CROSS IN SQUARE CHURCH
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Panagia Chalkeon, an 11th-century cross-in-square church in Thessaloniki. View from the north east.
A cross-in-square or crossed-dome plan was the dominant architectural form of middle- and late-period Byzantine churches. It featured a square centre with an internal structure shaped like a cross, topped by a dome.
The first cross-in-square churches were probably built in the late 8th century, and the form has remained in use throughout the Orthodox world until the present day. In the West, Donato Bramante's first design (1506) for St. Peter's Basilica was a centrally planned cross-in-square under a dome and four subsidiary domes.
In German, such a church is a Kreuzkuppelkirche, or ‘cross-dome church’. In French, it is an église à croix inscrite, ‘church with an inscribed cross’.
CROSS IS A QUADRANT
The Penitent Thief, also known as the Good Thief or the Thief on the Cross, is one of two unnamed persons mentioned in a version of the Crucifixion of Jesus in the New Testament. In the accounts in the Gospel of Mark and Gospel of Matthew, these two join the crowd in mocking Jesus. The Gospel of Luke describes one asking Jesus to "remember him" when Jesus will have "come into" his kingdom. The other, as the impenitent thief, asks Jesus why he cannot save himself.
THERE IS A DEBATE IN CHRISTIANITY WHETHER JESUS WAS CRUCIFIED WITH FOUR NAILS OR THREE NAILS---- THERE IS ALWAYS THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN FOUR AND THREE
The 19th century Anglican scholar George Stanley Faber claimed that Pope Innocent III declared this to be a heresy and maintained that four nails were used and Jesus was pierced on the right side. This was repeated in historical works such as Sofia Bompiani's A Short History of the Italian Waldenses. Faber's book does not quote any primary source, and does not give the name or date of the document of Innocent III. Other scholarly treatments of the subject, such as Herbert Thurston's article in the 1914 Catholic Encyclopedia, make no mention of any such document.
This last opinion was advocated from about the latter end of the eleventh century: but Pope Innocent III finally and infallibly determined, that four nails were used, and that the Roman soldier pierced the right side of Christ; a decision, which of course stamped the brand of heresy upon Triclavianism.
The judgment of the Pope was confirmed by a miracle: and, as a decisive proof that four nails were used and that the right side was pierced, Lucas of Tuy brings forward the remarkable case of St. Francis Assissi, upon whose body were preternaturally impressed the five wounds of our Savior, in such a manner, that the semblance of the heads of four nails appeared in the inside of the two hands and on the outside of the two feet, while there was so real a wound on the right side that it often emitted blood.
Now this saint was the founder of one of the two Orders which were started by Innocent III against the Humiliated and the Poor Men of Lyons: and as a part of the project, he contrived, we see, to mark himself in such a manner, as to bear a sort of practical testimony against the old triclavian heresy of those whom he was appointed specially to oppose. All parties acknowledged five wounds: but the semblance of four rusty nail-heads on the hands and feet of Francis were, of course, proof positive, that four of the wounds were inflicted by four nails and not by three.
Though in the Middle Ages, the crucifixion of Christ typically depicted four nails, beginning in the thirteenth century, some Western art began to represent Christ on the cross with his feet placed one over the other and pierced with single nail. The poem Christus patiens attributed to St. Gregory Nazianzus and the writings of Nonnus and Socrates of Constantinople also speak of three nails.
THERE IS SERIOUS DEBATE ON WHETHER JESUS WAS CRUCIFIED WITH THREE NAILS OR FOUR NAILS- THERE IS ALWAYS THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN THREE AND FOUR- FOUR IS TRANSCENDENT
The authenticity of many of these relics is in question. The Catholic Encyclopedia remarked that given that the question has long been debated whether Christ was crucified with three or with four nails:
The question of whether Christ was crucified with three or four nails has long been debated, and can hardly be answered with references to medieval treatises or ancient iconic traditions. The details can be followed, however, in the Catholic Encyclopedia (see external link below). The belief that three nails were used is called Triclavianism.
THE ROMANY CHRISTIAN LEGEND SAYS THAT THERE WERE FOUR NAILS MADE TO CRUCIFY JESUS, BUT ONLY THREE WERE GIVEN, AS THE FOURTH PIERCED JESUS HEART- THE FOURTH SQUARE IS ALWAYS TRANSCENDENT
The Romany Crucifixion Legend is a story of how a blacksmith made the nails of the cross upon which Jesus was crucified.
The condemnatory version is that as he made the nails to crucify Jesus Christ, the blacksmiths were condemned to wander the earth and never settle.
Another version does not condemn blacksmiths. It says that the blacksmith was addressed by God in a dream, where he was told to make four nails, but only hand over three, as the fourth was intended to pierce the heart of Jesus. In return God gave his descendants the right to wander the earth (rather than cursing them to it) and also the right to steal from non-Romanies, without breaking the commandment Thou shalt not steal.
CROSS IS QUADRANT
Crucifixion in the Philippines is a devotional practice held every Good Friday, and are part of the local observance of Holy Week. Devotees or penitents called magdarame in Kapampangan are willingly crucified in imitation of Jesus Christ's suffering and death, while related practices are carry wooden crosses, crawling on rough pavement, and self-flagellation. Penitents considered these acts to be mortification of the flesh, and undertake these to ask forgiveness for sins, to fulfil a panatà (Filipino, "vow"), or to express gratitude for favours granted.
FOUR WOMEN AT THE CRUCIFIXION OF JESUS
Matthew and Mark, who speak of "many women" present at the crucifixion, mention three individually at the death of Jesus and two at his burial. Matthew describes the third individual present at the death as the mother of the sons of Zebedee, without naming her. Mark's third individual is called Salome. Luke mentions none individually. John mentions four individually, including Jesus' mother Mary, who is not mentioned by the other evangelists.
The indication in John 19:25 could be interpreted as referring to two, three or four women. There are difficulties against taking it as presenting a double apposition, with "his mother" being Mary of Clopas, and "his mother's sister" being Mary Magdalene. If the women are three, then there is a single apposition, with Mary of Clopas presented as the sister of Jesus' mother (despite the awkwardness of having two sisters bearing the same name) or else, since Hebrew and Aramaic had no specific word for "cousin", presented as her cousin or her sister-in-law, with Clopas considered the brother of Joseph. If there is no apposition, the women are four, as understood by Tatian and the Peshitta. If the last interpretation is chosen, the accounts that the four evangelists give of individual women present at the crucifixion are:
yhw and h tetragrammaton and cross
behonld nail behold hand
CROSS (QUADRANT) AND YHW AND H TETRAGRAMMATON
ALEPH IS A SWASTIKA- TAV IS A CROSS- JESUS SAYS HE IS THE ALPHA AND OMEGA WHICH IS ALEPH TAV---- I DISCUSSED IN THE PSALM OF DAVID WHERE HE IS TALKING ABOUT PROPHETICALLY JESUS IT IS FULL OF TAVS I POSTED ALL THIS STUFF A LONG TIME AGO- TAV IS THE CROSS- THE CROSS IS THE QUADRANT
JESUS SAYS HE IS THE ALEPH TAV- THAT IS THE SWASTIKA/CROSS/QUADRANt/THE FORM OF BEING
ALEPH IS SWASTIKA TAV IS THE CROSS- JESUS SAYS HE IS THE ALEPH TAV (alpha and omega)- THIS PASTOR DISCUSSES MANY PLACES IN THE BIBLE WHERE ALEPH TAV SHOWS UP AND IT IS EVERYWHERE I POSTED TONS OF ARTICLES ON THIS AND OTHER STUFF YEARS AGO
PSALM 119 IS ALEPH TAV- ALEPH IS SWASTIKA TAV IS CROSS--- THESE ARE QUADRANTS
ALEPH IS A SWASTIKA (bull swastika--- I DESCRIBED EARLY CHURCH FATHERS ONE OF THEM LOOKED AT THE BIBLE THE PART WHERE THE BULL WAS DESTROYING THE ENEMY AND HE SAID THE HORNS OF THE BULL ARE THE CROSS--- THE ALEPH LOOKS LIKE A SWASTIKA--- THE TAV IS A CROSS)
ACCORDING TO HEBREW SAGES THE ALEPH TAV CREATED THE UNIVERSE--- THE ALEPH TAV IS THE SWASTIKA CROSS- THE QUADRANT
IN MANY PLACES IN THE BIBLE THERE IS THE MARK OF TAV THAT IS PUT ON FOREHEADS AND SO ON- THE MARK IS THE TAV ACCORDING TO SAGES IT IS THE CROSS- IT WAS THE MARK THAT WAS PUT ON CAIN THE MARK OF THE CROSS IT WAS THE MARK IN EZEKIEL ON THE FOREHEADS- IT IS THE MARK OF THE CROSS/QUADRANT
52 MINUTES TALKS ABOUT THE FOUR MAIN TRIBES THE NAMES FROM THE FIRST LETTERS SYMBOLIZE "BY THE HAND OF THE HIGHEST BY THE SACRIFICE YOU MAY ENTER- TALKING ABOUT THE CRUCIFIED HAND OF JESUS
AT 1:07 HE POINTS OUT THAT THE HEBREW PICTOGRAPHS OF TORAH IS- TORAH IS FOUR LETTERS- AND IT REPRESENTS THE CROSS/QUADRANT
"ON A CROSS IS NAILED THE HIGHEST BEHOLD THIS WONDERFUL SIGHT"
HE POINTS OUT THE TORAH CODE WHERE THERE IS FOUR TORAHS IN ACRONYMS HIDDEN IN INTERVALS IN THE BIBLE--- AND THEY POINT TO LEVITICUS WHERE THERE IS NOT AN ACRONYM OF TORAH BUT OF YHW AND H WHICH HE POINTS OUT PICTOGRAPHICALLY YHW AND H (THE TETRAGRAMMATON)- which he also points out pictographically symbolizes Jesus crucified
AT 1 HOUR 13 minutes HE POINTS OUT YHW AND H SYMBOLIZES "THE HANDS BEHOLD THE NAILS BEHOLD"- REFERENCING THE CROSS- THE CROSS IS THE QUADRANT
I POSTED THIS VIDEO LAST YEAR--- THE FIRST WORD OF THE BIBLE BARASHEIT MEANS "THE SON OF GOD IS DESTROYED BY HIS OWN HAND ON A CROSS"
CROSS IS QUADRANT
ISAAC AND THE CROSS/QUADRANT
In the series of prototypes of the Cross of Christ in later times the sacrificial offering of Isaac is rather significant (Gen. 22). The most cursory glance at this event, which so highly displays Abraham’s faith and the obedience of his son Isaac, easily reveals that its true meaning and significance are contained in a certain great mystery concealed under the cover of this event. St. Ephraim the Syrian explains this mystery in this way, “Isaac, being prepared for sacrifice, ascended the mountain like a meek lamb, carrying the wood of the sacrifice on himself: thus our Saviour also went up to the place of the skull burdened by His Cross. I see the knife and understand the spear: I see the altar and represent Golgotha to myself; I see the wood and foreknow the Cross” (Sermon on Abraham). Isaac obediently surrenders himself for sacrifice by his father Abraham, who from love for God is sacrificing his only son by Sarah, his beloved son: thus Jesus Christ was completely submissive to the will of His Father during His Passion and obedient unto death on the Cross (Phil. 3:8, Rom. 8:32). We sing of Him in the hymns of the divine services, “Thou goest as a true Isaac, taking the Cross on Thy shoulders that Thou mightest offer a sacrifice to the Father for my sins as an acceptable fragrance’ (Canon and Akathist of the Divine Passion of Christ, Canon of the Cross, Canticle 6, Troparion 2).
ACCORDING TO CHURCH FATHERS WHEN JACOB BLESSED JOSEPH'S SONS- HE DID SO IN A CRUCIFORM FASHION IN THE FORM OF THE CROSS
At the time when Joseph brought his sons to be blessed by his father Jacob, who had gone blind from old age, he placed Manasseh, as the elder, opposite his right hand, and Ephraim, as the younger, opposite his left. But to Joseph’s great sorrow Jacob intentionally placed his right hand on Ephraim’s head, and his left on the head of the first-born Manasseh and then prophetically pronounced a blessing on them and their descendants (Gen. 48:8-20). In the understanding of the Orthodox Church, by such a cruciform placement of Jacob’s hands while giving his blessing, the tree of the Cross of Christ was foreshadowed together with the Cross itself as an instrument of blessing for the faithful: Jacob’s blessing bestowed on the children, prophetically foreshadowed Christ’s blessing, coming down from the Cross to sinful humanity. Prefiguring Thy Cross, O Christ, the patriarch Jacob in granting his blessing to his grandsons placed his hands in that form on their heads” (Verse for August 1). “Arranging thy hands in a holy fashion, O all-glorious one, as thou once didst bless thy grandsons, thou didst reveal the image of the holy tree by which blessing has been granted to all who were cursed by wickedly eating of the tree and had crept into the depths of evil” (Canon of the Cross, Canticle 8, troparion 2 for Friday Matins of tone 8).
ACCORDING TO CHURCH FATHERS THE LAMB WAS PLACED IN THE FORM OF THE CROSS- THE PASSOVER LAMB AND THE BLOOD ON THE DOOR THAT SAVED THE ISRAELITES WAS THE FORM OF THE CROSS (QUADRANT)
During the exodus of the Jews from Egypt, God, while establishing the prototypical feast of the Passover, among other things, through Moses commanded the families of the children of Israel to anoint the two posts and the lintel of the doors in their houses, where they would eat the Passover with the blood of the paschal lamb and added, “And you will have the blood, and I will pass by you, and there will not be the plague of destruction among you when I smite the land of Egypt.” (Ex. 12:4, 7, 13). This sign was not a mere conventional symbol by means of which the Angel of Destruction could distinguish the houses of the Hebrews from the houses of the Egyptians, but it had the significance of testifying to the faith of the Hebrews in the propitiatory power of the paschal sacrifice. The blood of the unblemished Paschal lamb with its meaning of salvation for the Hebrews foreshadowed the blood of the Divine Redeemer --- the Lord Jesus Christ, as the Lamb of God, sacrificed from the foundation of the world (Heb. 11:28). St. Cyprian observes that through this (anointing with blood) the Hebrews traced a perfect cross on their dwellings: for by anointing the lintel and threshold they represented the length, and the two posts, the width of the cross (The Rock of Faith on the Honorable Cross, part 1, chap. 1, 20). The preparation of the paschal lamb itself not only foreshadowed but represented plainly the blessed tree of the Cross: “for”, in the words of St. Justin Martyr, “the lamb was placed on the fire in the form of a cross, since one spit stretched from its hind quarters to its head, and the other, on which the lamb was hung, ran across its back.” Further, the prohibition against breaking the bones of the paschal lamb indicated in a hidden way the mystery of the Cross about which the Evangelist John remarks that the bones of the crucified Saviour were not broken on the Cross (19:36).
