' rule:

Each match begins with six of the starting players (excluding the seekers) along the starting line within their keeper zone with brooms on the ground and the four balls lined in the centre of the pitch. The head referee then calls "brooms up!" at which players run to gain possession of the balls.[25] After brooms up is called, the seekers must not interfere with other positions, and wait near the pitch until the end of the seeker floor, usually 18 minutes. The snitch goes on the field at 17 minutes, and the seekers are released at 18 minutes.[26]



A quidditch game allows each team to have a maximum of four players, not including the seeker, who identify as the same gender in active play on the field at the same time. The gender that a player identifies with is considered to be that player’s gender, which may or may not correspond with that person’s sex. This is commonly referred to as the "four maximum" rule.

USQ accepts those who don’t identify within the binary gender system and acknowledges that not all of our players identify as male or female. USQ welcomes people of all identities and genders into our league.

— US Quidditch, Four Maximum Rule


Four Positions in quidditch[edit]

Chasers are responsible for passing the quaffle and scoring points by throwing the quaffle through one of the opponent's goals for 10 points. When a bludger hits a chaser in possession of the quaffle, they must drop the quaffle, remove the broom from between their legs, and touch their own hoops to rejoin play. Chasers not in possession of the quaffle must perform the same knockout procedure when hit by a bludger, but do not have a ball to drop. Chasers may enter into physical contact with opposing chasers or keepers. There are three chasers on the field for each team, identified by a white headband.

Keepers can be likened to goalies in other sports, and must try to block attempts to score by the opposing team's chasers. The keeper is invulnerable to bludgers as well as having indisputable possession of the quaffle when within their team's keeper zone, an area around the team's hoops. Once outside of the keeper zone, the keeper may serve as a fourth chaser. Keepers may enter into physical contact with opposing keepers or chasers. There is one keeper on the field for each team, identified by a green headband.

Beaters attempt to hit the opposing team's players with bludgers and attempt to block the bludgers from hitting their team's players. Beaters are subject to the same knockout procedure as chasers or keepers when hit with a bludger, but unlike chasers and keepers, they may attempt to catch a bludger thrown at them. If they succeed in catching a bludger, they are not knocked out, and the beater who threw the bludger may remain in play. As there are three bludgers for the four beaters on the pitch, the fourth, bludger-less beater puts pressure on the team in control of both bludgers (often called "bludger control" or "bludger supremacy"). Beaters may enter into physical contact only with other beaters. Two beaters on a team may be in play at a time, identified by black headbands.

Seekers attempt to catch the snitch. They may not contact the snitch, but are permitted to contact the other seeker. Seekers are released after 18 minutes of game time. There is one seeker on the field for each team, identified by a gold or yellow headband.

Four bases
Rounders (Irish: cluiche corr) is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams. Rounders is a striking and fielding team game that involves hitting a small, hard, leather-cased ball with a rounded end wooden, plastic or metal bat. The players score by running around the four bases on the field.[1][2] The game is popular among Irish and British school children.
The ball circumference must be between 180 millimetres (7.1 in) and 200 millimetres (7.9 in) and the bat no more than 460 millimetres (18 in) in length and 170 millimetres (6.7 in) in diameter. Rounders England place a weight-limit of 370 grams (13 oz) on the bat. The bases are laid out in a manner similar to a baseball diamond, except that batters run to a separate fourth base, at right-angles to third base and the batsman's base.[12] Each base is marked with poles, which must be able to support themselves and stand at a minimum of 1 metre (3 ft 3 in).

If a ball is delivered well, batters must try to hit the ball and must run regardless of whether the ball is hit. If the ball is hit into the backward area, the batter may not pass first post until the ball is returned to the forward area. A batter that hits a no-ball may not be caught out or stumped at the first post. Batters may run on 'no-balls' but do not have to. Each batter, except the last in each inning, is entitled to receive one good ball: the last batter is entitled to receive three good balls unless he or she is caught out.

One rounder is gained if the player hits the ball, then reaches the fourth post and touches it before the next ball is bowled and is not caught out and hit by the ball. A half rounder is gained if: the player reaches the fourth post having missed the ball; the player reaches the second post having hit the ball; if a batter is obstructed by a fielder whilst running; or if the same batter has two consecutive no balls.…
Sipa (lit. kick or to kick) is the Philippines' traditional native sport which predates Spanish rule. The game is related to Sepak Takraw. Similar games include Footbag net, Footvolley, Bossaball and Jianzi.
It can be one on one two on two three on three or four on four.

Simplified play (one on one, two on two, three on three, or four on four)[edit]
A set of rules determines penalty points (such as the ball bouncing twice on the ground). The two teams play against each other until a set number of penalty points is reached by one of the teams.

There is also a court version in which a rectangle is marked in grids. Grids denote zones, and dictate where players stand, and how points are allotted based on where the ball lands in the court.

This game requires much coordination.

The four different color feathers look like a quadrant


Jianzi (Chinese: 毽子), tī jianzi (踢毽子), tī jian (踢毽) or jianqiú (毽球), also known by other names,[which?] is a traditional Chinese national sport in which players aim to keep a heavily weighted shuttlecock in the air by using their bodies, apart from the hands, unlike in similar games peteca and indiaca. The primary source of jianzi sport is a Chinese ancient game called cuju of the Han dynasty 2000 years ago. Jianzi's competitive sport types are played on a badminton court using inner or outside lines in different types of jianzi's competitive sports, respectively. it can be played also artistically, among a circle of players in a street or park, with the objective to keep the shuttle 'up' and show off skills. In Vietnam, it is known as đá cầu and is the national sport. In the Philippines, it is known as sipa and was also the national sport until it was replaced by arnis in December 2009.[1] In recent years, the game has gained a formal following in Europe, the United States, and elsewhere.

The shuttlecock, called a jianzi in the Chinese game and also known in English as a 'Chinese hacky sack' or 'kinja', typically has four feathers fixed into a rubber sole or plastic discs. Some handmade jianzis make use of a washer or a coin with a hole in the center.

The official featherball used in the sport of shuttlecock consists of four equal-length goose or duck feathers conjoint at a rubber or plastic base. It weighs approximately 15-25 grams. The total length is 15 to 21 cm. The feathers vary in color, usually dyed red, yellow, blue and/or green. However, in competitions a white featherball is preferred. The Official Jianzi for Competitions The shuttlecock used in Chinese JJJ games weighs 24-25 grams. The height from the bottom of rubber base to top of the shuttlecock is 14–15 cm, the width between tops of two opposite feathers is 14–15 cm.


Other names[edit]

Israel - נוצה or נוצ

United States - Chinese hacky sack or kikbo[7] or KickShuttle

Hungary - lábtoll-labda

Canada - kikup

Vietnam - đá cầu

Malaysia - sepak bulu ayam

Singapore (and SE Asia) - chapteh or capteh or chatek

Japan - kebane (蹴羽根)

Korea - jegichagi or jeigi (to most Koreans known as sports only for children)

Indonesia - bola bulu tangkis or sepak kenchi

Philippines - larong sipa

Macau - chiquia

India - poona (forerunner of badminton) (unknown to most Indians)

Greece - podopterisi

France - plumfoot or pili

Poland - zośka

Germany - Federfußball

The Netherlands - "voetpluim" or "voet pluim" or "jianzi"

Cambodia - sey

México - gallito

Sweden - spunky or adde-boll

UK - featherdisk

Ireland - kickum[9]

Mongolia - teveg - тэвэг

Central Asia - Lian-ga (ru:Лянга)

Russia (CIS) - Zoska (ru:Зоска)

Cuju, or Tsu' Chu,[1] is an ancient Chinese ball game, Cantonese "chuk-ko".