ACCORDING TO CHURCH FATHERS JOSHUA SON OF NUN WHEN HE MADE THE SUN STAND STILL BY REQUESTING GODS HELP HE HELD HIS ARMS OUT AS A CROSS- ALSO JONAH ACCORDING TO CHURCH FATHERS HELD HIS ARMS OUT IN THE CROSS IN THE BELLY OF THE WHALE- ALSO ACCORDING TO CHURCH FATHERS, DANIEL HELD HIS ARMS OUT IN THE FORM OF A CROSS AND THAT IS WHY THE LIONS DID NOT EAT HIM- THE CROSS IS THE QUADRANT
In the series of other prefigurings of the Lord’s Cross, offered for the consideration of the faithful by the Holy Church in her various services, the following events attract our attention. When the Amalekites attacked the Hebrew people, Moses commanded Joshua the son of Nun to lead the nation into battle against them and then ascend to the top of a hill with Aaron and Hur, taking his wonderworking staff with him; he lifted up his hands and extended them, and whenever Moses lifted up his hands, Israel prevailed (Ex. 17:8-11). By lifting up his hands in this fashion, he prefigured the way Jesus Christ’s hands were stretched on the Cross and nailed to it, while, on the other hand, by the fact that this action destroyed the power of the Amalekites, the destruction by the Cross of Christ of the pernicious power of the spiritual Amalek --- Satan and his hosts --- was prefigured. “In times past Moses, standing between the two priests, prefigured in his person the undefiled Passion (of Christ). Forming a cross with his outstretched hands, he raised a standard of victory and overthrew the power of Amalek” (Canon of the Exaltation, Canticle 1, troparion 1). “Moses prefigured the power of the precious Cross, O Christ, when he put to flight Amalek, his adversary, in the wilderness of Sinai: for when he stretched out his arms in the form of a cross, the people became strong again. And now the fulfillment of these images has come to pass for us. Today the Cross is exalted and devils are put to flight” (Feast of the Exaltation, prayer on “Glory, , And now” of the Lity). Similarly when Joshua the son of Nun wanted to finish the battle with the five Canaanite kings, he stretched out his hands to God with a request for help (Josh. 10:12-14) and in this way prefigured the Lord Jesus Christ, Who stretched out His hands on the Cross: “Of old Joshua the son of Nun mystically prefigured the image of the Cross when he spread his hands out in the form of a cross, O my Saviour, and the sun stood still until he had brought down the enemies who opposed Thee, O God; but now the sun has set, seeing Thee on the Cross; and having destroyed the power of death, Thou hast raised up the whole world” (Kathisma of the Cross, tone 8 for August 1). The prophet Jonah spent three days and three nights in the belly of a whale (Jonah 2) and while there he, too, prayerfully stretched his hands out in the shape of the Cross of Christ and survived by the power of that Cross. “In the belly of the whale Jonah prefigured the image of the Divine Cross with his outstretched arms and, looking up, he was saved from the beast by Thy power, O Word” (Canon for the third Sunday in Great Lent, Canticle 6, katavasia). “Jonah stretched out his hands in the form of a cross within the belly of the sea monster, plainly prefiguring the redeeming Passion (of Christ)” (Canon of the Exaltation, Canticle 6, Irmos). The Church teaches that the prophet Daniel, who at the command of the pagan king Darius was thrown into a den of lions for worshipping the true God, was preserved from harm from the lions (Dan. 6) because his hands also were arranged in the form of a cross when he lifted them up to God with a prayer for help. “The greatest of the prophets, Daniel, once cast into a den of lions, stretched out his hands in the form of a cross, and instead of being consumed by them, was preserved unharmed, blessing Christ our God forever” (Canon for third Sunday in Great Lent, Canticle 8, katavasia).
THE SMITING OF THE ROCK AND THE CROSS/ QUADRANT
Millennia later the Apostle Paul referred to this event with Christological application. He wrote, “Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant, how that all our fathers . . . did . . . drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Christ” (1 Corinthians 10:1, 4). While Paul clearly supports a Christocentric reading of the passage, the church fathers took the symbolism one step further than Paul did and offered a twist that may be surprising to many readers. Of this verse Augustine wrote, “The rock was Christ in sign. . . . The rock was smitten twice with a rod; the double smiting signified the two wooden beams of the cross.”17 Elsewhere Augustine penned this about the miracle recorded in Numbers 20:11: “‘Blessed are they that hunger and thirst after righteousness, for they shall be filled.’ And our thirst is quenched from the rock in the wilderness: for ‘the Rock was Christ,’ and it was smitten with a rod that the water might flow. But that it might flow, the rock was smitten twice: because there are two beams of the cross. All these things, then, which were done in a figure, are made manifest to us.”18
Like Augustine, Caesarius of Arles (circa AD 470–542) also saw a foreshadowing of Jesus’s crucifixion in Moses’s double smiting of the rock. He wrote: “‘Therefore Moses struck the rock twice with his staff.’ What does this mean, brethren? . . . The rock was struck a second time because two trees were lifted up for the gibbet of the cross: the one stretched out Christ’s sacred hands, the other spread out his sinless body from head to foot.”19
Though less specific, John of Damascus (circa AD 650–750) clearly saw the same symbolic message in the Mosaic miracle. He wrote that the “precious Cross” of Christ was symbolized by “the rock [rent] and pouring forth streams of water.”20
Around the same time that Augustine began serving as bishop of Hippo, John Chrysostom (circa AD 347–407) wrote, “Instead of water from a rock, [we have received the] blood from His side; instead of Moses’ or Aaron’s rod, the Cross.”21
Thus, for early Christians this miracle of Moses served to remind readers of the staff that pierced Christ’s side and the blood and water that flowed therefrom (see John 19:34). To the fathers of the church the rock was more than just Christ, as Paul explained it. Rather, it was “Jesus Christ, and him crucified” (1 Corinthians 2:2; emphasis added).22 Though the water flowing from the rock quenched Israel’s physical thirst, it foreshadowed the reality that Jesus’s atoning sacrifice would quench covenant Israel’s spiritual thirst. As one modern typologist noted, “The smitten rock was the source of the rivers of water; just as the death of Christ must precede the descent of the Holy Spirit.”23
CHURCH FATHER SEES HORNS AS THE CROSS (I POSTED THIS ARTICLE LAST YEAR)
Tertullian of Carthage saw a clear reference to Jesus’s crucifixion in the blessing Jacob pronounced upon Joseph. Tertullian wrote:
For Joseph is withal blest by his father after this form: “His glory (is that) of a bull; his horns, the horns of an unicorn; on them shall he toss nations alike unto the very extremity of the earth.” Of course no one-horned rhinoceros was there pointed to, nor any two-horned minotaur. But Christ was therein signified: “bull,” by reason of each of His two characters,—to some fierce, as Judge; to others gentle, as Saviour; whose “horns” were to be the extremities of the cross. For even in a ship’s yard—which is part of a cross—this is the name by which the extremities are called; while the central pole of the mast is a “unicorn.” By this power, in fact, of the cross, and in this manner horned, He does now, on the one hand, “toss” universal nations through faith, wafting them away from earth to heaven; and will one day, on the other, “toss” them through judgment, casting them down from heaven to earth.
SIGN ON THE FOREHEADS OF THE SAVED THE CROSS
The evidence is hidden in a book whose very name suggests the unveiling of concealed concealed—a book so filled with tales of beasts, a seven-headed dragon, horse-like locusts, and a two hundred million-strong army of fire-breathing steeds that you might have missed where it talks about anything like the Sign of the Cross: the Book of Revelation.
In Revelation 7, John witnesses four angels at the four corners of the earth, holding back storm winds ready to wreak havoc on the earth and sea.
Then I saw another angel come up from the East, holding the seal of the living God. He cried out in a loud voice to the four angels who were given power to damage the land and the sea, “Do not damage the land or the sea or the trees until we put the seal on the foreheads of the servants of our God.” I heard the number of those who had been marked with the seal, one hundred and forty-four thousand marked from every tribe of the Israelites (Revelation 7:2-4, New American Bible, Rev. Ed.)
Catholic commentators have traditionally associated the seal on the foreheads of the servants of God with the Sign of the Cross. (For example, see the Haydock Bible Commentary here and Scott Hahn’s book Signs of Life: 40 Catholic Customs and Their Biblical Roots.)
FOUR NAMES FOR SAINT PATRICK SERVED FOUR HOUSES DRUIDS
Tírechán writes, "I found four names for Patrick written in the book of Ultán, bishop of the tribe of Conchobar: holy Magonus (that is, "famous"); Succetus (that is, the god of war); Patricius (that is, father of the citizens); Cothirtiacus (because he served four houses of druids)."
Following the Mass are gatherings that are aimed to be both fun and to challenge teens to go deeper in their relationship with God and to know more about their Catholic faith. Known as Life Nights, they are systematic catechetical gatherings with four distinct segments: Gather, Proclaim, Break, and Send. These segments are derived from the flow of the Mass.
Gather: This section of the Life Night involves an invitation to the teenagers that welcomes them to a Life Night. This can be anything from an interactive game, a chance to win a prize, a skit or a funny video clip. Depending upon the specific night, some nights might utilize several of these aids. Also considered a part of the Gather is any promotion done at the youth Mass (which normally directly precedes a Life Night). This promotion can take several forms such as the Youth Minister making an announcement or the Core members passing out an object related to the theme of the night to try to pique the interest of the teens. The Gather is always directly related to the main message of the night.
Proclaim: This section of the Life Night is devoted to the main teaching for the night. The Proclaim is advised to be 10–15 minutes long, depending on the topic. Typically, the presentation is usually given by the Youth Minister, another Core member, a clergy member, or a team of people. Life Teen also has a prepared DVD component for certain Life Nights which can be shown in place of a live teaching.
Break: In this section of the Life Night, teenagers are given the chance to "break open" the message of the night. Typically this takes the form of small groups. Life Teen recommends one adult for every 6-8 teens in a group. Certain Life Nights recommend a large group wrap session or doing a group activity (like a prayer walk) to provide the teens a chance to digest the message of the night.
Send: The send portion of a Life Night is to wrap up the Life Night by giving the teens a way to take the message they learned and apply it to their lives at home. Generally the send involves some personal prayer time. Depending on the night, teens might be given the chance to make a personal commitment to do something or not do something. The teens may also be presented with a small gift (such as holy water, a nail or a cross) to help them remember the message of the night. Life Teen also recommends the closing of each Life Night with a reminder of what the next Life Night will be and having the teens say as a group the Hail Mary and sing Ave Maria.
COLUMN HAS JESUS AND CROSS/ QUADRANT ON IT
The top of the column has a statue of "Christ the Redemeer" ("Cristo Redentore" in Italian) that was realized by Giuseppe and Gian Battista Vismara and designed by the renowned Milanese architect Francesco Maria Richini.
The construction of the column was ordered by the "Confraternity of the Sacred Cross of Porta Tosa", a Milanese religious order which had its headquarters in the area. The purpose of the column was twofold; it was meant both a votive offering to celebrate the end of the epidemic of plague that occurred in Milan in 1576-1577, and as a symbol of the power of Christianity to be opposed to the malicious power of the witches that were believed to inhabit the neighbourhood. The column itself was built in Baveno and brought to Milan by boat; at the time, the Verziere itself could be reached by boat through Milan's canal system.
FOUR TYPES OF BIBLICAL HERMENEUTICS
There are traditionally four different types of biblical hermeneutics: literal, moral, allegorical (spiritual), and anagogical.
Encyclopædia Britannica states that literal analysis means “a biblical text is to be deciphered according to the ‘plain meaning’ expressed by its linguistic construction and historical context.” The intention of the authors is believed to correspond to the literal meaning. Literal hermeneutics is often associated with the verbal inspiration of the Bible.
Moral interpretation searches for moral lessons which can be understood from writings within the Bible. Allegories are often placed in this category.
Allegorical interpretation states that biblical narratives have a second level of reference that is more than the people, events and things that are explicitly mentioned. One type of allegorical interpretation is known as typological, where the key figures, events, and establishments of the Old Testament are viewed as “types”. In the New Testament this can also include foreshadowing of people, objects, and events. According to this theory, readings like Noah’s Ark could be understood by using the Ark as a “type” of Christian church that God expected from the start.
This type of interpretation is more often known as mystical interpretation. It purports to explain the events of the Bible and how they relate to or predict what the future holds. This is evident in the Jewish Kabbalah, which attempts to reveal the mystical significance of the numerical values of Hebrew words and letters.
In Judaism, anagogical interpretation is also evident in the medieval Zohar. In Christianity, it can be seen in Mariology.
MARXIST HERMEUNITCS IS A SECULARIZED FOURFOLD SYSTEM THAT DERIVES FROM BIBLICAL HERMENEUTICS
The method of Marxist hermeneutics has been developed by the work of, primarily, Walter Benjamin and Fredric Jameson. Benjamin outlines his theory of the allegory in his study Ursprung des deutschen Trauerspiel ("Trauerspiel" literally means "mourning play" but is often translated as "tragic drama"). Fredric Jameson draws on Biblical hermeneutics, Ernst Bloch, and the work of Northrop Frye, to advance his theory of Marxist hermeneutics in his influential The Political Unconscious. Jameson's Marxist hermeneutics is outlined in the first chapter of the book, titled "On Interpretation" Jameson re-interprets (and secularizes) the fourfold system (or four levels) of Biblical exegesis (literal; moral; allegorical; anagogical) to relate interpretation to the Mode of Production, and eventually, history.
FORTY IN THE BIBLE- EXTREMELY COMMON- BECAUSE OF THE FOUR
What Does the Number Forty (40) Mean or Represent in the Bible?
October 3, 2014 by Jack Wellman 0 Comments
Numbers can often have meaning in the Bible so what does the number forty mean and what is normally associated with it?
Forty: the Number of Testing
The number forty usually has to do with testing in the Bible. There are dozens of examples to show this and we will examine a few to see why this is so. From Jesus to the children of Israel in the Wilderness, the number forty shows that testing and trials are sometimes associated with this number and so we read in the Scriptures that the number forty generally symbolized a period of testing, trial or probation. As has been said, a faith that is not tested cannot be trusted.
Matthew 4:1-3a “Then Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. And after fasting forty days and forty nights, he was hungry. And the tempter came and said to him.”
Jesus fasted for forty days and forty nights and it wasn’t until after He fasted that He faced the greatest temptation that anyone has ever experienced…and He passed this severe test. Can you imagine fasting for forty days and nights? What must that have felt like? How famished and exhausted He must have been! Fasting is a powerful tool to use when overcoming a major sin like an addiction (Isaiah 58) and by Jesus’ fasting for so many days He was able to resist the Devil and his three temptations in putting Jesus, Who is God, to the test. Being hungry, how hard it must have been for Jesus to not turn stones into bread, yet Jesus defeated the Devil at his own game.
Joshua 5:6 “For the people of Israel walked forty years in the wilderness, until all the nation, the men of war who came out of Egypt, perished, because they did not obey the voice of the LORD; the LORD swore to them that he would not let them see the land that the LORD had sworn to their fathers to give to us, a land flowing with milk and honey.”
Israel, time and again showed discontent with what God had provided for them and so God allowed them to wander in the wilderness as a way of testing them “because they did not obey the voice of the Lord.” They were not allowed to enter the Promised Land because of that. Since they tested God, God then tested the house of Israel. Even with their failure to obey God, He told them “The LORD your God has blessed you in all the work of your hands. He has watched over your journey through this vast wilderness. These forty years the LORD your God has been with you, and you have not lacked anything” (Duet 2:7).
Moses’ Forty Day Fast
Exodus 34:27-28 “And the Lord said to Moses, “Write these words, for in accordance with these words I have made a covenant with you and with Israel.” So he was there with the Lord forty days and forty nights. He neither ate bread nor drank water. And he wrote on the tablets the words of the covenant, the Ten Commandments.”
Moses was up on the mountain in the presence of God and while there, “he neither ate bread nor drank water.” This seems to fit a pattern of seeking the presence of the Lord while fasting. Many people fast when they are trying to overcome a major sin or when they are petitioning God because of a great trial in their life. While God was chiseling out the Ten Commandments, the nation of Israel was already playing the harlot and worshiping an idol.
The Flood of Forty Days and Nights
Genesis 7:12 “And rain fell upon the earth forty days and forty nights.”
The flood symbolized God’s judgment on a sinful people and this trial by water lasted for forty days and forty nights, wiping out all those who refused to repent and turn to God at Noah’s preaching, even though Noah had preached to them for well over a century.
40 in the Bible
Other Significant Events and the number Forty
Forty stripes was the maximum number allowed for anyone to be punished (Duet 25:3).
The prophet Jonah prophesied of the impending destruction of Nineveh if they didn’t repent and gave them forty days to do so and they eventually did repent and the entire city-state was sparred.
Moses sent spies into the Promised Land and they were there for forty days and forty nights before returning to give their report about the land (Numbers 13:25, 14:34).
The prophet Elijah went forty days and nights without food or water while on Mount Horeb.
Jesus appeared for forty days after His resurrection from the dead and the disciples and many others witnessed His appearance.
When Israel disobeyed God, He gave them over to their enemies for forty years (Judges 13:1).
King Saul reigned over Israel for forty years (Acts 13:21) as did David (2 Samuel 5:4, 1 Kings 2:11) and Solomon (1 Kings 11:42).
The holy place of the temple was forty cubits long (1 Kings 6:17).
Ezekiel bore the evil of the house of Judah for forty days (Ezk 4:6).
The number forty represents the number of one generation as with the children of Israel who died in the Wilderness for their disobedience to the Lord.
Isaac and Jacob were both forty years old when they married (Genesis 25:20, 26:34).
Today, God is still testing His saints but often this testing is seen as a punishment but as in the case of Job, this testing is not always for reproof or correction but to see if they will seek God and still praise Him even in the storms of life. As I wrote earlier, a faith that is not tested cannot be trusted so if you are presently experiencing a trial or a test, don’t grow weary or faint and don’t give up because God may not necessarily be disciplining you but may be testing you to see how strong your faith and trust in Him really is. I pray we can all pass the test and remain obedient to God and have our trust in Him remain unshaken.
Another Reading on Patheos to Check Out: What Did Jesus Really Look Like: A Look at the Bible Facts
Article by Jack Wellman
Jack Wellman is Pastor of the Mulvane Brethren church in Mulvane Kansas. Jack is also the Senior Writer at What Christians Want To Know whose mission is to equip, encourage, and energize Christians and to address questions about the believer’s daily walk with God and the Bible. You can follow Jack on Google Plus or check out his book Blind Chance or Intelligent Design available on Amazon
40 IN BIBLE
The Significance of the Number 40
Todd Dennis and Richard Anthony
Of all the types and shadows of the Old Testament, none is as pervasive and important as the shadows revealed in the relationship between "forty," and the fulfillment of promises.
The rains (in Noah's day) fell for 40 days and nights (Genesis 7:4).
Israel ate Manna for 40 years (Exodus 16:35).
Moses was with God in the mount, 40 days and nights (Exodus 24:18).
Moses was again with God 40 days and 40 nights (Exodus 34:28).
Moses led Israel from Egypt at age 80 (2 times 40), and after 40 years in the wilderness, died at 120 (3 times 40; Deuteronomy 34:7).
The spies searched the land of Canaan for 40 days (Numbers 13:25).
Therefore, God made Israel wander for 40 years (Numbers 14:33-34).
40 stripes was the maximum whipping penalty (Deuteronomy 25:3).
God allowed the land to rest for 40 years (Judges 3:11).
God again allowed the land to rest for 40 years (Judges 5:31).
God again allowed the land to rest for 40 years (Judges 8:28).
Abdon (a judge in Israel) had 40 sons (Judges 12:14).
Israel did evil; God gave them to an enemy for 40 years (Judges 13:1).
Eli judged Israel for 40 years (1 Samuel 4:18).
Goliath presented himself to Israel for 40 days (1 Samuel 17:16).
Saul reigned for 40 years (Acts 13:21).
Ishbosheth (Saul's son) was 40 when he began reign (2 Samuel 2:10).
David reigned over Israel for 40 years (2 Samuel 5:4, 1 Kings 2:11).
The holy place of the temple was 40 cubits long (1 Kings 6:17).
40 baths (measurement) was size of lavers in Temple (1 Kings 7:38).
The sockets of silver are in groups of 40 (Exodus 26:19 & 21).
Solomon reigned same length as his father; 40 years (1 Kings 11:42).
Elijah had one meal that gave him strength 40 days (1 Kings 19:8).
Ezekiel bore the iniquity of the house of Judah for 40 days (Ezekiel 4:6).
Jehoash (Joash) reigned 40 years in Jerusalem (2 Kings 12:1).
Egypt to be laid desolate for 40 years (Ezekiel 29:11-12).
Ezekiel's (symbolic) temple is 40 cubits long (Ezekiel 41:2).
The courts in Ezekiel's temple were 40 cubits long (Ezra 46:22).
God gave Nineveh 40 days to repent (Jonah 3:4).
Jesus fasted 40 days and nights (Matthew 4:2).
Jesus was tempted 40 days (Luke 4:2, Mark 1:13).
Jesus remained on earth 40 days after resurrection (Acts 1:3).
Women are pregnant for 40 weeks (time of testing).
The number forty is used by God to represent a period of testing or judgment (the length of time necessary to accomplish some major part of Gods plan in his dealings with various portions of mankind). The 40 days of rain in the days of the flood were the judgments of God. The 40 day periods of fasting, testing, and communing with God that were faced by Moses and Jesus were a form of God's judgments. The forty years that the Israelites spent in the wilderness were also the judgments of God. Various leaders in Israel who reigned for 40 year periods were put there BY God according to His Will and Judgments. Egypt was left desolate for 40 years because of God's judgments. I could go on and on, but I think these examples should suffice for now.
The maximum number of "stripes" allowed for punishment was 40. "Stripes" have to do with judgment (including God's). See Luke 12:47-48. When God brings judgment upon His people, it may be rightly termed, "stripes". When Peter states (about Jesus) "by whose stripes ye were healed" in 1 Peter 2:24, he is quoting from Isaiah 53:5 which is a prophecy concerning spiritual and not physical healing as many teach. Although physical healing from God is a wonderful blessing, spiritual healing is an even greater blessing. Our salvation is dependent on the fact that Jesus bore the stripes that you and I deserve to bear. In other words, Jesus' bore the main force of the judgments that should come upon you and I as sinners. Isaiah's prophecy shows the judgments of God were poured out upon Jesus for our healing.
Forty sons of a judge in Israel (Abdon), whose name means "servitude" represents the product or offspring of a judge who serves in Israel. Once again we see the number 40 used in connection with the subject of judgment.
There were ten lavers in Solomon's temple, and each one contained 40 baths of liquid volume (over 350 gallons each). Do these have anything to do with judgment? Yes, because the water in the laver was symbolic of the word of God which "washes" us as followers of Christ today (Ephesians 5:26, Revelation 22:1-2).
I believe one of the easiest "40s" to use to illustrate this symbolism is the story of Noah and the flood. There are two basic forms of judgment that God sends forth. One is the type that He pours out upon the ungodly. This would be the kind we see illustrated in the flood, and also the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah. The other is the type that He sends upon His people in order to awaken them or bring them to a closer "walk" with Him.
We know that, in Noah's day, the rainfall coming down from "heaven" had two different affects. Obviously, it was a destructive force as far as the lost were concerned. They were outside of the ark of safety, and therefore beyond any hope of survival. However, when the water hit the earth it raised the ark. Raising the ark heavenward symbolizes our being "lifted up to sit in heavenly places in Christ Jesus" (Ephesians 2:6). The same waters that destroyed the wicked also caused the people of God to be lifted up (thanks to the ark).
God poured His judgments upon the ark. He knew it would stand fast. It was built to His plans and specifications. Why would God require the people to build an ark if He did not plan on sending the same judgments upon it as he sent upon the people who were not in it? The Ark was a God given escape route from judgments which fell upon them all. The forty days and nights of the flood are symbolic of God's judgments which fall primarily upon his people and the spiritual ark today. Even though the wicked drowned right away, God still had a purpose for the ark to go through the 40 day and night period in order to picture the spiritual type. The judgments of God had to fall upon even his true people, but He had provided a means which would save them from those judgments.
We can easily see from Numbers 32:13 and Hebrews 3:8-10 that God calls 40 years a generation. Matthew 1:17: from captivity in Babylon (586 BC) until Christ is 14 generations. 586 BC to Christ' birth is 586 years, divided by 14 is 41 years. This is important, as it will benefit us in studying the meaning of Jesus' words in Matthew 23:36; 24:34, Mark 13:30, and Luke 21:32.
We are about to put some biblical pieces together in a puzzle that can solve a lot of unknowns and uncertainties in some major doctrinal areas. Let us look at the "pieces" we have figured out so far: 1) The number 40 has to do with God's judgments. 2) God speaks of a generation as 40 years. 3) Jesus speaks of judgments that will come upon a particular generation of the literal Jews.
We find the most significant numerological type of all in one of the most striking events in the account of Scripture - the forty years of wilderness wandering leading up to the possession of the temporal land of promise. In fact, Paul himself wrote that the surrounding events of the wilderness wandering "were our examples" (I Corinthians 10:6), and that "they are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world (aion-age) have come" (verse 11). It is this event which presents the clearest correspondences to the redemptive work of Christ, and the time-frame of its fulfillment.
To be more specific, the exodus out of Egypt and into the promised land, by the children of Israel under Moses, is a direct shadow of the exodus of the New Testamentary generation from the cross to the entrance into the eternal land of rest. We will see a number of similarities between the two; not only in the area of principles and concepts, but also in the chronological time-frame of the periods under consideration.
In looking at the above chart, we find a number of very important conceptual correlations that display the relationship between (1) the typology of the Exodus to the land inheritance, and (2) the fulfillment from the cross to the second coming of Christ:
1. The first established a temporary contract of God with the people He chose- the Old Covenant. The second established a permanent contract- the New Covenant.
2. One introduced the first Passover with the blood of lambs. The other fulfilled the type with the sacrifice of the final Passover Lamb (i.e. Jesus Christ).
3. One brought God's people physical deliverance by crossing through the Red Sea. The other brought God's people spiritual deliverance by the working of the cross of Christ, whereby we 'cross through' the Crimson sea.
4. The first was preceded by physical slavery- the bondage of the Hebrews in Egypt. The second was preceded by spiritual slavery, man's bondage to Spiritual Egypt (i.e. The elements of the Law [Galatians 4:3] and the 'body of sin' - [Romans 6:6]).
5. Fifty days after the first Passover in Egypt, the Law was given to the nation of Israel at Mount Sinai, written upon tables of stone. (according to Jewish tradition - Exodus 19:1). Fifty days after the final Passover was sacrificed, the Law was given to the "Israel of God", written upon their hearts by the Spirit of God (II Corinthians 3:3; Hebrews 8:10, Acts 2).
6. On the day that the Law was given, 3,000 died for worshipping the golden calf, signifying the covenant of the law that brought death (Exodus 32:28; cf. II Corinthians 3:16-18). On the day the Spirit was given, 3,000 were added into Christ and received life (Acts. 2:41), signifying the covenant of the Spirit that brought life.
The correlation does not stop with the initial workings of the exodus, but also with the entrance into the land of temporal rest, forty years later. Just as the children of faith were allowed to enter into the temporal land of rest the first time, the children of faith in the generation directly following the cross of Christ were given entrance into the eternal land of rest. Therefore, besides the conceptual similarities, there is also a direct chronological solidarity between the two, for:
7. With each covenant, a 40 year transition period followed the initial act of deliverance, unto the entrance into the land of promise.
Christ specifically told the disciples at the last supper, "I go to prepare a place for you. And if I go to prepare a place for you, I will come again, and receive you unto myself, that where I am, there ye may be also" (John 14:2-3). This reception was into, what is described in Hebrews as, "a better country, that is an heavenly" (Hebrews 11:16). The significance in this, is that the believers among the people of Israel did not receive the promises of the Promised land, when they entered into Palestine (Hebrews 4:6-9). This promise was in regards to the fulfillment of redemption and eternal life in the kingdom of God, which entrance was corporately given to all believers at the end of the 40 years from the cross to the coming of Christ.
The following points continue the shadow of the Exodus, and show the chronological similarities between the two. The purpose of this is to show the time-frame of the believers' entrance into the heavenly country, for which Palestine only stood in shadow:
1. Both forty year periods are described as a time of particular "temptation" (Hebrews 3:8; Luke 8:13, 11:4, 22:40), through which they must needs endure unto the end, to be saved (Hebrews 3:13-14).
2. During both periods, the people hardened their hearts, tempted God, and distinctly rejected the word of the Lord.
3. During both periods, the people saw God's works forty years (Hebrews 3:9; Acts 2:17-21). God manifested Himself to His people by signs and wonders; in the desert under Moses' leadership, daily manna, miraculous supplies of water or meat, and the appearance of the cloud and the fiery pillar revealed God's presence. In the transition period to the New Covenant, the apostles had special gifts of healing, prophecy, and tongue-speaking. These gifts were specifically slated to end, once Christ had come, and not until (I Corinthians 13:8-10).
4. During both periods, God was particularly grieved with the generation of men then living (Hebrews 3:10; Matthew 23:34-36).
5. During both periods, the wicked were severed from among the just, and not allowed to enter into the land of promise (Hebrews 3:11,17; Matthew 12:30, 13:49).
6. At the end of the first 40 year period, the Israelites of faith entered the temporal land of promise, in which God enabled them to defeat their physical foes. At the end of the second 40 year period, salvation was complete, and God's people entered their eternal Promised Land in which God enabled them to defeat their spiritual enemies (I Corinthians 15:26,54-57).
The physical illustrations in the Old Covenant are fulfilled in each case by the spiritual realities of the New Covenant. The second is a spiritual (rather, an eternal) covenant with victory over spiritual slavery and spiritual death, bringing eternal deliverance through a spiritual Passover resulting in our new eternal life and eternal salvation.