Painting of four people playing

One Hundred Children in the Long Spring (长春百子图), a painting by Chinese artist Su Hanchen (苏汉臣, active 1130–1160s AD), Song Dynasty

The Massachusetts Game was a type of amateur club baseball popular in 19th century New England. It was an organized and codified version of local games called "base" or "round ball", and related to town ball and rounders. The Massachusetts Game is remembered as a rival of the New York Game of baseball, which was based on Knickerbocker Rules. In the end, however, it was the New York style of play which was adopted as the "National Game" and was the fore-runner of modern baseball.
It also has four bases


A coxless four is a rowing boat used in the sport of competitive rowing. It is designed for four persons who propel the boat with sweep oars.

The crew consists of four rowers, each having one oar. There are two rowers on the stroke side (rower's right hand side) and two on the bow side (rower's lefthand side). There is no cox, but the rudder is controlled by one of the crew, normally with the rudder cable attached to the toe of one of their shoes which can pivot about the ball of the foot, moving the cable left or right. The steersman may row at bow, who has the best vision when looking over their shoulder, or on straighter courses stroke may steer, since they can point the stern of the boat at some landmark at the start of the course. The equivalent boat when it is steered by a cox is referred to as a "coxed four".

Racing boats (often called "shells") are long, narrow, and broadly semi-circular in cross-section in order to reduce drag to a minimum. Originally made from wood, shells are now almost always made from a composite material (usually carbon-fibre reinforced plastic) for strength and weight advantages. Fours have a fin towards the rear, to help prevent roll and yaw and to help the rudder. The riggers are staggered alternately along the boat so that the forces apply asymmetrically to each side of the boat. If the boat is sculled by rowers each with two oars the combination is referred to as a quad scull. In a quad scull the riggers apply forces symmetrically. A sweep oared boat has to be stiffer to handle the unmatched forces, and so requires more bracing, which means it has to be heavier than an equivalent sculling boat. However most rowing clubs cannot afford to have a dedicated large hull with four seats which might be rarely used and instead generally opt for versatility in their fleet by using stronger shells which can be rigged for either as fours or quads.

"Coxless four" is one of the classes recognized by the International Rowing Federation.[1] and is an event at the Olympic Games.

In 1868, Walter Bradford Woodgate rowing a Brasenose coxed four arranged for his coxswain to jump overboard at the start of the Stewards' Challenge Cup at Henley Royal Regatta to lighten the boat. The unwanted cox narrowly escaped strangulation by the water lilies, but Woodgate and his home-made steering device triumphed by 100 yards and were promptly disqualified. This led to the adoption of Henley Regatta rules specifically prohibiting such conduct and a special prize for four-oared crews without coxswains was offered at the regatta in 1869. However in 1873 the Stewards cup was changed to a coxless four event.[2]

Invention of the coxless four[edit]

In a cause celebre, Walter Bradford Woodgate introduced the coxless four to the United Kingdom in 1868, when he got his Brasenose cox, Frederic Weatherly (later a well-known lawyer and writer of the song "Danny Boy"), to jump overboard at the start of the Steward's Cup at Henley Royal Regatta. While Weatherley narrowly escaped strangulation by the water lilies, Woodgate and his home-made steering device triumphed by 100 yards and were promptly disqualified.


A special Prize for four-oared crews without coxswains was offered at the regatta in 1869 when it was won by the Oxford Radleian Club and when Stewards’ became a coxless race in 1873, Woodgate "won his moral victory," the Rowing Almanack later recalled. “Nothing but defeating a railway in an action at law could have given him so much pleasure.”[18]


Brasenose and "Childe of Hale Boat Club" went on to record legitimate victories in the event.


Two years later, Woodgate founded Vincent's Club as "an elite social club of the picked hundred of the University, selected for all round qualities; social, physical a

An eight is a rowing boat used in the sport of competitive rowing. It is designed for eight rowers, who propel the boat with sweep oars, and is steered by a coxswain, or "cox".

Each of the eight rowers has one oar. There are four rowers on the stroke side (rower's right hand side) and four on the bow side (rower's lefthand side).

The Olympic Games are held every four years, where only select boat classes are raced (14 in total):


Men: quad scull, double scull, single scull, eight, coxless four, and coxless pair

Lightweight Men: coxless four and double scull

Women: quad scull, double scull, single scull, eight, and coxless pair

Lightweight Women: double scull–_Men%27s_coxed_four,_inriggers

The men's coxed fours with inriggers, also referred to as the coxed four with jugriggers, was a rowing event held as part of the Rowing at the 1912 Summer Olympics programme. It was the only appearance of the restricted event. The competition was held on Wednesday, July 17, 1912 and on Thursday, July 18, 1912.


The Athlone Yacht Club Regatta on Lough Ree, Ireland, in the notice of race of 1835 included:

4 August: A silver cup value 15gns. for gentlemen's four oared gigs (not more than 30'-0" on keel) to be won 3 years in succession. No race unless 3 start. Also: A prize will be pulled for in four oared cots. No race unless 3 start.

5 August: A prize will be pulled for in 2 oared boats. A prize will be pulled for in four oared cots.

6 August: A silver cup value 15gns. for gentlemen's four oared gigs - open to gigs from any part of Ireland. A prize for four oared cots.[3]

The event now takes place between the bridges in Athlone or at Killinure.


The World Archery Federation, commonly known as WA and formerly as FITA (Fédération Internationale de Tir à l'Arc), defines a suite of rounds based on a 24-target course.


Four target face sizes are specified: 80 cm; 60 cm; 40 cm and 20 cm. Six target faces of each size are used on the course. For each target face size there are upper and lower distance limits for the various divisions of archer. Target faces have four black outer rings and a yellow spot, each with an equal width. The yellow spot is subdivided into two rings. The black rings score 1 point for the outermost to 4 points for the innermost. A hit in the outer yellow scores 5 points. A hit in the inner yellow scores 6 points. Before April 2008, the innermost yellow ring counted as an X (the number of Xs was used for tie-breaks) but only scored 5 points.


Field rounds are at 'even' distances up to 80 yards (although some of the shortest are measured in feet), using targets with a black inner ring, two white middle rings and two black outer rings. Four face sizes are used for the various distances. A score of five points is awarded for shots which hit the centre spot, four for the white inner ring, and three for the outer black ring.


SlamBall is a form of basketball played with four trampolines in front of each net and boards around the court edge. The name SlamBall is the trademark of SlamBall, LLC.


Each team has four players on the court at any one time.

The spring floor lies adjacent to two sets of four trampoline or spring bed 'quads' which dominate each end of the court. Each trampoline surface measures 7 ft by 14 ft (2.1 m by 4.2 m.) The shock absorbent panels pair with the competition bed trampolines to create a unique playing surface that both launches players to inhuman heights and cushions their landing upon returning to the floor. Specifically engineered pads are designed to cover the frame rails and their tapered design allows for maximum safety for on-court play. This entire playing surface will be surrounded with an 8 ft (2.4 m) Plexiglass wall much like in a hockey rink. Players wear protective cups and special equipment to protect various areas of the body. This consists of knee and elbow pads, and an optional SlamBall-specific helmet.

The object of popinjay is to knock artificial birds off their perches. The perches are cross-pieces on top of a 90-foot (27 m) mast. The "cock" (the largest bird) is set on the top cross piece. Four smaller "hens" are set on the next crosspiece down. Two dozen or so "chicks" (the smallest birds) are set on the lower cross pieces. (GNAS, 2006 - rule 1000)


Tennis is played by millions of recreational players and is also a popular worldwide spectator sport. The four Grand Slam tournaments (also referred to as the "Majors") are especially popular: the Australian Open played on hard courts, the French Open played on red clay courts, Wimbledon played on grass courts, and the US Open played also on hard courts.