While Old Testament Israel's exodus was from the bondage of Egypt, the New Testament Israel's exodus was from the bondage of the Old Covenant Law. The most recognizable passage that depicts this "new exodus" is found in I Corinthians 10:1-11. Paul wrote, "Now all these things happened unto them for ensamples: and they are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are come." His contextual foundation for this statement was the Old Testament exodus from Egyptian bondage. He wrote that they had passed through the sea (verse 1). They ate manna and drank from the rock (verse's 3-4). He then relays how they wandered in the wilderness (verse 5), became idolaters (verse 7), tried the Lord and were destroyed by serpents (verse 9). This shows us that, just like the "type and shadow" of the Old Testament and their deliverance from bondage, the New Testament saints were undergoing the same exodus. The only difference was that Paul's generation was the reality to which the Old Testament example pointed.
The Transition period of the Testaments
in 70AD Now
Old Testament Age
New Testament Age
The transition period was to bring Old Testament Israel (God's Old Covenant people) to the knowledge that their Messiah had come. This is GOD'S way of doing things. For example, Revelation 2:21 says, "And I gave her space to repent of her fornication; and she repented not." In this scripture, the Lord is saying that He:
1) Gives "light" or understanding to expose their sin.
2) Then gives a "space" of time for the person to quit and make restitution for their sin.
3) God goes on in the context to show that if they do not repent, then He brings severe judgment against them.
God not only worked in this manner for the Jewish people (literal Israel), but also did the same in other cases as well. For example, God gave Nineveh 40 days to repent, and Jesus realized that was a "type" of what God was doing to literal Israel. Jesus also knew that literal Israel would not repent as did Nineveh (Matthew 12:38-41).
Moses: A type of Christ
It almost goes without stating that Moses was a "type" of Christ. In Deuteronomy 18, Moses told the nation of Israel, " The LORD thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken;" (verse 15). Peter testified in Acts 3 that Moses was speaking about Christ (verses 19-26). Notice these similarities:
Parallels Moses Christ
Born under persecution Exodus. 1:8-22 Matthew 2:16-18
Begins ministry with miracles Exodus 3:20; 4:1-9, 17; 7-14 Matthew 4:18-25
Contended with masters of evil Exodus 7:11 Matthew 4:1
Controlled the sea Exodus 14:21 Matthew 8:26
Discredited at home Numbers 12:1 John 7:5
Endured Murmurings Exodus 15:24 Mark 7:2
Escapes infanticide Exodus 1:22, 2:1-10 Matthew 2:16-18
Established memorials Exodus 12:14 Luke 22:19
Fasted 40 days Exodus 34:28 Matthew 4:2
Fed Multitudes Exodus 16:15 Matthew 14:20
Gives the law on a "mountain" Exodus 20 Matthew 5-7
Had 70 helpers Numbers 11:16-17 Luke 10:1
Had a radiant face Exodus 34:35 Matthew 17:2
Made intercession Exodus 32:32 John 17:9
Preserved at childhood Exodus 2:2-10 Matthew 2:14, 15
Re-appeared after death Matthew 17:3 Acts 1:3
Spends early days in Egypt Exodus 2:6-14 Matthew 2:13-15
The importance of this fact should not be overlooked. Moses was a "picture" of Christ. He was the "type and shadow," whereas Christ was the "reality." In fact, there are many comparisons of this in the New Testament. For instance, in Hebrews 3, a very important comparison is made.
In Hebrews 3:1-19, we not only have a comparison of Moses and Christ, but also the people that each one delivered. There is a similarity between these two events — Israel "after the flesh" was delivered by Moses from Egyptian bondage, whereas Israel "after the Spirit" was delivered by Christ from Old Covenant bondage. This is the same thing that Paul wrote in 1 Corinthians10:1-11.
Paul very clearly taught that the exodus of Old Covenant Israel was the "example," or the "type and shadow," for the exodus of New Covenant Israel's reality. That is to say, the exodus of Israel "after the flesh" was a physical picture of what the real exodus was to be like — the spiritual deliverance from the bondage of sin-death.
David: A type of Christ
The other Old Testament man we want to look at is David. David was promised that one of his seed would be established on his throne (2 Samuel 7:12, Psalm 132:11). Somewhere along the line, David's seed became "David" (Jeremiah 30:9, Ezekiel 34:23-24; 37:24-25). David was from Bethlehem (1 Samuel 17:15, Luke 2:4), just like Christ was (Matthew 2:1, John 7:42).
Of particular interest is a prophecy found in Hosea 3:5. Notice that "David" would be Israel's kind "in the last days." From this we can conclude that this "David" was a symbolic reference of Christ. In fact, He was from the lineage of David and was called the "Son of David" on various occasions. Also notice that "David" would be a shepherd to God's people (Ezekiel 34:23-24; 37:24-25). This should remind of Christ's own words in John 10:11,14. The disciples also recognized and understood the significance of this reference (Hebrews 13:20, 1 Peter 5:4, Revelation 7:17).
It should be obvious from these verses that Jesus Christ was the fulfillment of those prophecies cited above. Now, if David and his reign as king over Israel after the flesh, was the "type and shadow" for Christ's Messianic reign over Israel after the Spirit, then to be able to determine the length of Christ's Messianic reign, we must determine the length of David's reign over the nation of Israel (2 Samuel 5:4, 1 Kings 2:11).
David's reign was forty years!
Christ's 40 Years
Since David's reign was forty years, we can determine that the length of Christ's Messianic reign was 40 years (30 A.D. to 70 A.D.). In other words, after the coming of Christ in 70 A.D. is the time when Christ delivered the kingdom to our Father in Heaven, and became subject to Him.
1 Corinthians 15:23-28, "But every man in his own order: Christ the firstfruits; afterward they that are Christ's at his coming. Then cometh the end, when he shall have delivered up the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he shall have put down all rule and all authority and power. For he must reign, till he hath put all enemies under his feet. The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death. For he hath put all things under his feet. But when he saith all things are put under him, it is manifest that he is excepted, which did put all things under him. And when all things shall be subdued unto him, then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things under him, that God may be all in all."
After this Messianic reign ended, it does not mean that Christ's spiritual reign has ended. On the contrary, Christ and the Father's reign is for eternity from that moment on. So today, we have Christ reigning in our hearts!
1,000 years is this 40 years
First, it should be pointed out that scripture does not speak of "the thousand year reign of Christ." Revelation 20:4 says, "...and I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God,...and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years." It's not Christ that reigns 1000 years, but those who were killed for God's sake that reign with Christ 1000 years.
For example, if I say that John Doe reigns with the President for one year, does that mean the President reigns only one year? No, it does not. The President could reign for 4 years, but the point is that John reigned with the President for one year. The President isn't the subject, it is speaking about how long John reigns with him. Likewise, Revelation 20:4 is not about how long Jesus will reign, but how long others will reign with Jesus. There's a big difference.
Thus, if Christ is the reality to which the above Messianic prophecies pointed, and David and Moses were a "type" of Christ, and their reign was forty years, it stands to reason that those who reigned with Christ would also be forty years. With all of this information, we can safely conclude that the "thousand years" John mentioned in Revelation 20 were actually the forty year period between the ascension of Christ (AD 30) to His second and final coming at the destruction of Jerusalem (AD 70).
Another scripture reference which points to the 1000 years as ending at the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. is this one:
Revelation 20:7-10, "And when the thousand years are expired, Satan shall be loosed out of his prison, And shall go out to deceive the nations which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog and Magog, to gather them together to battle: the number of whom is as the sand of the sea. And they went up on the breadth of the earth, and compassed the camp of the saints about, and the beloved city: and fire came down from God out of heaven, and devoured them. And the devil that deceived them was cast into the lake of fire and brimstone, where the beast and the false prophet are, and shall be tormented day and night for ever and ever."
The above passage speaks of the fire from the battle that destroyed Jerusalem, the "beloved city", which happened in 70 A.D.
"Thousand" is not Literal
In scripture, the term "thousand," when in reference to time, is always used symbolically of a predetermined time that God chooses. In other cases, it is always used symbolically for a large number of people or things. Surely, nobody will interptret the following "thousands" as literal.
Deuteronomy 7:9, "…which keepeth covenant and mercy with them that…keep his commandments to a thousand generations;"
1 Chronicles 16:15, "Be ye mindful always of his covenant; the word which he commanded to a thousand generations;"
Job 9:3, "If he will contend with him, he cannot answer him one of a thousand."
Psalms 50:10, "For every beast of the forest is mine, and the cattle upon a thousand hills."
Psalms 84:10, "For a day in thy courts is better than a thousand."
Psalms 90:4, "For a thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday when it is past,"
Psalms 105:8, "He hath remembered his covenant for ever, the word which he commanded to a thousand generations."
Ecclesiastes 6:6, "Yea, though he live a thousand years twice told, yet hath he seen no good: do not all go to one place?"
Ecclesiastes 7:28, "...one man among a thousand have I found; but a woman among all those have I not found."
Song of Solomon 4:4, "…whereon there hang a thousand bucklers, all shields of mighty men."
Daniel 5:1, "Belshazzar the king made a great feast to a thousand of his lords, and drank wine before the thousand."
Daniel 7:10, "...thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him."
2 Peter 3:8, "...one day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day."
It should be obvious from the above that every occurance of the word "thousand," by itself, throughout scripture, is not literal but symbolic for a large number or long period of time. Then, why is it when we go to the book of Revelation (the most symbolic book of them all), many interpret this thousand years as literal? Especially when there is no scriptural warrant for doing so?
Futurists make the same mistake that the Jews who crucified Christ made -- they were not satisfied with a spiritual kingdom; they had to have a literal, worldly, physical kingdom. The Truth of the matter is not that Christ will reign for a thousand years some time in the future, but that Christ is reigning now, and will continue to reign for eternity. We do not have to wait for His Kingdom to come sometime in the future before He starts reigning over our lives, for Christ's Kingdom is here now, and He desires that we reign with Him now, whether we choose to recognize it or not!
Moses' face shone after the 40 days on the mountain.
(Exo 34:29 KJV) And it came to pass, when Moses came down from mount Sinai with the two tables of testimony in Moses' hand, when he came down from the mount, that Moses wist not that the skin of his face shone while he talked with him.
It took the spies 40 days to search out the promised land and bring back fruit
Goliath came for forty days before being killed by David
Elijah strengthened by one angelic meal went forty days to Mount Horeb where the Lord passed by and he heard the voice of God
The Talmud tells us that a mikveh must be filled with 40 se'ahs (a measure of water). Immersion in a mikveh is the consummate Jewish symbol of spiritual renewal.
According to the Talmud, it takes 40 days for an embryo to be formed in its mother's womb.
In Kabbalah, 40 represents the four sides of the world, each side containing the ten Sefirot (esoteric powers).
When a rabbinical court finds someone guilty of a crime, the punishment is sometimes lashes, prescribed in the Torah as "forty less one." The purpose is to bring the offender to a point of change, transition and atonement.
There are 40 days between the first day of Elul, when we begin to blow the Shofar to prepare for Rosh Hashana, until Yom Kippur, the end of the annual teshuva (repentance) period. These 40 days are the most auspicious time for personal growth and renewal.
According to the Talmud (Avot 5:26), at age 40 a person transitions from one level of wisdom to the next. After Moses led the Jewish people for 40 years in the wilderness, he told them: "God has not given you a heart to know, and eyes to see, and ears to hear, until this day" (Deut. 29:3-4). From here we see that it took the Jewish people 40 years before reaching a full level of understanding.
Number 40 and the 40 days Traditions
Number 40 (Forty) is a master number that has a great significance in many spiritual traditions and many cultures. In general, the number 40 represents a time (40 days) or period of a state of purification, or “decantation,” where there is a clear separation between substances, i.e., the lower vibration ones and the higher vibration ones.
In traditional alchemy, there is a mention of the 40 philosophical days as a recommended period of purification, purging and refinement of the senses preceding any transmutation work.
In the Christian tradition, Lent is the time of the liturgical year from Ash Wednesday to Easter. The traditional purpose of Lent is the preparation of the believer, through prayer, repentance, almsgiving and self-denial – for the annual commemoration during the Holy Week of the Death and Resurrection of Jesus, which recalls the events linked to the Passion of Christ and culminates in Easter, the celebration of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ.
40 Mysterious NumberThe Bible itself is filled with passages that mention the number 40 as a benchmark of deep transformation. The 40 days of the flood, the forty days that Moses and Elijah spent on the mountains, the 40 years of pilgrimage from the Israelites in the desert, and also the forty days master Jesus spent on prayers and fasting before he started his public mission. In addition, let us not forget the 400 years of the permanence of the Israelites in Egypt. In the Holy Bible, the number 4 symbolizes the material Universe, and the zeros that follow the number are significant to represent the time in our lives, the challenges, and difficulties that must be overcome.
In every sacred reading from ancient traditions, we see the mentioning of the 40 days as precursors in creating a favorable environment for change and the deep preparation of the heart through the purging of the old and of obstacles in order to receive a new set of instructions and preparation for a new phase in life. So the 40 days of Lent is also linked with the Babylonian goddess Ashtoreth/ Astarte/Ishtar (the origin of the word Easter), and the worship of Tammuz. Unlike Lent and the fasting tradition that was not necessarily explicit in the scriptures, both of these references to Tammuz and the worship of the Sun can be found in scripture.
40"Originally, even in Rome, Lent, with the preceding revelries of the Carnival, was entirely unknown; and even when fasting before the Christian Pasch was held to be necessary, it was by slow steps that, in this respect, it came to conform to the ritual of Paganism. What may have been the period of fasting in the Roman Church before the setting of the Nicene Council does not very clearly appear, but for a considerable period after that Council, we have distinct evidence that it did not exceed three weeks. The words of Socrates, writing on this very subject, about A.D. 450, are these: 'Those who inhabit the princely city of Rome fast together before Easter three weeks, excepting the Saturday and Lord's day.' But at last, when the worship of Astarte was rising into the ascendant, steps were taken to get the whole Chaldean Lent of six weeks, or forty days made imperative on all within the Roman empire of the West. The way was prepared for this by a Council held at Aurelia in the time of Hormisdas, Bishop of Rome [514-523], about the year 519, which decreed that Lent should be solemnly kept before Easter. It was with the view, no doubt, of carrying out this decree that the calendar was, a few days after, readjusted by Dionysius."
Tammuz_Humanity-Healing"Legend has it that Tammuz was killed by a wild boar when he was forty years old. Hislop points out those forty days--a day for each year Tammuz had lived on earth -- were set aside to "weep for Tammuz." In olden times these forty days were observed with weeping, fasting, and self-chastisement -- to gain anew his favor -- so he would come forth from the underworld and cause spring to begin. This observance was known not only at Babylon, but also among the Phoenicians, Egyptians, Mexicans, and, for a time, even among the Israelites."
In the Hindu tradition, the word Chalisa means "forty verse" prayer. It is derived from the Hindi word "chalis" which means 40. In a Chalisa, the acts and deeds of deities are recalled in these verses to aid the devotee to meditate on righteous and noble qualities.
 It rained 40 days and nights: Gen 7:4, 12.
Forty days after sighting the tops of the mountains, Noah set forth a raven and a dove: Gen 8:6-7.
Joseph mourned the death of his father Jacob for 40 days: Gen 49:33 - Gen 50:3.
Moses on Sinai for 40 days: Exo 24:18, 34:28, Deu 9:9-11.
Moses pleads for Israel 40 days on Sinai: Deu 9:18-25, 10:10.
Canaan spied on for 40 days: Num 13:25, 14:34.
Goliath taunted Israel for 40 days: 1 Sam 17:16.
Elijah fasted and journeyed to Horeb for 40 days: 1 Kings 19:8.
Ezekiel bore the iniquity of Judah for 40 days: Eze 4:6.
Jonah warned Nineveh of judgment in 40 days: Jonah 3:4.
Jesus fasted in the wilderness for 40 days: Matt 4:2, Mark 1:13, Luke 4:2.
Jesus was seen for 40 days after His crucifixion: Acts 1:3.
 The weeping of Tammuz is connected with pagan sun worship. Note that Lent is a moveable observance, connected to and preceding the festival of Easter. Easter is celebrated on a day specified only by the Roman Catholic Church, and not the Bible, and is fixed based on the sun and the Spring or Vernal equinox.
 Ezek 8:14 Then he brought me to the door of the gate of the LORD'S house which was toward the north; and, behold, there sat women weeping for Tammuz.
Ezek 8:16 "And he brought me into the inner court of the LORD'S house, and, behold, at the door of the temple of the LORD, between the porch and the altar, were about five and twenty men, with their backs toward the temple of the LORD, and their faces toward the east; and they worshipped the sun toward the east."
2 Ki 23:13 "And the high places that were before Jerusalem, which were on the right hand of the mount of corruption, which Solomon the king of Israel had built for Ashtoreth the abomination of the Zidonians, and for Chemosh the abomination of the Moabites, and for Milcom the abomination of the children of Ammon, did the king defile."
 Source: The Two Babylons, by Alexander Hislop, second American edition, 1959, published in America by Loizeaux Brothers, pages 106, 107. And Babylon Mystery Religion, by Ralph Edward Woodrow, Copyright 1966, 1992 printing, page 139.
JESUS FEEDS 4000 MEN
35 He told the crowd to sit down on the ground. 36 Then he took the seven loaves and the fish, and when he had given thanks, he broke them and gave them to the disciples, and they in turn to the people. 37 They all ate and were satisfied. Afterward the disciples picked up seven basketfuls of broken pieces that were left over. 38 The number of those who ate was four thousand men, besides women and children. 39 After Jesus had sent the crowd away, he got into the boat and went to the vicinity of Magadan.
4000 GATEKEEPERS 4000 PRAISE LORD
New International Version
Four thousand are to be gatekeepers and four thousand are to praise the LORD with the musical instruments I have provided for that purpose."
JESUS FEEDS 4000 MEN
35 He told the crowd to sit down on the ground. 36 Then he took the seven loaves and the fish, and when he had given thanks, he broke them and gave them to the disciples, and they in turn to the people. 37 They all ate and were satisfied. Afterward the disciples picked up seven basketfuls of broken pieces that were left over. 38 The number of those who ate was four thousand men, besides women and children. 39 After Jesus had sent the crowd away, he got into the boat and went to the vicinity of Magadan.
THE LAST HEBREW LETTER THE CROSS LETTER IS 400
It is the numerical value of the last Hebraic letter "taw", corresponding to the last mystery of the Tarot: the World. According to the Theosophy, the evolution of the microcosmic creature of our planet not having exceeded the stage of the 5th race, the Hebraic alphabet ends on this numerical symbol, having not to express any of the ideas higher than our current plan, according to R. Allendy.
Then He said to Abram: “Know certainly that your descendants will be strangers in a land that is not theirs, and will serve them, and they will afflict them four hundred years. (Genesis 15:13)
ABRAHAM 4000 YEARS OF AGE
In the introduction to his book The Purpose Driven Life, Rick Warren discusses the spiritual significance of 40 days. “Whenever God wanted to prepare someone for His purposes, He took 40 days.” Rick uses the examples of Noah, Moses, David, Elijah, and Jesus. He then challenges his readers to set aside 40 days to figure out what God wants to do with the rest of their lives.
The Bible is clear that God considers 400 years a spiritually significant time period. Whenever God wanted to prepare a nation for His purposes, He took 400 years:
Abraham, the Father of Jews, Christians, and Muslims, lived 4,000 years ago.
The Israelites were in bondage in Egypt for 400 years (Gen 15:13, Acts 7:6).
The time span for the seven Judges of Israel was roughly 400 years (Judges 1-21).
The “Divided Kingdom” lasted 400 years (1 Kings 12 – 2 Kings 25).
The ministry of the prophets spans roughly 400 years.
There were 400 years of silence from Malachi until Jesus was born.
Did Solomon have “40,000” or “4,000” stalls in 1 Kings 4:26?
Some translations (e.g. NIV, NLT) change "40,000" to "4,000" in 1 Kings 4:26 due to a perceived scribal error. 2 Chronicles 9:25, which appears to be a parallel account, says "4,000". Along with the KJV, the NKJV, NASB, ESV and HCSB uphold the inspired Hebrew text which says, "40,000".
The two passages describe different types of stalls
1 Kings 4:26 says:
“Solomon had forty thousand stalls of horses for his chariots, and twelve thousand horsemen”.
2 Chronicles 9:25 says:
“Solomon had four thousand stalls for horses and chariots, and twelve thousand horsemen”.
40 THOUSAND MEN
◄ Joshua 4:13 ►
Verse (Click for Chapter)
New International Version
About forty thousand armed for battle crossed over before the LORD to the plains of Jericho for war.
THE DIALECT OF THREE AND FOUR- SOME SAY THAT MAN IS COMPOSED OF THREE PARTS OTHERS SAY FOUR PARTS BASED ON THE BIBLE
They claim that if 1 Thessalonians 5:23 proves that man is composed of three parts, then Mark 12:30 must prove that man is made of four parts since Jesus enumerates heart, soul, mind, strength. However, trichotomists see only three parts here based on their understanding of how the Bible uses the terms heart, soul, and mind. The heart is a composition of the soul plus the conscience, and the mind is the leading part of the soul. Thus, Mark 12:30 is well within the parameters of a tripartite view of man.
THIS MORMON GROUP WORSHIPS HOLY QUATERNITY ADDING TRANSCENDENT FOURTH TO TRINITY THEY SAY
Restoration Church of Jesus Christ
In the Restoration Church of Jesus Christ, a liberal Mormon faith, the Heavenly Mother is accepted as a full member of the Godhead. Thus, the RCJC believes in a quadriune Godhead; the Godhead is referred to as the Holy Quaternity. Prayers are addressed to the Heavenly Parents in the name of Jesus Christ.
Gala’s figure is framed by the cruciform windows through which the viewer is lead to a crucifixion painted in a heavy impasto. The figure of Jesus on the cross, reminiscent of Dalí’s 1951 painting titled Christ of St. John of the Cross, (St. Mungo Museum of Religious Life and Art, Glasgow, Scotland), appears in the clouds. The earlier painting by Dalí is inspired by a 16th century drawing by the Carmelite Friar St. John of the Cross (1542-1691) where Christ is viewed from above. The top of Christ’s head glows representing the rising morning sun, a new element Dalί created as he developed this work on canvas. Yet, in spite of the masterful and expressive use of paint, Dalί plays with the ambiguity of medium. The ironic use of paint to recreate the effects of photography on one level is made more resonant by the collage of small printed reproduction of the Harmon photo onto the canvas.
- See more at:
THE GREAT TABLE AND QUADRANTS- FOUR KERUBIC NAMES
Applying this schema to the figure above, the Lesser Angels of the sub-quadrant shown, the angels of medicine, would be attributed thus. The letters of the shaded cross are not included in these names.
Air – CZNS (third row from top)
Water – TOTT (fourth row from top)
Earth – SIAS (fifth row from top)
Fire – FMND (bottom row)
These attributions have many practical applications – for example, if you wanted to cast a healing spell for mental illness, you might want to summon only those Angels of Medicine corresponding to Air (mental activity), Water (emotional activity), or perhaps both depending upon the nature of the illness. It is not clear from the Dee diaries that the same sub-elemental relationship holds for the Kerubic Angels, but it is logical to think that it might. Those angels are also conjured in groups of four in a particular order, so if the arrangement holds the elemental attributions for the Kerubic angels of this sub-quadrant, the angels of mechanical arts, would be as shown here.
Air – RZLA
Water – ZLAR
Earth – LARZ
Fire – ARZL
The four Kerubic names are permutations of the four letters in the top row. As with the Lesser Angel names, the letter of the shaded cross is excluded.
SIXTEEN SUBQUADRANTS SIXTEEN LETERS- MUST CONJURE ALL 16 OF THEM- 16 ANGELS OF MEDICINE
Each of the sixteen sub-quadrants is divided by two controlling names that appear in the shape of a cross. The four letters that appear above the horizontal arms of this cross represent a class of four angels that the Golden Dawn system refers to as the Kerubic Angels. The sixteen letters that appear below the horizontal arms form the names of a class of four angels that that Golden Dawn system refers to as the Lesser Angels. Combined with letters from the Black Cross they also form the names of a class of eight demons that Dee called the Cacodemons. In general, the powers of the Cacodemons correspond to those of the Lesser Angels but in negative or destructive terms. For example, the Cacodemons corresponding to the Lesser Angels of Medicine are conjured in order to cause diseases.
When working with the Great Table the angels are generally summoned in four groups, one from each direction. Dee’s conjurations seem to include the assumption that rather than summoning individual angels, the magician instead should conjure all of the Angels of a particular class in order to accomplish a magical goal within their sphere of influence. So, for example, each quadrant of the Great Table has four Angels of medicine allocated to it, and in order to cast a healing spell you conjure all sixteen of them and then deliver your charge.
The talismans you use are not for each individual angel, but for groups of them. With the Heptarchia, you have one for each day that you use for the King or Prince. For the Great Table, you have a talisman for each class of angel in some cases each direction. So for example, you have sixteen angels of medicine, four to each quarter. So you have a talisman for the angels of medicine for the east, another for the angels of medicine for the south, and so on.
SETS OF FOUR- 24 as six times four
The Four Kings
• Rulership of the Four Elements and Qabalistic Worlds
The Twenty-Four Seniors
• Knowledge and Judgment in Human Affairs
The "Kerubic" Angels
• Mechanical Arts
• Natural Substances
• Secret Discovery
The "Lesser" Angels
• Gold and Precious Stones
• Living Creatures
• Gold and Precious Stones
• Living Creatures
FOUR ADDITIONAL KEYS
3. The Angelic Keys
The Angelic Keys appropriate to your operation follow. You always begin with the First Key for an evocation and the Second Key for an invocation. Alternately, if you and a partner are acting as Magus and Scryer, Magus intones the First Key and Scryer intones the Second. For the Kings and Seniors this is sufficient. Otherwise, the Magus intones four additional Keys depending upon the type of operation, each to the appropriate direction.
Angels of the Mechanical Arts, Angels of Medicine, Cacodemons of Medicine. 3rd Key East, 4th Key South, 5th Key West, 6th Key North
Angels of Transportation, Angels of Gold and Precious Stones, Cacodemons of Gold and Precious Stones. 7th Key East, 8th Key South, 9th Key West, 10th Key North
Angels of Natural Substances, Angels of Transformation, Cacodemons of Transformation. 11th Key East, 12th Key South, 13th Key West, 14th Key North
Angels of Secret Discovery, Angels of Living Creatures, Cacodemons of Living Creatures 15th Key East, 16th Key South, 17th Key West, 18th Key North
I POSTED THIS STUFF BEFORE
JUSTIN THE MARTYR SAID THE CROSS HAS FOUR DIMENSIONS
The early-patristic meditations, as expressed by Justin the Martyr and Irenaeus, explained the cross as a symbol of four dimensions:
—————– latitudo —— longitudo —— sublimitas ——- profundum —————-
The good works are, in Augustine’s vision, metaphorical associated with the horizontal crossbeam (latitudo). The vertical top beam renders the hope of reward in heaven (sublimitas). The longer vertical lower beam translates the continuous perseverance (longitudo) and the part of the beam in the ground (profundum) is the ‘abyssus et profundum crucis‘, the depth of grace.
FOUR CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ROSE - FOUR TREATISES AND QUADRIPARTITE COSMOS
The cross appeared in Roman history, in particularly after the Second Punic war (220 BC), on the coins known as ‘monnaies a la croix’. NASH (1987) was of the opinion that the (numismatic) cross has its roots in ‘the sepals of the rose on third-century (BC) coins of Rhode.’ The Hungarian scholar János GÉCZI (2008) added, in a well informed article, the four characteristics of the rose as a symbolic instrument in classical days: 1. The rose as a sign of the cyclical (ancient) concept of time; 2. The rose as evaluation of fertility; 3. The rose as the expression of fullness of soul and 4. The rose as an expression of change.
The cross in later Western European religious history displayed a great diversity in forms of expression, but two major types can be distinguished: the Greek and the Latin cross. The first has beams of equal length. The second has the lower beam extended. Gregory of Nyssa represented the ‘eastern’ or Greek interpretation of the cross. He was born in Caesarea in Capadocia about 331 AD and was a younger brother of St Basil. He envisaged, in his book ‘Contra Eunomium‘ (‘Against Eunomius’, in twelve books/four treatises), a quadripartite cosmos (LADNER, 1955) corresponding to a division of a cross with beams of equal length (fig. 360/361).
AUGUSTINE CROSS REPRESENTS FOUR INVISIBILE DIMENSIONS
The ‘western’ or Latin notion of the cross – as expressed by Augustine in his book ‘De doctrina Christiana‘ and the ‘Sermones‘ (LIII & CLXV) – does not emphasis the geometry, but strengthens the topology (stating the place) of the moral and mental order. The cross represents, in his view, the four invisible dimensions in the human mind to love.
Fig. 366 – The cross and four squares in Rhabanus Maurus’ ‘De laudibus sancte crucis‘ (edition 1503). The tradition of a symbolic representation like the book of Rhabanus Maurus is much older: Optatianus Porphyrius wrote a so-called panegyric book around 325 AD, containing twenty-eight poems in a graphical significant representation. In: BURNIER (1987).
The tradition of a symbolic representation as given in the book of Rhabanus Maurus was much older. The exiled Roman citizen Optatianus Porphyrius wrote a so-called panegyric book (‘Carmina’) around 325 AD, containing twenty-eight poems in a graphical significant representation (LEVITAN, 1985; EDWARDS, 2005). This example was followed at the Carolingian Courtschool by Josephus Scottus and Theodulf, shortly after 800 AD. Their manuscript, comprising sixteen pages, is kept in the Burgerbibliothek at Bern (Ms. 212 II (fol. 111 – 126)(fig. 367, left).
A century later the letter- and puzzle theme was used again in the ‘Moralia in Job’, written by Pope Gregory. The scribe Florentius added, in 945 AD, a labyrinth page (fig. 367, right) with centrally written – from top to bottom – the sentence ‘Florentius indignum memorare‘ (remember the humble Florentius).