Wimbledon, the US Open, the French Open, and the Australian Open (dating to 1905) became and have remained the most prestigious events in tennis.[17][24] Together these four events are called the Majors or Slams (a term borrowed from bridge rather than baseball)


A tennis game is based on four points


A game consists of a sequence of points played with the same player serving. A game is won by the first player to have won at least four points in total and at least two points more than the opponent. The running score of each game is described in a manner peculiar to tennis: scores from zero to three points are described as "love", "fifteen", "thirty", and "forty", respectively. If at least three points have been scored by each player, making the player's scores equal at forty apiece, the score is not called out as "forty-forty", but rather as "deuce". If at least three points have been scored by each side and a player has one more point than his opponent, the score of the game is "advantage" for the player in the lead. During informal games, "advantage" can also be called "ad in" or "van in" when the serving player is ahead, and "ad out" or "van out" when the receiving player is ahead

Quad scull

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Quad scull Germany 1982: Martin Winter (front), Uwe Heppner (second), Uwe Mund (third), and Karl-Heinz Bußert (last)

A quad scull, or quadruple scull in full, is a rowing boat used in the sport of competitive rowing. It is designed for four persons who propel the boat by sculling with two oars, one in each hand


Racing boats (often called "shells") are long, narrow, and broadly semi-circular in cross-section in order to reduce drag. They usually have a fin towards the rear, to help prevent roll and yaw. Originally made from wood, shells are now almost always made from a composite material (usually carbon-fiber reinforced plastic) for strength and weight advantages. The riggers in sculling apply the forces symmetrically to each side of the boat. Quad sculls is one of the classes recognized by the International Rowing Federation and the Olympics.[1] FISA rules specify minimum weights for each class of boat so that no individual will gain a great advantage from the use of expensive materials or technology.


When there are four rowers in a boat, each with only one sweep oar and rowing on opposite sides, the combination is referred to as a "coxed four" or "coxless four" depending on whether the boat has a cox. In sweep oared racing the rigging means the forces are staggered alternately along the boat. The symmetrical forces in sculling make the boat more efficient and so the quadruple scull is faster than the coxless four.[2] *Update Required*


A 'quad' is different to a 'four' in that a 'quad', or quadruple scull, is composed of four rowers each with two blades, sculling. A 'four' is made up of four rowers each with one oar in hand, sweeping.

four positions


The sport consists of four positions: midfield, attack, defense and goalie. In field lacrosse, attackmen are solely offensive players (except on the "ride", when the opposition tries to bring the ball upfield and attackmen must stop them), defensemen or defenders are solely defensive players (except when bringing up the ball, which is called a "clear"), the goalie is the last line of defense, directly defending the goal, and midfielders or "middies" can go anywhere on the field and play offense and defense, although in higher levels of lacrosse there are specialized offensive and defensive middies. Long stick middies only play defense and come off of the field on offense.



Field lacrosse[edit]

Diagram of a men's college lacrosse field

There are ten players in each team: three attackmen, three midfielders, three defensemen, and one goalie.

Each player carries a lacrosse stick (or crosse). A "short crosse" (or "short stick") measures between 40 in (1.0 m) and 42 in (1.1 m) long (head and shaft together) and is typically used by attackers or midfielders. A maximum of four players on the field per team may carry a "long crosse" (sometimes called "long pole", "long stick" or "d-pole") which is 52 in (1.3 m) to 72 in (1.8 m) long; typically used by defenders or midfielders.


The NLL games consist of four fifteen-minute quarters compared with three periods of twenty minutes each (similar to ice hockey) in CLA games (multiple 15-minute OT periods for tied games, until whoever scores first). NLL players may use only sticks with hollow shafts, while CLA permits solid wooden sticks.:[35][36]


Begun in 1968, world championships began as a four-team invitational tournament sponsored by the International Lacrosse Federation. Until 1986, lacrosse world championships had been contested only by the US, Canada, England, and Australia. Scotland and Wales had teams competing in the women's edition. They are now held for lacrosse at senior men, senior women, under 19 men and under 19 women levels.


With the expansion of the game internationally, the 2006 Men's World Championship was contested by 21 countries and the Iroquois Nationals, representing the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy. They are the only Native American/First Nations team to compete internationally. The 2009 Women's World Cup was competed for by 16 nations.


In 2003, the first World Indoor Lacrosse Championship was contested by six nations at four sites in Ontario. Canada won the championship in a final game against the Iroquois Nationals, 21–4. The 2007 WILC was held in Halifax from May 14–20, and also won by Canada. Competition included the Iroquois Nationals and teams from Australia, Canada, Czech Republic, England, Ireland, Scotland, and the United States.

"League announces expansion of rosters to 19 and addition of fourth long pole for 2009". Inside Lacrosse. October 22, 2008. Retrieved October 24, 2008.

Jump up ^


A coxed four is a rowing boat used in the sport of competitive rowing. It is designed for four persons who propel the boat with sweep oars and is steered by a coxswain.

The crew consists of four rowers, each having one oar, and a cox. There are two rowers on the stroke side (rower's right hand side) and two on the bow side (rower's lefthand side). The cox steers the boat using a rudder and may be seated at the stern of the boat where there is a view of the crew or in the bow (known as a bowloader). With a bowloader, amplification is needed to communicate with the crew which is sitting behind, but the cox has a better view of the course and the weight distribution may help the boat go faster. When there is no cox, the boat is referred to as a "coxless four".

Racing boats (often called "shells") are long, narrow, and broadly semi-circular in cross-section in order to reduce drag to a minimum. Originally made from wood, shells are now almost always made from a composite material (usually carbon-fibre reinforced plastic) for strength and weight advantages. Fours have a fin towards the rear, to help prevent roll and yaw and to help the rudder. The riggers are staggered alternately along the boat so that the forces apply asymmetrically to each side of the boat. If the boat is sculled by rowers each with two oars the combination is referred to as a quad scull. In a quad scull the riggers apply forces symmetrically. A sweep oared boat has to be stiffer to handle the unmatched forces, and so requires more bracing, which means it has to be heavier than an equivalent sculling boat. However most rowing clubs cannot afford to have a dedicated large hull with four seats which might be rarely used and instead generally opt for versatility in their fleet by using stronger shells which can be rigged for either as fours or quads.

"Coxed four" is one of the classes recognized by the International Rowing Federation. It was one of the original events in the Olympics but was dropped in 1992.[1]


The fourth is always different


During their heyday as a means of public transports, teams of four men would share ownership of a gondola — three oarsmen (gondoliers) and a fourth person, primarily shore based and responsible for the booking and administration of the gondola (Il Rosso Riserva).


Four types of boats used in Venice


Space in the sandolo is limited, with enough room for one oarsman, aft, two passengers on the main seat, and two more passengers sitting on small stools towards the bow.[7] The traditional use of the sandolo is for recreation and racing, and it is considered one of the four principal types of boat used in and around Venice.[8] Rather less stable than a gondola, it has a rocking motion all of its own.[9]

Four traditional boats of Venice


In early Venice, traditional boats were used as a means of both personal and public transportation. The most common and well-known human transport boats are the sandolo, mascareta, puparin, and gondola. Today motorized boats have replaced many of these human powered boats, and only the gondola remains as a tourist attraction.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.


Ice hockey teams usually consist of four lines of three forwards, three pairs of defencemen, and two goaltenders.


In ice hockey, a line is a group of forwards that play in a group, or "shift", during a game.


A complete forward line consists of a left wing, a center, and a right wing, while a pair of defensemen who play together are called "partners." Typically, an NHL team dresses twelve forwards along four lines and three pairs of defensemen, though some teams elect to dress a seventh defenseman, or a thirteenth forward. In ice hockey, players are substituted "on the fly," meaning a substitution can occur even in the middle of play as long as proper protocol is followed (under typical ice hockey rules, the substituting player cannot enter the ice until the substituted player is within a short distance of the bench and not actively playing the puck); substitutions can still be made during stoppages. Usually, coordinated groups of players (called linemates) are substituted simultaneously in what are called line changes. Linemates may change throughout the game at the coach's discretion.