Fig. 358 – Two types of crosses on the ‘Stele von Moselkern‘. Christ syndesmos and pictogram of the Paradise. Bonn, Rheinisches Landesmuseum, c. 700 (Photo: Marten Kuilman, Febr. 2013). Fig. 51 in: ESMEIJER (1978).
FOUR VIRTUES DIVIDED ON BEAMS OF CROSS
It must be to remember, that such a setting is not opposed to tetradic thinking. In fact, it is an essential part of it. This same type of alliance between different forms of division-thinking (numerology in combination with tetradic thinking) can be seen by Rhabanus Maurus (around 784 – 856 AD), who gave the symbolism of the (Greek) cross a central place in his ‘Carmen de laudibus S., Crucis‘: ‘de quatuor virtutibus principalibus quomodo ad crucem pertineant …’. The virtues are divided over the beams of the cross:
————————– sublimas – spes
————————– latitudo – karitas
————————– longitudo – perseverantia
————————– profundum – timor fides
He also compared the four evangelists with the four directions of the cross (fig. 365) or as dimensions given in a square (fig. 366), indicating the spiritual building of the habitation of God: ‘De quattuor figuris tetragonicis circa Crucem positis et spiritali edificio domus dei‘ (BURNIER, 1987).
THE MAIN THESIS BY BIBLICAL SCHOLARS WAS THAT THE TORAH WAS COMPILED FROM FOUR SOURCES--- THE SUPPLEMENTARY HYPOTHESIS AGREES FOUR SOURCES BUT THINKS THAT TWO OF THOSE SOURCES ARE VERY DIFFERENT- FOURTH IS ALWAY DIFFERENT
Julius Wellhausen, the leading proponent of the documentary hypothesis, proposed that the Pentateuch is the amalgamation of four independent and complete narratives which were combined by redactors. The supplementary hypothesis, as outlined by Van Seters, differs from it in three major ways:
The existence of the Elohist (E) source
The supplementary hypothesis denies the existence of an extensive Elohist (E) source, one of the four independent sources described in the documentary hypothesis; instead the hypothesis describes the Yahwist as having borrowed from an array of written and oral traditions, combing these into the J source. The hypothesis proposes that because J is compiled from many earlier traditions and stories, documentarians mistook this compilation as having multiple authors, the Yahwist (J) and the Elohist (E). Instead, the supplementary hypothesis proposes that what documentarians considered J and E are in fact a single source (some use J, some use JE) likely written in the sixth century BCE.
IT IS THE CONSENSUS AMONG BIBLICAL SCHOLARS THAT THE TORAH CAME FROM FOUR SOURCES I WATCHED LECTURES ON THIS- THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT- THE PRIESTLY SOURCE IS ONE OF THE FOUR SOURCES OF THE TORAH- IT DIVIDES HISTORY INTO FOUR EPOCHS
The repetitions, styles and names are not random, but follow identifiable patterns, and the study of these patterns led scholars to the conclusion that four separate sources lie behind them
The Priestly source (or simply P) is, according to the documentary hypothesis, one of four sources of the Torah, together with the Jahwist, the Elohist and the Deuteronomist
P's God is majestic, and transcendent, and all things happen because of his power and will. He reveals himself in stages, first as Elohim (a Hebrew word meaning simply "god", taken from the earlier Canaanite word meaning "the gods"), then to Abraham as El Shaddai (usually translated as "God Almighty"), and finally to Moses by his unique name, Yahweh. P divides history into four epochs from Creation to Moses by means of covenants between God and Noah, Abraham and Moses. The Israelites are God's chosen people, his relationship with them is governed by the covenants, and P's God is concerned that Israel should preserve its identity by avoiding intermarriage with non-Israelites. P is deeply concerned with "holiness", meaning the ritual purity of the people and the land: Israel is to be "a priestly kingdom and a holy nation" (Exodus 19:6), and P's elaborate rules and rituals are aimed at creating and preserving holiness.
Stigmata are marks on a person's body, that are like the wounds Jesus got from being crucified. They supposedly happen to other religious people like Saint Francis of Assisi, as well as Jesus. The marks include nail holes in the hands and feet, as if the person had been crucified, but without that having happened. Those who believe say that actual nails were not used. The holes just appear as a miracle. Those who do not believe say it is not a miracle. They have other ways to explain those stories.
CHIASTIC STRUCTURE AT THE BEGINNING AND ENDING OF MARK- CHIASM IS A CROSS- IT IS NO COINCIDENCE THE CROSS IS ALL OVER THE BIBLE EVEN CHIASTIC STRUCTURE IN BEOWULF QURAN BOOK OF MORMON SHAKESPEARE ALL OVER THE PLACE- ESPECIALLY IN VERY FAMOUS HOLY WORKS
CHIASTIC CROSS STRUCTURE IN MARK 4
JESUS THROWS DOWN FOUR SEEDS- THE THIRD IS REALLY BAD THE THIRD SQUARE IS ALWAYS BAD THORNS- BUT THE FOURTH IS TRANSCENDENT- THE FIRST THREE TIMES HE THROWS DOWN THE SEEDS THEY ARE EATEN UP THE FOURTH TIME IT GROWS- I WILL ALSO SUPPLY ARTWORK OF THE PARABLE- THE FOUR SEEDS THE FOURTH DIFFERENT
Text (from the Gospel of Mark - KJV)
Hearken; Behold, there went out a sower to sow: And it came to pass, as he sowed, some fell by the way side, and the fowls of the air came and devoured it up. And some fell on stony ground, where it had not much earth; and immediately it sprang up, because it had no depth of earth: But when the sun was up, it was scorched; and because it had no root, it withered away. And some fell among thorns, and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit. And other fell on good ground, and did yield fruit that sprang up and increased; and brought forth, some thirty, and some sixty, and some an hundred. And he said unto them, He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.
IMAGES BY ELLEN WHITE THE FOUNDER OF THE SEVENTH DAY ADVENTISTS OF THE FOUR GROUNDS
The following images were drawn by artists from New York hired by Pacific Press Publishing Association expressly to illustrate the book Christ's Object Lessons by the Seventh-day Adventist Church leader Ellen Gould Harmon White:
ICON OF JESUS DROPPING THE SEEDS
The Parable of the Sower as illustrated in Hortus deliciarum compiled by Herrad of Landsberg at the Hohenburg Abbey in Alsace (12th century).
THE FOUR SOURCE HYPOTHESIS OF THE GOSPELS THE FOURTH IS TRANSCENDENT DIFFERENT HIGHEST FOUR- Q M L AND MARK
In The Four Gospels: A Study of Origins (1924), Burnett Hillman Streeter argued that a third hypothetical source, referred to as M, lies behind the material in Matthew that has no parallel in Mark or Luke. And some material present only in Luke might have come from an also unknown L source. This four-source hypothesis posits that there were at least four sources to the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke. Them being the Gospel of Mark, and three lost sources: Q, M, and L. (M material is represented by green in the above chart, and L by blue.)
FOUR BLESSINGS AND FOUR WOES JESUS
The Beatitudes are expressed as eight blessings in the Sermon on the Mount in Matthew, and four similar blessings appear in the Sermon on the Plain in Luke, where they are followed by four woes that mirror the blessings. The Beatitudes present the highest ideals of the teachings of Jesus on mercy, spirituality and compassion.
THE PARABLE OF THE PARALYTIC CARRIED BY FOUR MEN OF JESUS- VERY FAMOUS
…3Then a paralytic was brought to Him, carried by four men. 4Since they were unable to get to Jesus through the crowd, they uncovered the roof above Him, made an opening, and lowered the paralytic on his mat. 5When Jesus saw their faith, He said to the paralytic, “Son, your sins are forgiven.”…
JESUS PARABLE OF THE WICKED TENANTS
ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF THE FOURTH BEING DIFFERENT
FIRST TIME- SENDS SERVANTS AND SERVANTS KILLED
SECOND TIME- SENDS SERVANTS SERVANTS KILLED
THIRD TIME- SENDS SON SON KILLED
FOURTH TIME- SAYS THE LORD OF THE VINEYARD WILL COME AND KILL THE WICKED TENANTS WHO KILLED HIS SON
33 Hear another parable: There was a certain householder, which planted a vineyard, and hedged it round about, and digged a winepress in it, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into a far country:
34 And when the time of the fruit drew near, he sent his servants to the husbandmen, that they might receive the fruits of it.
35 And the husbandmen took his servants, and beat one, and killed another, and stoned another.
36 Again, he sent other servants more than the first: and they did unto them likewise.
37 But last of all he sent unto them his son, saying, They will reverence my son.
38 But when the husbandmen saw the son, they said among themselves, This is the heir; come, let us kill him, and let us seize on his inheritance.
39 And they caught him, and cast him out of the vineyard, and slew him.
40 When the lord therefore of the vineyard cometh, what will he do unto those husbandmen?
41 They say unto him, He will miserably destroy those wicked men, and will let out his vineyard unto other husbandmen, which shall render him the fruits in their seasons.
THE FOUR UNITIES PROPERTY
The four unities is a concept in the common law of real property describing conditions that must exist in order for certain kinds of property interests to be created. Specifically, these four unities must be met in order for two or more people to own property as joint tenants with right of survivorship, or for a married couple to own property as tenants by the entirety. Some jurisdictions may require additional unities.
1 The four unities
2 A fifth unity
3 A sixth unity
The four unities
Unity of time
Interest must be acquired by both tenants at the same time.
In common law, the "time" requirement could be satisfied only by using a "straw man" to create a joint tenancy. The party creating the joint tenancy would have to convey title to a straw man, who would then transfer title to the two parties as joint tenants.
Unity of title
The interests held by the co-owners must arise out of the same instrument.
Unity of interest
Both tenants must have the same interest in the property.
This means that the joint tenants must have the same type of interest, and the interest must run for the same duration. For example, if X and Y create a joint tenancy, both X and Y's interests must be in fee simple absolute. If, for example, X has a fee simple absolute and Y has a life estate, there is no unity of interest.
Unity of possession
Both tenants must have the right to possess the whole property.
If any of the four unities is broken and it is not a joint tenancy, the ownership reverts to a tenancy in common.
The unique aspect of a joint tenancy is that as the joint tenancy owners die, their shares accrue to the surviving owner(s) so that, eventually, the entire share is held by one person.
While the Dead Sea scrolls do not explicitly refer to a Messiah ben Joseph, a plethora of messianic figures are displayed.
The poly-messianic Testimonia text 4Q175 presents a prophet like Moses, a messianic figure and a priestly teacher.: 89 The Text contains four testimonia. The fourth testimonium is about Joshua and is generally viewed as non-messianic. However Alan Avery-Peck suggests that given its placement the text concerning Joshua should be read as referencing a war messiah from Ephraim. It is dated to the early 1st century BCE.: 89
ALMOST ALL OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS WERE FOUND IN WHAT IS CALLED CAVE FOUR---- THAT IS WHY ALL OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS START WITH THE NUMBER FOUR- ITS NOT A COINCIDENCE IN MY OPINION
TESTIMNIA HAS FOUR SECTIONS
The Testimonia is a short document containing five Biblical quotations arranged in four sections concerning God's activities at the end-time. Only the last section is followed by an interpretation. The first three sections refer to future blessings which will come from three figures, a prophet similar to Moses, a messianic figure and a priestly teacher.
THE FAMOUS FOUR DEAD SEA SCROLLS
Advertisement in the Wall Street Journal dated 1 June 1954 for four of the "Dead Sea Scrolls."
Arrangements with the Bedouin left the scrolls in the hands of a third party until a profitable sale of them could be negotiated. That third party, George Isha'ya, was a member of the Syrian Orthodox Church, who soon contacted St Mark's Monastery in the hope of getting an appraisal of the nature of the texts. News of the find then reached Metropolitan Athanasius Yeshue Samuel, better known as Mar Samuel. After examining the scrolls and suspecting their antiquity, Mar Samuel expressed an interest in purchasing them. Four scrolls found their way into his hands: the now famous Isaiah Scroll (1QIsaa), the Community Rule, the Habakkuk Pesher (a commentary on the book of Habakkuk), and the Genesis Apocryphon. More scrolls soon surfaced in the antiquities market, and Professor Eleazer Sukenik and Professor Benjamin Mazar, Israeli archaeologists at Hebrew University, soon found themselves in possession of three, The War Scroll, Thanksgiving Hymns, and another, more fragmented, Isaiah scroll (1QIsab).
Four of the Dead Sea Scrolls eventually went up for sale in an advertisement in the 1 June 1954, Wall Street Journal. On 1 July 1954, the scrolls, after delicate negotiations and accompanied by three people including the Metropolitan, arrived at the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York. They were purchased by Professor Mazar and the son of Professor Sukenik, Yigael Yadin, for $250,000, approximately 2.14 million in 2012-equivalent dollars, and brought to Jerusalem.
FOUR USES OF RED INK
The red ink on the scrolls was found to be made with cinnabar (HgS, mercury sulfide). There are only four uses of this red ink in the entire collection of Dead Sea Scroll fragments
FOUR LANGUAGES DEAD SEA SCROLLS
The text of the Dead Sea Scrolls is written in four different languages: Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, and Nabataean.
THE FOUR SERVANT SONGS OF ISAIAH ABOUT THE SERVANT OF YHW AND H - CHRISTIANS SAY IT WAS JESUS
The servant songs were first identified by Bernhard Duhm in his 1892 commentary on Isaiah. The songs are four poems taken from the Book of Isaiah written about a certain "servant of YHWH". God calls the servant to lead the nations, but the servant is horribly repressed. In the end, he is rewarded. Those four poems are:
THE FOUR SONGS ABOUT THE SERVANT OF THE TETRAGRAMMATON WHO CHRISTIANS SAY WAS JESUS
Fourth servant song
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The servant songs were first identified by Bernhard Duhm in his 1892 commentary on Isaiah. The songs are four poems taken from the Book of Isaiah written about a certain "servant of YHWH". God calls the servant to lead the nations, but the servant is horribly repressed. In the end, he is rewarded.
The fourth of the "servant songs" begins at Isaiah 52:13, continuing through 53:12 where it continues the discussion of the suffering servant. There is also a rather clear identification for the "servant" within this song. In the context of its surrounding verses, Isaiah 52 and Isaiah 54, one can deduce that the song refers to the Nation of Israel, rather not to an individual. Although, as Franz Delitzsch has noted in his commentary on Isaiah, there is not a consensus even amongst the Midrashim on whether The Servant is a reference to the Messiah or to Israel.
THE BOOK OF EZEKIEL IS DIVIDED INTO FOUR PARTS- THERE ARE FOUR MAJOR PROPHETS
The prophet Ezekiel is one of four Major Prophets in Hebrew Scripture, along with Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Daniel. Ezekiel was the first prophet to be called by the Lord outside of Israel during the Babylonian Captivity. Deported in 597 BC, he was truly an exilic prophet, who foresaw both the Fall of Jerusalem in 586 BC, but also the Restoration of Israel and the Temple.