Ice hockey is one of only a handful of sports (gridiron football being one of the most prominent others) that allows for unlimited free substitution and uses a system of multiple sets of players for different situations. Because of the use of lines in hockey, ice hockey rosters have relatively large rosters compared to the number of players on the ice (23 for a typical NHL team, with 20 active on game day and six on the ice at any given time). Only gridiron football has a larger relative roster size (the NFL has 53 players, 46 active on gameday, 11 on the field).


Types of line[edit]

The first line is usually composed of the best offensive players on the team. Teams heavily rely on this line, which generates the bulk of the team's scoring. These players often see the highest number of minutes among forwards in a game and are usually part of the team's starting lineup.

The second line is generally composed of second-tier offensive players, and helps by adding supplementary offense to that generated by the first line while contributing more two-way play than the offensively-focused scoring line. Higher end (typically first line) players may be put on the second line to spread scoring across the lineup, making a team more difficult for opponents to defend against. This frequently happens when a team has two high-end players who play the same position.

The third line is often called the checking line, and is generally made up of more defensively oriented forwards and grinders. This line is often played against an opponent's first or second lines in an effort to reduce their scoring, and physically wear them down. The third line adds less offense than the first or second lines, but generally more than the fourth.

The fourth line is often called the "energy line," both because their shifts give other players a chance to rest, and because their physically oriented play is said to give their teammates an emotional boost. It is usually composed of journeymen with limited scoring potential, but strong physical play and, as often as possible, strong skating abilities. With the smallest amount of ice time, they tend to play in short bursts rather than pace themselves. Pests and enforcers usually play the fourth line, as do centers whose primary skill is winning faceoffs. The fourth line can be a checking line


A common formation, especially at centre ice, is for a skater to take the face-off, with the wings lateral to the centre on either side, and the skater, usually a defenseman, behind the player handling the face-off, one toward each side. This is not mandatory, however, and other formations are seen—especially where the face-off is in one of the four corner face-off spots.

At its inception, the NHL had four teams—all in Canada, thus the adjective "National" in the league's name


2x2 is a quadrant.

The Pocket Cube (also known as the Mini Cube or the Ice Cube) is the 2×2×2 equivalent of a Rubik's Cube. The cube consists of 8 pieces, all corners.


This is a tetrahedron- tetra means four


The Pyramorphix (/ˌpɪrəˈmɔːrfɪks/, often misspelt Pyramorphinx) is a tetrahedral puzzle similar to the Rubik's Cube. It has a total of 8 movable pieces to rearrange, compared to the 20 of the Rubik's Cube. Though it looks like a simpler version of the Pyraminx, it is an edge-turning puzzle with the mechanism identical to that of the Pocket Cube.


Contents [hide]

1 Description

2 Number of combinations

3 Master Pyramorphix

3.1 Solutions

3.2 Number of combinations

4 See also

5 References

6 External links


At first glance, the Pyramorphix appears to be a trivial puzzle. It resembles the Pyraminx, and its appearance would suggest that only the four corners could be rotated. In fact, the puzzle is a specially shaped 2×2×2 cube, if the tetrahedron is considered to be demicube. Four of the cube's corners are reshaped into pyramids and the other four are reshaped into triangles. The result of this is a puzzle that changes shape as it is turned.


The original name for the Pyramorphix was "The Junior Pyraminx." This was altered to reflect the "Shape Changing" aspect of the puzzle which makes it appear less like the 2x2x2 Rubik Cube. "Junior" also made it sound less desirable to an adult customer. The only remaining reference to the name "Junior Pyraminx" is on Uwe Mèffert's website-based solution which still has the title "jpmsol.html".[1][2]


The purpose of the puzzle is to scramble the colors and the shape, and then restore it to its original state of being a tetrahedron with one color per face.


Number of combinations[edit]

The puzzle is available either with stickers or plastic tiles on the faces. Both have a ribbed appearance, giving a visible orientation to the flat pieces. This results in 3,674,160 combinations, the same as the 2×2×2 cube.


However, if there were no means of identifying the orientation of those pieces, the number of combinations would be reduced. There would be 8! ways to arrange the pieces, divided by 24 to account for the lack of center pieces, and there would be 34 ways to rotate the four pyramidal pieces.










{\frac {8!\times 3^{4}}{24}}=136080

The Pyramorphix can be rotated around three axes by multiples of 90°. The corners cannot rotate individually as on the Pyraminx. The Pyramorphix rotates in a way that changes the position of center pieces not only with other center pieces but also with corner pieces, leading to a variety of shapes.


Master Pyramorphix[edit]


The Master Pyramorphix


The Master Pyramorphix, color-scrambled


The Master Pyramorphix, color- and shape- scrambled


The Master Pyramorphix, partially solved


The Master Pyramorphix, with maximal face-piece flip, equivalent to the "superflip" configuration of the 3x3x3 Rubik's Cube

The Master Pyramorphix is a more complex variant of the Pyramorphix. Although it is officially called the Master Pyramorphix, most people refer to it as the "Mastermorphix". Like the Pyramorphix, it is an edge-turning tetrahedral puzzle capable of changing shape as it is twisted, leading to a large variety of irregular shapes. Several different variants have been made, including flat-faced custom-built puzzles by puzzle fans and Uwe Mèffert's commercially produced pillowed variant (pictured), sold through his puzzle shop, Meffert's.


The puzzle consists of 4 corner pieces, 4 face centers, 6 edge pieces, and 12 non-center face pieces. Being an edge-turning puzzle, the edge pieces only rotate in place, while the rest of the pieces can be permuted. The face centers and corner pieces are interchangeable because they are both corners although they are shaped differently, and the non-center face pieces may be flipped, leading to a wide variety of exotic shapes as the puzzle is twisted. If only 180° turns are made, it is possible to scramble only the colors while retaining the puzzle's tetrahedral shape. When 90° and 180° turns are made this puzzle can "shape shift″.


In spite of superficial similarities, the only way that this puzzle is related to the Pyraminx is that they are both "twisty puzzzles"; the Pyraminx is a face-turning puzzle. On the Mastermorphix the corner pieces are non-trivial; they cannot be simply rotated in place to the right orientation.



Despite its appearance, the puzzle is in fact equivalent to a shape modification of the original 3x3x3 Rubik's Cube. Its 4 corner pieces on the corners and 4 corner pieces on the face centers together are equivalent to the 8 corner pieces of the Rubik's Cube, its 6 edge pieces are equivalent to the face centers of the Rubik's Cube, and its non-center face pieces are equivalent to the edge pieces of the Rubik's Cube. Thus, the same methods used to solve the Rubik's Cube may be used to solve the Master Pyramorphix, with a few minor differences: the center pieces are sensitive to orientation because they have two colors, unlike the usual coloring scheme used for the Rubik's Cube, and the face centers are not sensitive to orientation (however when in the "wrong" orientation parity errors may occur). In effect, it behaves as a Rubik's Cube with a non-standard coloring scheme where center piece orientation matters, and the orientation of 4 of the 8 corner pieces do not, technically, matter.


Unlike the Square One, another shape-changing puzzle, the most straightforward solutions of the Master Pyramorphix do not involve first restoring the tetrahedral shape of the puzzle and then restoring the colors; most of the algorithms carried over from the 3x3x3 Rubik's Cube translate to shape-changing permutations of the Master Pyramorphix. Some methods, such as the equivalent of Phillip Marshal's "Ultimate Solution", show a gradual progression in shape as the solution progresses; first the non-center face pieces are put into place, resulting in a partial restoration of the tetrahedral shape except at the face centers and corners, and then the complete restoration of tetrahedral shape as the face centers and corners are solved.


Number of combinations[edit]

There are four corners and four face centers. These may be interchanged with each other in 8! different ways. There are 37 ways for these pieces to be oriented, since the orientation of the last piece depends on the preceding seven, and the texture of the stickers makes the face center orientation visible. There are twelve non-central face pieces. These can be flipped in 211 ways and there are 12!/2 ways to arrange them. The three pieces of a given color are distinguishable due to the texture of the stickers. There are six edge pieces which are fixed in position relative to one another, each of which has four possible orientations. If the puzzle is solved apart from these pieces, the number of edge twists will always be even, making 46/2 possibilities for these pieces.




















{8!\times 3^{7}\times 12!\times 2^{9}\times 4^{6}}\approx 8.86\times 10^{{22}}

The full number is 88 580 102 706 155 225 088 000.


However, if the stickers were smooth the number of combinations would be reduced. There would be 34 ways for the corners to be oriented, but the face centers would not have visible orientations. The three non-central face pieces of a given color would be indistinguishable. Since there are six ways to arrange the three pieces of the same color and there are four colors, there would be 211×12!/64 possibilities for these pieces.






















{\frac {8!\times 3^{4}\times 12!\times 2^{{10}}\times 4^{6}}{6^{4}}}\approx 5.06\times 10^{{18}}

The full number is 5 062 877 383 753 728 000.

Tetrahedron- tetra means four- it is actually a tetractys with the first line with four dots and ten dots in all. The Pythagoreans worshipped the tetractys as the ultimate symbol



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Pyraminx in its solved state

The Pyraminx (/ˈpɪrəmɪŋks/) is a regular tetrahedron puzzle in the style of Rubik's Cube. It was made and patented by Uwe Mèffert after the original 3 layered Rubik's Cube by Erno Rubik, and introduced by Tomy Toys of Japan (then the 3rd largest toy company in the world) in 1981.[1]


Contents [hide]

1 Description

2 Optimal solutions

3 Records

4 Methods

5 Variations

6 See also

7 References

8 External links



Pyraminx in the middle of a twist

The Pyraminx was first conceived by Mèffert in 1970. He did nothing with his design until 1981 when he first brought it to Hong Kong for production. Uwe is fond of saying had it not been for Erno Rubik's invention of the cube, his Pyraminx would have never been produced.[citation needed]


The Pyraminx is a puzzle in the shape of a regular tetrahedron, divided into 4 axial pieces, 6 edge pieces, and 4 trivial tips. It can be twisted along its cuts to permute its pieces. The axial pieces are octahedral in shape, although this is not immediately obvious, and can only rotate around the axis they are attached to. The 6 edge pieces can be freely permuted. The trivial tips are so called because they can be twisted independently of all other pieces, making them trivial to place in solved position. Meffert also produces a similar puzzle called the Tetraminx, which is the same as the Pyraminx except that the trivial tips are removed, turning the puzzle into a truncated tetrahedron.



Scrambled Pyraminx

The purpose of the Pyraminx is to scramble the colors, and then restore them to their original configuration.


The 4 trivial tips can be easily rotated to line up with the axial piece which they are respectively attached to; and the axial pieces are also easily rotated so that their colors line up with each other. This leaves only the 6 edge pieces as a real challenge to the puzzle. They can be solved by repeatedly applying two 4-twist sequences, which are mirror-image versions of each other. These sequences permute 3 edge pieces at a time, and change their orientation differently, so that a combination of both sequences is sufficient to solve the puzzle. However, more efficient solutions (requiring a smaller total number of twists) are generally available (see below).


The twist of any axial piece is independent of the other three, as is the case with the tips. The six edges can be placed in 6!/2 positions and flipped in 25 ways, accounting for parity. Multiplying this by the 38 factor for the axial pieces gives 75,582,720 possible positions. However, setting the trivial tips to the right positions reduces the possibilities to 933,120, which is also the number of possible patterns on the Tetraminx. Setting the axial pieces as well reduces the figure to only 11,520, making this a rather simple puzzle to solve.


Optimal solutions[edit]

The maximum number of twists required to solve the Pyraminx is 11. There are 933,120 different positions (disregarding rotation of the trivial tips), a number that is sufficiently small to allow a computer search for optimal solutions. The table below summarizes the result of such a search, stating the number p of positions that require n twists to solve the Pyraminx:


n 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

p 1 8 48 288 1728 9896 51808 220111 480467 166276 2457 32



Solving pyraminx in a competition. Andreas Pung at Estonian Open 2011.

The current world record for a single solve of the Pyraminx stands at 1.32 seconds, set by Drew Brads at the Lexington Fall 2015. He also holds the fastest average of 5 (with the fastest and slowest solve disregarded) with 2.14 seconds at US Nationals 2016.[2][3]



There are many methods for solving a Pyraminx. They can be split up into two groups.


1) V first- In these methods, two or three edges, and not a side, is solved first, and a set of algorithms, also called LL algs (last layer algs), are given to solve the remaining puzzle.


2) Top first methods- In these methods a block on the top, which is three edges around a corner, is solved first and the remaining is solved using a set of algorithms.


Common V first methods-


a) Layer by Layer - In this method a face with all edges oriented in the right spot (a.k.a. a layer) is solved and then the remaining puzzle is solved using 5 algorithms particularly for this method.


b) L4E- L4E or last 4 edges is very similar to Layer by Layer. The only difference is that TWO edges are solved around three Centers, and the rest is done by a set of algorithms.


c) Intuitive L4E- A method similar to the L4E, as the name suggests, in which lots of visualization is required. The set of algorithms mentioned in the previous method are not memorized. Instead, cubers intuitively solve each case by anticipating the movement of pieces. This is the most advanced V first method.


Common top first methods-


a) One Flip- This method uses two edges around one centre solved and the third edge flipped. There are a total of six cases after this step, for which algorithms are memorized and executed. The third step involves using a common set of algorithms for ALL top first methods, also called Keyhole last layer, which involves 5 algorithms, four of them being the mirrors of each other.


b) Keyhole- This method uses two edges in the right place around one centre, and the third edge does not match any color of the edge i.e. it is not in the right place OR flipped. The centers of the fourth color are then solved USING the non oriented edge (a.k.a. keyhole). The last step is solved using Keyhole last layer algs.


c) OKA- In this method, One edge is oriented around two edges in the wrong place, but one of the edges that is in the wrong place belongs to the block itself. The last edge is found on the bottom layer and a very simple algorithm is executed to get it in the right place, followed by keyhole last layer algs.


Some other common top first methods are WO and Nutella.


Professional Pyraminxers like Drew Brads usually learn all methods, and while observing a case, decide which method best suits that case.




A solved Tetraminx.

There are several variations of the puzzle. The simplest, Tetraminx, is equivalent to the (3x) Pyraminx but without the tips (see photo). There also exists "higher-order" versions, such as the 4x Master Pyraminx (see photos) and the 5x Professor's Pyraminx.



A scrambled Master Pyraminx


A solved Master Pyraminx

The Master Pyraminx has 4 layers and 16 triangles-per-face (compared to 3 layers and 9 triangles-per-face of the original). This version has about 2.17225 × 1017 combinations.[4][5] The Master Pyraminx has


4 "tips" (same as the original Pyraminx)

4 "middle axials" (same as the original Pyraminx)

4 "centers" (similar to Rubik's Cube, none in the original Pyraminx)

6 "inner edges" (similar to Rubik's Cube, none in the original Pyraminx)

12 "outer edges" (2-times more than the 6 of the original Pyraminx)

In summary, the Master Pyraminx has 30 "manipulable" pieces. However, like the original, 8 of the pieces (the tips and middle axials) are fixed in position (relative to each other) and can only be rotated in place. Also, the 4 centers are fixed in position and can only rotate (like the Rubik's Cube). So there are only 18 (30-8-4) "truly movable" pieces; since this is 10% less than the 20 "truly movable" pieces of the Rubik's Cube, it should be no surprise that the Master Pyraminx has about 200-times fewer combinations than a Rubik's Cube (about 4.3252 × 1019[6]).