The central figure in the Book of Ezekiel is God, for, while he punishes Israel for their idolatry and disobedience, his love for his creation mankind prevails in the end. Ezekiel is divided into four parts: the Call of the Prophet (Chapters 1-3); Judgement and Condemnation Against Israel (4-24); Judgement and Condemnation of Nations (25-32); and finally Hope and Restoration for Israel (33-48).
GREGORY THE GREAT TAUGHT THAT THE FOUR WHEELS OF EZEKIEL WERE THE FOUR PARTS OF THE BIBLE
FIRST CHAPTER OF ZECHARIAH FOUR HORNS FOUR CRAFTSMEN
Four Horns and Four Craftsmen
18 Then I looked up, and there before me were four horns. 19 I asked the angel who was speaking to me, “What are these?”
He answered me, “These are the horns that scattered Judah, Israel and Jerusalem.”
20 Then the Lord showed me four craftsmen. 21 I asked, “What are these coming to do?”
He answered, “These are the horns that scattered Judah so that no one could raise their head, but the craftsmen have come to terrify them and throw down these horns of the nations who lifted up their horns against the land of Judah to scatter its people.”[a]
NO OTHER NUMBER MENTIONED OTHER THAN FOUR- SO FAR IN ZECHARIAH ONLY TWO NUMBERS MENTIONED- FOUR AND SEVEN- FOUR MENTIONED A LOT MORE- AND QUADRANT PATTERN
ZECHARIAH 6 FOUR CHARIOTS- FIRST RED HORSES, SECOND BLACK, THIRD WHITE, FOURTH DAPPLED- NOTICE HOW THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT THAN THE PREVIOUS THREE DAPPLED "FOUR SPIRTS OF HEAVEN" IT SAYS
6 I looked up again, and there before me were four chariots coming out from between two mountains—mountains of bronze. 2 The first chariot had red horses, the second black, 3 the third white, and the fourth dappled—all of them powerful. 4 I asked the angel who was speaking to me, “What are these, my lord?”
5 The angel answered me, “These are the four spirits[a] of heaven, going out from standing in the presence of the Lord of the whole world. 6 The one with the black horses is going toward the north country, the one with the white horses toward the west,[b] and the one with the dappled horses toward the south.”
FOUR BOOKS OF ESDRAS
Additional books accepted by the Eastern Orthodox:
1 Esdras/3 Esdras
2 Esdras/4 Esdras
LUTHER SPOKE AGAINST FOUR NEW TESTAMENT WORKS
Four New Testament works were questioned or "spoken against" by Martin Luther, and he changed the order of his New Testament to reflect this, but he did not leave them out, nor has any Lutheran body since. Traditional German "Luther Bibles" are still printed with the New Testament in this changed "Luther Bible" order.
THE CATHOLICS CALL SAMUEL AND KKINGS THOSE FOUR BOOKS FIRST THROUGH FOURTH KINGS- THEY DIVIDE THEM INTO FOUR KINGS BOOKS- Protestants divide them into four book as first and second samuel and first and second kings
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FORTY REPETITIONS OF FOUR
The Forty Martyrs of England and Wales are a group of Catholic men and women executed for treason and related offences between 1535 and 1679. Many were sentenced to death at show trials, or with no trial at all.
THE FOUR CROWNED MARTYRS
The rather confusing story of the four crowned martyrs was well known in Renaissance Florence, principally as told in the thirteenth-century Golden Legend by Jacopo da Voragine. It appears that the original four martyrs were beaten to death by order of the emperor Diocletian (r. AD 284-305). Their story became conflated with that of a group of five stonecarvers, also martyred by Diocletian, in this case because they refused to carve an image of a pagan idol. Due to their profession as sculptors, the five early Christian martyrs were an obvious choice for the guild of stonemasons, but their number seems often to have been understood to be four, as in this case.
Problems arise with determining the historicity of these martyrs because one group contains five names instead of four. Alban Butler believed that the four names of group one, which the Roman Martyrology and the Breviary say were revealed as those of the Four Crowned Martyrs, were borrowed from the martyrology of the Diocese of Albano Laziale, which kept their feast on August 8, not November 8. These four "borrowed" martyrs were not buried in Rome, but in the catacomb of Albano; their feast was celebrated on August 7 or August 8, the date under which is cited in the Roman Calendar of Feasts of 354. The Catholic Encyclopedia wrote that the "martyrs of Albano have no connection with the Roman martyrs".
The double tradition may have arisen because a second passio had to be written. It was written to account for the fact that there were five saints in group two rather than four. Thus, the story concerning group one was simply invented, and the story describes the death of four martyrs, who were soldiers from Rome rather than Pannonian stonemasons. The Bollandist Hippolyte Delehaye calls this invented tradition "l'opprobre de l'hagiographie" (the disgrace of hagiography).
BASILICA DEDICATED TO THE FOUR CROWN MARTYRS
Santi Quattro Coronati is an ancient basilica in Rome, Italy. The church dates back to the 4th (or 5th) century, and is devoted to four anonymous saints and martyrs. The complex of the basilica with its two courtyards, the fortified Cardinal Palace with the Saint Silvester Chapel, and the monastery with its cosmatesque cloister is built in a silent and green part of Rome, between the Colosseum and San Giovanni in Laterano, in an out-of-time setting.
The Santi Quattro Coronati
Main article: Four Crowned Martyrs
"Santi Quattro Coronati" means the Four Holy Crowned Ones [i.e. martyrs], and refers to the fact that the saints' names are not known, and therefore referred to with their number, and that they were martyrs, since the crown, together to the branches of palm, is an ancient symbol of martyrdom. According to the Passion of St. Sebastian, the four saints were soldiers who refused to sacrifice to Aesculapius, and therefore were killed by order of Emperor Diocletian (284-305). The bodies of the martyrs were buried in the cemetery of Santi Marcellino e Pietro, on the fourth mile of via Labicana, by Pope Miltiades and St Sebastian (whose skull is preserved in the church). Miltiades decided that the martyrs should be venerated with the names of Claudius, Nicostratus, Simpronianus and Castorius; these names — together to a fifth, Simplicius — were those of five Pannonian martyr stonemasons. These martyrs were later identified with the four martyrs from Albano, Secundus (or Severus), Severianus, Carpoforus (Carpophorus) and Victorinus (Vittorinus). The bodies of the martyrs are kept in four ancient sarcophagi in the crypt. According to a lapid dated 1123, the head of one of the four martyrs is buried in Santa Maria in Cosmedin.
The apse contains the frescoes (1630) by Giovanni da San Giovanni of the four patron martyr saints, Severo, Severiano, Carpoforo e Vittorino. The altarpiece on the left nave of S.Sebastiano curato da Lucina e Irene was painted by Giovanni Baglione. The second courtyard holds the entrance to the Oratorio di San Silvestro, with frescoes of medieval origin, as well as others by Raffaellino da Reggio.
THERE ARE 16 PROPHETS IN THE BIBLE THAT IS 16 SQUARES QMR- THERE IS ALSO 16 JUDGES IN THE BIBLE 16 SQUARES QMR- THERE WERE ALSO 16 GRANDSONS OF NOAH WHO BECAME THE WORLD POPULATION IN THE BIBLE
Four Prophets: Amos, Hosea, First Isaiah and Micah: A Modern Translation from the Hebrew by J. B. Phillips is a modern translation from Hebrew sources of the books of Amos, Hosea, First Isaiah and Micah by scholar J. B. Phillips. The book was published in 1963 Macmillan in the US and Geoffrey Bles in the UK. Phillips also published The New Testament in Modern English. The remainder of the Old Testament was never completed by him.
THERE ARE FOUR CHAPTERS IN THE BOOK OF JONAH ACCORDING TO CHRISTIANS
Jonah 4 is the fourth (and the last) chapter of the Book of Jonah in the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. This book contains the prophecies spoken by the prophet Jonah, and is a part of the Book of the Twelve Minor Prophets.
JONAH HAS FOUR CHAPTERS
For being only four chapters long, the Book of Jonah packs quite a punch. Jonah was called by God to take a message to Nineveh (modern Mosul in Iraq) but ran away instead. He thought he could escape on a boat bound for Tarshish, which was about a thousand miles in the wrong direction. Of course the Lord watched him do this and created a great storm in the Mediterranean Sea as Jonah was trying to cross.
HE TALKS ABOUT HOW THE FOURTH CHAPTER OF JONAH IS DIFFERENT- HE SAYS IT COULD HAVE ENDED ON THE THIRD AND JONAH WOULD HAVE BEEN A NICE OLD TESTAMENT HERO- BUT IN THE FOURTH JONAH WANTS TO DIE AND TELLS GOD THAT HE IS ANGRY THAT HE CONVERTED GENTILES- THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT
The first three chapters make it clear that God does call people to do specific tasks. The book begins, “And the word of the Lord came to Jonah, son of Amittai: Go to the great city of Nineveh and preach against it…” (Jonah 1:1-2; cf. 3:1-2). The first chapter makes it abundantly clear that running away from God’s calling isn’t worth it. The second chapter reveals a God who is willing to save a recalcitrant prophet and set him up for a “recall” in 3:1.
If the story of Jonah ended here, we would have a fabulous Old Testament story of God’s calling, a hesitant but ultimately obedient prophet, and the saving of many Gentile lives. And it is all about these topics to be sure.
But there is a fourth chapter in Jonah that focuses our attention on the heart of the prophet from Israel. Jonah is “greatly displeased” and “angry” (v. 1; cf. vv. 4, 9). The reason? He knew that Yahweh would be a “gracious and compassionate God, slow to anger and abounding in love” (v. 2). Watching God’s pity for the Ninevites was so abhorrent to Jonah that he wanted to die (vv. 3, 9).
The fourth chapter of Jonah reveals a God not only with a mission to the Ninevites, but also a mission to his prophet. Jonah needed to be rescued from a hollow orthodoxy. He was glad to repeat the familiar words from Exodus 34:6-7 (in v. 2) which articulated God’s amazing mercy when Israel had sinned at the foot of Mt. Sinai. But he couldn’t bear the thought of God being merciful to others who were also sinful. This was serious enough for God to discipline his messenger.
RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN FOUR CHAPTERS OF JONAH
Just as we saw that the events of chapter one prefigured the events of chapter three (i.e., the sailors salvation prefigured the Ninveites salvation) we can do the same thing for chapters two and four. Jonah's affliction in chapter two parallels his affliction in chapter four. At the end of chapter two Jonah was delivered from the fish. So here too, at the end of chapter four, we can assume that Jonah learned his lesson. But it is not a blind assumption because we have this account of Jonah's thoughts and dealings with God in chapter four. Jonah must have returned to Israel where he related this story to others for it to be recorded. Therefore we can say with some confidence that Jonah was ultimately delivered from his evil.
HE SAYS THE FOUR CHAPTERS OF JONAH REPRESENT FOUR DISTINCT JOURNEYS OF JONAH- THE FOURTH TRANSCENDENT- BRINGS TO GOD
IN MOBY DICK MELVILLES FATHER SAYS "JONAH CONTAINS ONLY FOUR CHAPTERS- FOUR YARNS... YET WHAT DEPTHS OF THE SOUL DOES JONAH'S DEEP SEALINE SOUND!"- MOBY DICK WAS ABOUT A WHALE AND I POSTED THE BOOK RECENTLY AND A LONG TIME AGO THAT DESCRIBES HOW MOBY DICK HAS THE INTERPLAY BETWEEN THREE AND FOUR THE QUADRANT PATTERN
“Shipmates, this book, containing only four chapters—four yarns—is one of the smallest strands in the mighty cable of the Scriptures. Yet what depths of the soul does Jonah’s deep sealine sound! what a pregnant lesson to us is this prophet! What a noble thing is that canticle in the fish’s belly! . . . But WHAT is this lesson that the book of Jonah teaches?
Thus Melville’s Father Mapple passionately preaches in Moby-Dick. His question has been pondered by Jews throughout the centuries. Read in its entirety in the synagogue on the afternoon of Yom Kippur, Jonah is the only multi-chapter book of the Bible to be so honored. Indeed, Rabbi Yitzhak Etshalom has suggested that if the brief Torah reading preceding Jonah has little to do with the day, but merely continues where the morning reading left off, this may be precisely in order to emphasize that, in a departure from the usual priorities, the haftarah, or prophetic portion, is in fact the critical text for the occasion.
NOAH SENDS OUT FOUR BIRD- THE FOURTH DOES NOT RETURN- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT- NOTICE IT ALSO SAYS FORTY DAYS- THE REPETITION OF FOUR
6Then it came about at the end of forty days, that Noah opened the window of the ark which he had made; 7and he sent out a raven, and it flew here and there until the water was dried up from the earth. 8Then he sent out a dove from him, to see if the water was abated from the face of the land; 9but the dove found no resting place for the sole of her foot, so she returned to him into the ark, for the water was on the surface of all the earth. Then he put out his hand and took her, and brought her into the ark to himself. 10So he waited yet another seven days; and again he sent out the dove from the ark. 11The dove came to him toward evening, and behold, in her beak was a freshly picked olive leaf. So Noah knew that the water was abated from the earth. 12Then he waited yet another seven days, and sent out the dove; but she did not return to him again.
NOTICE HOW THE PRAYERS ARE CENTERED ON THE CROSS AND THE CRUCIFORM- THE TITLE OF THE FIRST PRAYER IS THE CROSS-- THE TITLE OF THE THIRD IS "CRUCIFORMS"- HTE TITLE OF THE LAST PRAYER IS THE CROSS- CROSS IS QUADRANT
Unlike the Dominican rosary used by Roman and Anglo Catholics, which focuses on the germane events in the life of Christ and asks the Virgin Mary to pray for their intentions, Anglican prayer beads are most often used as a tactile aid to prayer and as a counting device. The standard Anglican set consists of the following pattern, starting with the cross, followed by the Invitatory Bead, and subsequently, the first Cruciform bead, moving to the right, through the first set of seven beads to the next Cruciform bead, continuing around the circle. He or she may conclude by saying the Lord's Prayer on the invitatory bead and/or a final prayer on the cross as in the examples below. The entire circle may be done thrice, which signifies the Holy Trinity.
In the Name of God, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Amen.
O God make speed to save me (us),
O Lord make haste to help me (us),
Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit: As it was in the beginning, is now, and will be forever. Amen.
Holy and Mighty,
Holy Immortal One,
Have mercy upon me (us).
Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God,
Have mercy on me, a sinner.
The Lord's Prayer
Our Father, who art in heaven,
hallowed be thy Name,
thy kingdom come, thy will be done,
on earth as it is in heaven.
Give us this day our daily bread.
And forgive us our trespasses,
as we forgive those who trespass against us.
And lead us not into temptation,
but deliver us from evil.
For thine is the kingdom,
and the power, and the glory,
for ever and ever. Amen.
I bless the Lord.
(Let us bless the Lord
Thanks be to God.)