There is 16 squares in the quadrant model

The 15-puzzle (also called Gem Puzzle, Boss Puzzle, Game of Fifteen, Mystic Square and many others) is a sliding puzzle that consists of a frame of numbered square tiles in random order with one tile missing. The puzzle also exists in other sizes, particularly the smaller 8-puzzle. If the size is 3×3 tiles, the puzzle is called the 8-puzzle or 9-puzzle, and if 4×4 tiles, the puzzle is called the 15-puzzle or 16-puzzle named, respectively, for the number of tiles and the number of spaces. The object of the puzzle is to place the tiles in order by making sliding moves that use the empty space.

There is 16 squares in the quadrant model


The 15-puzzle (also called Gem Puzzle, Boss Puzzle, Game of Fifteen, Mystic Square and many others) is a sliding puzzle that consists of a frame of numbered square tiles in random order with one tile missing. The puzzle also exists in other sizes, particularly the smaller 8-puzzle. If the size is 3×3 tiles, the puzzle is called the 8-puzzle or 9-puzzle, and if 4×4 tiles, the puzzle is called the 15-puzzle or 16-puzzle named, respectively, for the number of tiles and the number of spaces. The object of the puzzle is to place the tiles in order by making sliding moves that use the empty space.



The puzzle was "invented" by Noyes Palmer Chapman,[11] a postmaster in Canastota, New York, who is said to have shown friends, as early as 1874, a precursor puzzle consisting of 16 numbered blocks that were to be put together in rows of four, each summing to 34. Copies of the improved Fifteen Puzzle made their way to Syracuse, New York, by way of Noyes' son, Frank, and from there, via sundry connections, to Watch Hill, RI, and finally to Hartford (Connecticut), where students in the American School for the Deaf started manufacturing the puzzle and, by December 1879, selling them both locally and in Boston, Massachusetts. Shown one of these, Matthias Rice, who ran a fancy woodworking business in Boston, started manufacturing the puzzle sometime in December 1879 and convinced a "Yankee Notions" fancy goods dealer to sell them under the name of "Gem Puzzle". In late January 1880, Dr. Charles Pevey, a dentist in Worcester, Massachusetts, garnered some attention by offering a cash reward for a solution to the Fifteen Puzzle.[11]


The game became a craze in the U.S. in February 1880, Canada in March, Europe in April, but that craze had pretty much dissipated by July. Apparently the puzzle was not introduced to Japan until 1889.


Noyes Chapman had applied for a patent on his "Block Solitaire Puzzle" on February 21, 1880. However, that patent was rejected, likely because it was not sufficiently different from the August 20, 1878 "Puzzle-Blocks" patent (US 207124) granted to Ernest U. Kinsey.[11]


Sam Loyd[edit]


Sam Loyd's 1914 illustration

Sam Loyd claimed from 1891 until his death in 1911 that he invented the puzzle, for example writing in the Cyclopedia of Puzzles (published 1914): "The older inhabitants of Puzzleland will remember how in the early seventies I drove the entire world crazy over a little box of movable pieces which became known as the '14-15 Puzzle'."[12] However, Loyd had nothing to do with the invention or initial popularity of the puzzle, and in any case the craze was in 1880, not the early 1870s. Loyd's first article about the puzzle was published in 1886 and it was not until 1891 that he first claimed to have been the inventor.[11][13]


Some later interest was fuelled by Loyd offering a $1,000 prize for anyone who could provide a solution for achieving a particular combination specified by Loyd, namely reversing the 14 and 15.[14] This was impossible, as had been shown over a decade earlier by Johnson & Story (1879), as it required a transformation from an even to an odd combination.



The Minus Cube, manufactured in the USSR, is a 3D puzzle with similar operations to the 15-puzzle.


Bobby Fischer was an expert at solving the 15-Puzzle. He had been timed to be able to solve it within 25 seconds; Fischer demonstrated this on November 8, 1972, on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson.


Several browser games are inspired of n-puzzle mechanic, e.g., Continuity[15] or Rooms.[16]

It is 2 by 2 quadrants

The Minus Cube (Russian: «Минус-кубик») is a 3D mechanical variant of the n-puzzle which was manufactured in the Soviet Union. It consists of a bonded transparent plastic box containing seven small cubes, each glued together from two U-shape parts: one white and one coloured. The length of one side of the interior of the box is slightly more than twice the length of the side of a small cube. There is an empty space the size of one small cube inside the box and the small cubes are moveable inside the box by tilting the box causing a cube to fall into the space. The goal of the puzzle is to shuffle the cubes in such a way that on each side of the box, all of the faces of the small cubes are one color.


There are four quadrant squares in the game

The traditional Chinese wooden game Huarong Dao(華容道), where the largest block must be moved to the bottom middle location so that it can be slid over the border, without any of the other blocks being removed in this way. The game of Klotski may refer to a game with this specific layout, or to an identical game with a different tile setup.

Rush Hour is a sliding block puzzle invented by Nob Yoshigahara in the 1970s. It was first sold in the United States in 1996. It is now being manufactured by ThinkFun (formerly Binary Arts).



The game comes with 12 cars and four trucks. 16 all together the last quadrant different. The quadrant model


The regular version comes with 40 puzzles split up into 4 different difficulties, ranging from Beginner to Expert. The deluxe edition has a black playing board, 60 new puzzles and has an extra difficulty, the Grand Master, which is harder than Expert. Puzzles falling in this difficulty range can only be sold with expansion packs of the original game. The regular version includes a travel bag. Extra puzzle card packs (in addition to the 40 or 60 cards included with the game) are also available. The deluxe edition also comes with shiny cars. In 2011, the board was changed to black like the deluxe edition; the cards was changed to new levels and to match the board change too.



The board is a 6x6 grid with grooves in the tiles to allow cars to slide, and an exit hole which according to the puzzle cards, only the red car can escape. The game comes with 12 cars and 4 trucks, each colored differently. The cars take up 2 squares each; and the trucks take up 3.


Sam Loyd's unsolvable 15-puzzle, with tiles 14 and 15 exchanged. This puzzle is not solvable because moving it to the solved state would require a change of the invariant.

Made of quadrants


Example of a Jeu de taquin slide

In the mathematical field of combinatorics, jeu de taquin is a construction due to Marcel-Paul Schützenberger (1977) which defines an equivalence relation on the set of skew standard Young tableaux. A jeu de taquin slide is a transformation where the numbers in a tableau are moved around in a way similar to how the pieces in the fifteen puzzle move. Two tableaux are jeu de taquin equivalent if one can be transformed into the other via a sequence of such slides.


"Jeu de taquin" (literally "teasing game") is the French name for the fifteen puzzle.

It has four colors- four shapes on a quadrant grid- very famous puzzle


The missing square puzzle is an optical illusion used in mathematics classes to help students reason about geometrical figures; or rather to teach them not to reason using figures, but to use only textual descriptions and the axioms of geometry. It depicts two arrangements made of similar shapes in slightly different configurations. Each apparently forms a 13×5 right-angled triangle, but one has a 1×1 hole in it.


A true 13×5 triangle cannot be created from the given component parts. The four figures (the yellow, red, blue and green shapes) total 32 units of area. The apparent triangles formed from the figures are 13 units wide and 5 units tall, so it appears that the area should be 









\textstyle {S={\frac {13\times 5}{2}}=32.5} units. However, the blue triangle has a ratio of 5:2 (=2.5), while the red triangle has the ratio 8:3 (≈2.667), so the apparent combined hypotenuse in each figure is actually bent. With the bent hypotenuse, the first figure actually occupies a combined 32 units, while the second figure occupies 33, including the "missing" square.


The amount of bending is approximately 1/28th of a unit (1.245364267°), which is difficult to see on the diagram of the puzzle, and was illustrated as a graphic. Note the grid point where the red and blue triangles in the lower image meet (5 squares to the right and two units up from the lower left corner of the combined figure), and compare it to the same point on the other figure; the edge is slightly under the mark in the upper image, but goes through it in the lower. Overlaying the hypotenuses from both figures results in a very thin parallelogram (represented with the four red dots) with an area of exactly one grid square, so the "missing" area.

Matsuyama's famous paradox uses four quadrilaterals in a quadrant formation

Mitsunobu Matsuyama's "Paradox" uses four congruent quadrilaterals and a small square, which form a larger square. When the quadrilaterals are rotated about their centers they fill the space of the small square, although the total area of the figure seems unchanged. The apparent paradox is explained by the fact that the side of the new large square is a little smaller than the original one. If θ is the angle between two opposing sides in each quadrilateral, then the quotient between the two areas is given by sec2θ − 1. For θ = 5°, this is approximately 1.00765, which corresponds to a difference of about 0.8%.




Sam Lloyd's famous paradoxical disseciton also uses four figures. at first the four figures make up 64 squares (Four quadrant model 16's- 64 is the double tetrahedron merkabah vector equilibrium what some call the geometry of existence)


Sam Loyd's paradoxical dissection. In the "larger" rearrangement, the gaps between the figures have a combined unit square more area than their square gaps counterparts, creating an illusion that the figures there take up more space than those in the square figure. In the "smaller" rearrangement, each quadrilateral needs to overlap the triangle by an area of half a unit for its top/bottom edge to align with a grid line.


Death spirals can be performed in all four variants of inside/outside and forward/backward edges. The outside edge death spirals are considered more difficult than the inside edge variants. The forward outside death spiral is seen as the hardest of all.


Under the ISU Judging System, the death spiral is abbreviated as "Ds" in the protocol, and preceded by a capital F or B indicating the direction and lower-case i or o for the edge; the level appears as a digit following the four letters.[4] Thus the abbreviations are:


Edge Abbreviation

Forward Inside FiDs

Forward Outside FoDs

Backward Inside BiDs

Backward Outside BoDs



The backward outside death spiral was invented in 1928 by Charlotte Oelschlagel and Curt Neumann,[2] although it was first performed with the skaters holding both hands and the woman not fully lowered toward the ice.[citation needed] The current[vague] one-handed version was developed in the 1940s by the Canadian pair Suzanne Morrow and Wallace Diestelmeyer. The other death spiral variants were invented by Ludmila Belousova and Oleg Protopopov in the 1960s.[3] They assigned the following names to them: Cosmic spiral (backward inside), Life spiral (forward inside), and Love spiral (forward outside).

A jump harness is often employed in training quads.[76] Max Aaron stated that the smallest error may make the difference in the success of a quad attempt: "The minute your left arm is behind you, or your three-turn is too fast, if your hips don't turn in time, if your foot isn't in the right place, anything will throw you off."[76] Ross Miner stated that the quality of the ice sometimes plays a role but more on the quad salchow than the toe loop.[76] Practicing quads increases the risk of injury and wear and tear on a skater's body.[76]




The fourth is transcendent


A quad, or quadruple, is a figure skating jump with no less than four revolutions, no more than five revolutions.[1] Most quadruple jumps have exactly four revolutions; the quadruple Axel has 4½ revolutions, although no figure skater to date has completed this jump in competition. The quadruple toe loop and quadruple Salchow are the two most commonly skated in the discipline. Quadruple jumps have become increasingly common among World and Olympic level men's single skaters, to the point that not having one in a program may be considered a handicap.[2]


In the singles competition for men :


The first person to land a ratified quadruple jump in competition was Kurt Browning in 1988. He landed a quad Toe loop.

Lausanne, Switzerland - 1998 Junior Grand Prix Finals - Timothy Goebel of the United States became the first man to successfully land a quadruple Salchow and, in particular, a quad Salchow in combination.

On September 16, 2011, in the short program at the Colorado Springs Invitational, Brandon Mroz landed the first successful quad Lutz in a sanctioned competition.[3][4][5][6][7] On November 12, he landed a ratified quad Lutz at the NHK Trophy, becoming the first skater to land successfully a quad Lutz in international competition.

In April 2016, ratified at the Team Challenge Cup, Shoma Uno became the first skater to ever land a quadruple Flip at an international competition.[8]

Finally, Yuzuru Hanyu becomes the first skater in history to successfully land a quadruple Loop (also known as the "Rittberger" in Europe) in competition, at the 2016 CS Autumn Classic International.[9]

No quadruple Axel has been ratified yet.

In the singles competition for ladies, only Miki Ando has landed a ratified quadruple jump. In the pair skating competition, top skaters are executing either quad throw jumps or quad twist lifts.

The fourth is always transcendent


At the 2010 Winter Olympics held in Vancouver, Canada, the final results of the men’s figure skating competition sparked what has been dubbed a quadruple jump controversy.[1][2]


At the heart of it lies a quadruple jump, the toughest jump there is in figure skating, done in combination with a triple toe loop, which Evgeni Plushenko of Russia landed in both his short and long programs. Evan Lysacek of the United States, however, did not include quads in either of his programs. Plushenko, who led Lysacek by half a point after the short figure skating program, was beaten out by the American in the final free skate despite performing a quadruple toe loop/triple toe loop.[3] Lysacek’s free skate was regarded as having lower difficulty but better quality than Plushenko's.[4][5]


Many experts of the field have offered their opinions about the results, and many members of the general public have weighed in on the controversy through online message boards, forums and social networking sites.


Though the argument over the quad has attracted attention mostly following the men's figure skating competition at the Vancouver Olympic Games of 2010, the controversy itself is rooted in the quad's history, and its role at major figure skating competitions, including the Winter Olympics. The jump had become so common in men's figure skating since Kurt Browning first landed it in 1988 that it came to be viewed as a deciding element in a winning program and the lack of it almost a handicap.[6]


Since the 1994 Olympics in Lillehammer, Norway, where Alexei Urmanov won gold without one, the quad, if landed in a competition (absent major weaknesses), made a difference between the first and lower placements. In a Sports Illustrated article dated January 19, 1998, E.M. Swift wrote that "no Olympic gold medal will ever again be won by a man who doesn't try a four-revolution jump." [7] Many, therefore, tried to make themselves competitive by including it in their skating arsenal. In the twelve years leading up to the 2010 Olympics, only two skaters won the World Figure Skating Championships without a quadruple jump. Both wins were under the new ISU judging system.


The fourth is always transcendent


Toe loop history[edit]

The toe loop was invented in the 1920s by Bruce Mapes, an American professional show skater.


Toe loops can be done as singles (one revolution is completed in the air), doubles, triples, and even quadruples. Thomas Litz was the first skater to land a triple toe loop, which he accomplished at the 1964 World Figure Skating Championships; Grzegorz Filipowski of Poland was the first skater to perform a triple-triple toe loop combination in competition, in 1980. Jozef Sabovcik of Czechoslovakia landed a quadruple toe loop at the 1986 European Championships which was recognized at the event but then ruled invalid three weeks later due to a touchdown with his free foot.[2] At the 1988 World Championships, Kurt Browning of Canada landed the first quad toe loop which has remained ratified.[1][3]


Today, many elite-level male skaters perform quadruple toe loops as a regular part of their repertoire, but so far no female skater has been credited with landing one successfully in competition. French skater Surya Bonaly made numerous attempts to land a quadruple toe loop in her career, but the judges deemed her attempts over-rotated triple jumps instead.[citation needed]

The wikipedia sight shows one of Panin's special figures was a quadrant (top right image)

Special figures was an event in the 1908 Summer Olympic Games. Nikolai Panin of Russia won the event.


Special figures were a component of figure skating in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Like compulsory figures, special figures involved tracing patterns on the ice with the blade of one ice skate. This required the skater to display significant balance and control while skating on one foot.

At the 1908 Summer Olympics in London, four figure skating events were contested. This took place at the Prince's Skating Club, in the district of Knightsbridge. It was the first time that a type of winter sport was ever introduced in the Olympic Games, 16 years before the first Winter Olympics in Chamonix.


The competition took place on October 28 and 29, 1908.


The number of competitors was very low, with 2 events having only 3 entrants, guaranteeing a medal for participation.


Contents [hide]

1 Medal summary

1.1 Medalists

1.2 Medal table

2 Participating nations

3 References

Medal summary[edit]


Event Gold Silver Bronze

Men's singles Ulrich Salchow

Sweden Richard Johansson

Sweden Per Thorén


Men's special figures Nikolai Panin

Russian Empire Arthur Cumming

Great Britain Geoffrey Hall-Say

Great Britain

Ladies' singles Madge Syers

Great Britain Elsa Rendschmidt

Germany Dorothy Greenhough-Smith

Great Britain

Pair skating Anna Hübler

/ Heinrich Burger

Germany Phyllis Johnson

/ James H. Johnson

Great Britain Madge Syers

/ Edgar Syers

Great Britain


Nikolai Aleksandrovich Panin-Kolomenkin (Russian: Николай Александрович Панин-Коломенкин; 8 January 1872 [O.S. 27 December 1871] – 19 January 1956) was a Russian figure skater and coach. He won the gold medal in special figures in the 1908 Summer Olympics. Panin was Russia's first Olympic champion.[1][2]


The third one to the bottom on the left is another sort of a fourfold special figure by Panin. The second one down on the left has two sort of quadrants in it

Figure 8 is sort of a quadrant


The fourth is transcendent- the flower- four lobes---- most of the skaters did three


Compulsory figures or school figures were formerly an aspect of the sport of figure skating, from which the sport derives its name. Carving specific patterns or figures into the ice was the original focus of the sport. The patterns of compulsory figures all derive from the basic figure eight.


The Ice Skating Institute includes in its highest test level a number of figures from outside the ISU standard rulebook:


"Rocker Double Three" is essentially a "rocker" (ISU 20-21) with "double-three" (ISU 10-13, 28-29, 36-37) outer lobes

"Paragraph Bracket Loop," is a figure with a one full-size lobe, with a bracket turn, and one loop-size lobe, with a loop

"Loops to the Outside" has two loop-sized lobes (with the loops skated outside the lobes instead of inside) on either end of a full-sized central lobe

"The Flower," which has four loop-sized lobes (again, with the loops on the outside of the lobes) enclosed (at the 0, 90, 180, and 270 degree points) within a large outer lobe, with alternating three and bracket turns (at the 45, 135, 225, and 315 degree points).

16 is the squares of the quadrant model

US Figure Skating Senior Championship[edit]

Main article: U.S. Synchronized Skating Championships

The Senior team level consists of 16 skaters. Skaters must be at least 15 years old and have passed the Novice Moves in the Field test.


Look at how the Haydenettes form a quadrant with four of them on each corner and the fourth is different on each one (raised). They form a quadrant model and they won the competition


The Haydenettes, the 25-time US Synchronized Skating National Champions


In competitive diving, during the flight of the dive, one of four positions is assumed:

straight – with no bend at the knees or hips (the hardest of the four)

pike – with knees straight but a tight bend at the hips (the median in difficulty of the four.) The open pike is a variant where the arms are reached to the side, and the legs are brought straight out with a bend in the hips.

tuck – body folded up in a tight ball, hands holding the shins and toes pointed (the easiest of the four.)

free – indicates a twisting dive, and a combination of other positions. In the transition between two positions the diver may for example bend their legs or curve at the waist, and points will not be deducted for doing so.

These positions are referred to by the letters A, B, C and D respectively.

Four skating is a figure skating and roller skating discipline. Fours teams consist of two ladies and two men. The sport is similar to pair skating, with elements including overhead lifts, twist lifts, death spirals, and throw jumps, as well as the elements of single skating in unison, pairs elements in unison and unique elements that involve all four skaters. Fours is not an Olympic event and is rarely competed. It was discontinued from the Canadian Figure Skating Championships following the 1996-1997 season.

The four wheel in line skate is the most common.

Typical recreational skates use frames built out of high-grade polyurethane (plastic). Low-end department or toy store skate frames may be composed of other types of plastic. Speed skate frames are usually built out of carbon fiber or extruded aluminum (more expensive but more solid), magnesium, or even pressed aluminium, which is then folded into a frame (cheaper but less sturdy).

Carbon fiber frames are expensive but generally more flexible, making for a smoother ride at the expense of worse power transfer between the leg and the wheels. In general, carbon fiber frames weigh about 160–180 grams. Recently, high-end carbon fiber frames with a monocoque construction have been introduced. They offer the same level of stiffness as aluminum frames while weighing only around 130g. Aluminum can weigh from 170 to 240 grams. Frame length ranges from 2 wheel framed freestyle wheels (used in aggressive skating) to around 230 mm for short-framed four wheel skates (used in most inline designs), up to about 325 mm for a five-wheel racing frame.

Roller skates are shoes, or bindings that fit onto shoes, that are worn to enable the wearer to roll along on wheels. The first roller skate was effectively an ice skate with wheels replacing the blade. Later the "quad" style of roller skate became more popular consisting of four wheels arranged in the same configuration as a typical car.

The 1970 publication of major league pitcher Jim Bouton's tell-all chronicle Ball Four is considered a turning point in the reporting of professional sports.

Ball Four is a book written by former Major League Baseball pitcher Jim Bouton in 1970. The book is a diary of Bouton's 1969 season, spent with the Seattle Pilots (during the club's only year in existence) and then the Houston Astros following a late-season trade. In it Bouton also recounts much of his baseball career, spent mainly with the New York Yankees. Despite its controversy at the time, with baseball commissioner Bowie Kuhn's attempts to discredit it and label it as detrimental to the sport, it is considered to be one of the most important sports books ever written[1] and the only sports-themed book to make the New York Public Library's 1996 list of Books of the Century. It also is listed in Time Magazine's 100 greatest non-fiction books of all time.

In baseball there are four infielders. a first baseman positioned several steps to the left of first base, a second baseman to the right of second base, a shortstop to the left of second base, and a third baseman to the right of third base.


In baseball, the fourth out is a legal out made by the defense after three outs in a half-inning already have been made. According to the rules, the third out does not cause the ball to become dead; if the fielders make a subsequent out that prevents a run from scoring, this out will supersede the apparent third out, thus becoming the recorded third out.[1] For statistical purposes, the apparent third out is "undone" and the fourth out's result is recorded instead. With the advent of video replay appeals, a new rationale for making extra out(s) has emerged - insurance against a prior out being undone on appeal. These fourth out situations are not the same as four strikeouts in an inning.


Contents [hide]

1 When runs score

2 Examples

2.1 Example: An appeal force out

2.2 Example: A non-appeal out

2.3 Example: A quick fourth out

2.4 Example: A missed fourth out allows a run to score

2.5 Example: A successful fourth out squelches a threat

3 References

When runs score[edit]

The motivation for making a fourth out is to nullify a scored run, by either putting out the runner who had scored (on appeal, if the player failed to tag up after a catch) or putting out an additional runner who is forced to advance.


No run may score on an inning-ending play in which the third out is a force out or on the batter before he reaches first base. Put in other words, force outs count before runs are scored. It is common that a runner reaches home plate a moment before the third out is made by force out. Such a case is routine; the runner doesn't score but is counted as left on base.


It is also common that the third out might come on a non-force tag out after another runner reaches home plate. By extension of these two rules, the "fourth out" covers the case where the third out is not a force out, but a subsequent out is. Since the force out counts before the run scores, it must also count before the third out.



Apparently there are no known MLB examples of a fourth out changing places with a prior out and thereby cancelling a run. The situations where a fourth out may be recognized are exceedingly rare, but some hypothetical examples, and two real examples where the fourth out rule did come into play, are noted below:


Example: An appeal force out[edit]

Suppose three runners are on base with two outs, and the batter hits the ball within the field of play for an apparent hit. Two important facts are required:


The ball has not become dead (i.e., a home run, ground-rule double, umpire interference, or fan interference).

The ball is not caught before hitting the ground.