The groupings are called "weeks", in contrast to the Dominican rosary which uses five groups of ten beads called "decades". The beads between are usually larger than the "weeks" beads are called "cruciform" beads. When the loop of beads is opened into a circular shape, these particular beads form the points of a cross within the circle of the set, hence the term "cruciform". Next after the cross on Anglican prayer bead sets is a single bead termed the "invitatory" bead, giving the total of thirty-three. The beads used are made of a variety of materials, such as precious stones, wood, coloured glass, or even dried and painted seeds.
Anglican prayer bead sets are made with a variety of crosses or, occasionally, crucifixes. The Celtic cross and the San Damiano cross are two which are often used.
ALMOST INVISIBLE CROSS ON BLACK BACKGROUND
On October 29, 1957—three years into the series—Merton requested a black painting from Reinhardt as an aid to contemplative prayer. In a journal entry of November 17, Merton described living with the painting. “Almost invisible cross on a black background. As though immersed in darkness and trying to emerge from it . . . You have to look hard to see the cross. One must turn away from everything else and concentrate on the picture as though peering through a window into the night . . . I should say a very ‘holy’ picture—helps prayer—an ‘image’ without features to accustom the mind at once to the night of prayer—and to help one set aside trivial and useless images that wander into prayer and spoil it.”1
PLATOS X QUADRANT- PLATO SAYS "THE LIVING COSMOS- which has the shape of an x A QUADRANT- IS A LIVING GOD"- IN OTHER WORDS PLATO SAID ONE COULD ARGUE AT LEAST THIS PERSON SEEMS TO THE QUADRANT AND GOD ARE SYNONYMOUS
Figure 1. The zodiacal light rises from the horizon, envelops planets along the ecliptic, and intersects the Milky Way, revealing Plato‘s visible god, the celestial X that mirrors the World Soul. (Photo: Matt BenDaniel).
Figure 2. Plato‘s X on Roman coins. Left: Denarius of Antoninus Pius, with Italia enthroned on celestial sphere with intersecting lines (RIC III  #98a). Middle: Coin of Marcus Aurelius, with Providentia pointing to the celestial sphere with intersecting lines (RIC III  (Pius) #446). Right: Coin of Macrinus, with Providentia pointing to cosmic orb with intersecting lines (RIC IV Pt 2  #80).
Plato's Visible God: The Cosmic Soul Reflected in the Heavens - MDPI
by G Latura - 2012 - Related articles
Sep 14, 2012 - Martyr argued that the celestial X in Plato's Timaeus was a foreshadowing of the Christian cross, a shape that Plato had somehow pilfered from ...
Plato makes no mention of the celestial equator, yet influential books on the cult of Mithras in the Roman Empire were released by David Ulansey  and Roger Beck , with the Bury/Cornford interpretation championed by both Ulansey1 and Beck.2
Where might Bury and Cornford have found this interpretation of Plato‘s X? Perhaps in the works of Proclus, whose Commentary on Plato’s Timaeus  already espoused this view.
Now surely two circles come into being, and these have come to be in such a way that one is on the inside and the other is on the outside, and they are at an angle to one another. Now one of these is called the circle of the Same and the other is the circle the Different. The one corresponds to the equator while the other corresponds to the circle of the ecliptic. The entire circle of the Different is carried around the ecliptic, while the circle of the Same is carried around the equator. Because of this it is immediately evident that it is not necessary to assume these circles to be at right angles to one another, but rather like an X, just as Plato said...—Proclus, Commentary on Plato’s Timaeus (, p. 222).
Proclus‘ equator and Cornford‘s sidereal equator refer to the celestial equator, a projection of the Earth‘s equator into the heavens, showing that Proclus and Bury and Cornford (and Ulansey and Beck) all agree that Plato‘s X is composed of the path of the planets (the ecliptic that traces out the zodiac) and the celestial equator.
But Plato‘s own words prove this view to be in error.
At the end of Timaeus, Plato proclaims that the living Cosmos (which he said had the shape of an X) is a visible, discernible god.
And so now we may say that our account of the universe has reached its conclusion. This world of ours has received and teems with living things, mortal and immortal. A visible living thing containing visible ones, perceptible god, image of the intelligible Living Thing...Our one heaven, indeed the only one of its kind, has come to be.—Plato, Timaeus (, p. 88)
But since the celestial equator is a mathematical calculation and a geometric projection, it is certainly not visible in the heavens—exposing the fallacy behind the interpretation of Proclus, Bury, Cornford, Ulansey, Beck, etc.
FOUR DEGREES PRAYER
Mystical Contemplative Prayer is the blessing for which the Christian mystic hopes. No human effort can produce it. This form of prayer has three characteristics. (a) It is infused (i.e. implanted by God in the soul, not the result of human effort.) (b) It is extraordinary (i.e. indicating that the intellect operates in new way). (c) Moreover, It is passive (i.e. showing that the soul receives something from God, and is conscious of receiving it.) It can manifest itself in one of four degrees. The four degrees are the prayer of quiet, the prayer of union, ecstatic union, and transforming deifying union.
THERE ARE ACTUALLY FOUR ARKS- AND IN THE ARK YOU CAN SEE THE CROSS
What is more, there are actually four different Arks that are to be read in this single image–each with its own relatively comprehensive understanding, and each approaching the image of The Mystic Ark in a completely different manner: the Ark of Noah, the Ark of the Church, the Ark of Wisdom, and the Ark of Mother Grace. In each one these Arks, the same visual imagery is potentially interpreted in an entirely different way: sometimes literally, sometimes macrocosmically, and sometimes microcosmically. This is made more complex by the fact that the two-dimensional image is meant to be understood three-dimensionally, operating both horizontally and vertically.
THE MYSTIC ARK THE CENTRAL CUBIT AND THE CROSS- SAYS THE ARK IS THE CROSS
TALKS ABOUT THE CRUCIFORM BELTS- HE POINTS OUT THAT HUGH'S MYSTIC ARK AND THE CENTRALITY OF THE CROSS IS SIMILAR TO MIND BYRHTFERTH'S CROSS OF HIS MAP OF THE WORLD AND THE SIGHT OF JERUSALEM TO MAP- THE CROSS IS SEEN "AT THE CENTER OF THE MUNDUS"
THE ANCIENT MAPS ACCENTUATED THE CROSS- I POSTED THE ARTICLE HOW THERE WERE FOUR MAIN TYPES OF MAPS AND THEY DEPICTED THE FOUR PARTS OF THE WORLD THE FOURTH WAS NEWLY FOUND AND DIFFERENT
Within the imbricated lists enumerated by Wallis, the treatment of Jerusalem is especially salient. HIERUSALEM (without the H in the Peterborough version) boldly stretches across most of the horizontal bar of the “T;” the title is centered in SJ, but not quite in H, where it is roughly double the width. A miniscule crux xpi is written in superscript between the second and third letters, and a cross is drawn between the E and R; in SJ a second, partially encircled cross accentuates the juncture with the vertical
Isidore of Seville
stem. These elements bring into play not the crucifixion, but the sign of the cross, an iconographic distinction on which it is necessary to insist.18 The image visually identifies Jerusalem not as a place, but as a dynamic movement of the cross that spans the world’s breadth. The explosive burst of spiritual energy reaches all the way north, while at the south end, a small piece of the band is allotted to Jericho. If Jerusalem is the crossbeam that girds the ecumenical edifice, the tie that binds, it is also the foundation for the blocks of labels above even as it is the horizon for the sectors below.
THIS BOOK TALKS A LOT ABOUT THE CENTRALITY OF THE CROSS- IT TALKS ABOUT HOW MAPS OF THE WORLD SHAPED AS A CROSS AND DRAWN IN FOUR QUARTERS (REALLY THERE TRULY IS FOUR CONTINENTS)- AN ANCIENT REMEDY FOR NOSEBLEEDS WHERE YOU PUT THE CROSS ON YOUR FOREHEAD WITH GREEK LETTERS- AND HE TALKS ABOUT THE CROSS WAS VERY SIGNIFICANT BEFORE CHRISTIANITY
THERE ARE FOUR INVOCATIONS MADE TO THE FOUR EVANGELISTS EACH SAID FOUR TIMES- THAT IS 16 THE 16 SQUARES OF THE QUADRANT MODEL
AMULET FOR FEVER - CROSS MARKS AND CROSS SHAPED TEXT- CROSS SHAPED RITUAL PERFORMANCE INVOLVING A DECORATED CROSS
FOUR SIDES OF THE CROSS
Each of the four sides of the cross is intricately decorated with reliefs divided into panels depicting figures (west side only), animals, chequers, vine scrolls, interlace knots, as well as a sundial. The north, west, and south sides of the cross feature runic inscriptions. The largest relief on the side with figures is, as at Ruthwell, Christ treading on the beasts, below Saint John the Baptist. At the bottom, below a panel of runes, is a much-discussed figure of a falconer, who is possibly St. John the Evangelist with his eagle in an unusual depiction, possibly misunderstood from a Syrian model of John with an oil-lamp.
The sundial on its surface, a canonical sundial, "is by far earliest English sundial to survive", divided into the four 'tides' which governed the working day in medieval times.
The four faces of the cross: west, south, east and north
FOUR FRAGMENTS SURVIVE VERY FAMOUS- CROSS- FOURTH FRAGMENT DIFFERENT- THE QUADRANT PATTERN
Four fragments of the cross survive, which have been fitted into a reconstruction in the museum. Three of these were used, probably in the late 12th century, in the rebuilding of Easby Church, from where they were recovered in the 20th century. All had one face visible in the wall surface; two were on exterior faces of the church, and one on the interior
DIVIDED INTO FOUR SECTIONS- VERY FAMOUS
The shaft is heavily decorated with various forms of interlace, divided into four sections. The third section also displays a winged figure, armed with a spear and presumed to be an archangel, or Luke the Evangelist. (See External link for photo of carved figure.)
THE VENERABLE BEDE HAD A FOUR BOOK COMMENTARY ON GENESIS
This volume of Ancient Christian Texts offers a first-time English translation of Severian of Gabala's In cosmogoniam and a fresh translation of a portion of Bede the Venerable's Libri quatuor in principium Genesis - QUATUOR IS FOUR
The commentary from Bede the Venerable derives from Book I of his four-book commentary on Genesis from the account of creation to the casting out of Ishmael. Bede was a polymath--teacher, computist, exegete, historian--and one of the foremost scholars from Anglo-Saxon England. As a teacher, Bede strove to hand on the tradition of the church in a form easily understood by those who might not be well educated. These early chapters in Genesis provided teaching on creation, human origins, sin and redemption. The text deriving from Corpus Christianorum Latina is ably translated with explanatory notes by Carmen Hardin.
FOURTH BOOK DIFFERENT ADDED LATER FIRST THREE CONNECTED SIMILAR
De doctrina christiana (English: On Christian Doctrine or On Christian Teaching) is a theological text written by Saint Augustine of Hippo. It consists of four books that describe how to interpret and teach the Scriptures. The first three of these books were published in 397 and the fourth added in 426. By writing this text, Saint Augustine set three tasks for Christian teachers and preachers: to discover the truth in the contents of the Scriptures, to teach the truth from the Scriptures, and to defend scriptural truth when it was attacked.
FOUR SAINTLY DAUGHTERS
Æthelthryth was probably born in Exning, near Newmarket in Suffolk. She was one of the four saintly daughters of Anna of East Anglia, all of whom eventually retired from secular life and founded abbeys.
FOUR KINDS OF MONKS
Chapter 1 defines four kinds of monks:
Cenobites, those "in a monastery, where they serve under a rule and an abbot".
Anchorites, or hermits, who, after long successful training in a monastery, are now coping single-handedly, with only God for their help.
Sarabaites, living by twos and threes together or even alone, with no experience, rule and superior, and thus a law unto themselves.
Gyrovagues, wandering from one monastery to another, slaves to their own wills and appetites.
ST BENEDICT AND HIS CROSS--- CROSS SAYS "MAY THE HOLY CROSS (the quadrant) BE MY LIGHT"
Image of Saint Benedict with a cross (which is inscribed, "Crux sacra sit mihi lux! Non draco sit mihi dux!" ("May the holy cross be my light! May the dragon never be my overlord!")) and a scroll stating "Vade retro Satana! Nunquam suade mihi vana! Sunt mala quae libas. Ipse venena bibas! ("Begone Satan! Never tempt me with your vanities! What you offer me is evil. Drink the poison yourself!", or in brief,Vade Retro Satana which is abbreviated on the Saint Benedict Medal
Much of Sigma Chi's heraldry was inspired by the legendary story of the Emperor Constantine from the Battle of Milvian Bridge against Maxentius. The White Cross and the motto "In Hoc Signo Vinces" are examples of the Constantine link. Although many of the symbols of Sigma Chi relate to Christianity, Sigma Chi is not a Christian fraternity.
ALPHA IS THE SWASTIKA ALEPH TAV (omega) IS THE CROSS
THE ALPHA AND OMEGA IN CHRISTIANITY ARE COMBINED WITH THE CROSS MAKING THE CHI RO
Alpha (Α or α) and omega (Ω or ω) are the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet, and a title of Christ and God in the Book of Revelation. This couple of letters are used as Christian symbols, and are often combined with the Cross, Chi-rho, or other Christian symbols.
The letters Alpha and Omega in juxtaposition are often used as a Christian visual symbol (see examples). The symbols were used in early Christianity and appear in the Roman catacombs. The letters were shown hanging from the arms of the cross in Early Christian art, and some crux gemmata, jeweled crosses in precious metal, have formed letters hanging in this way, called pendilia; for example, in the Asturian coat of arms, which is based upon the Asturian Victory Cross. In fact, despite always being in Greek, the letters became more common in Western than Eastern Orthodox Christian art. They are often shown to the left and right of Christ's head, sometimes within his halo, where they take the place of the Christogram used in Orthodox art.
CONSTANTINE AND THE CROSS- THE X THE CROSS
At noon, Constantine saw a cross of light imposed over the sun. Attached to it, in Greek characters, was the saying "Τούτῳ Νίκα!". Not only Constantine, but the whole army saw the miracle. That night, Christ appeared to the Roman emperor in a dream and told him to make a replica of the sign he had seen in the sky, which would be a sure defence in battle.
In Insular Gospel books, the beginning of Matthew 1:18, at the end of his account of the genealogy of Christ and introducing his account of the life, so representing the moment of the Incarnation of Christ, was usually marked with a heavily decorated page, where the letters of the first word "Christi" are abbreviated and written in Greek as "XPI", and often almost submerged by decoration. Though the letters are written one after the other and the "X" and "P" not combined in a monogram, these are known as Chi-Rho pages. Famous examples are in the Book of Kells and Book of Lindisfarne. The "X" was regarded as the crux decussata, a symbol of the cross; this idea is found in the works of Isidore of Seville and other patristic and Early Medieval writers. The Book of Kells has a second Chi-Rho abbreviation on folio 124 in the account of the Crucifixion of Christ, and in some manuscripts the Chi-Rho occurs at the beginning of Matthew rather than mid-text at Matthew 1:18. In some other works like the Carolingian Godescalc Evangelistary, "XPS" in sequential letters, representing "Christus" is given a prominent place.
Simple saltires or St. Andrews crosses in Germany
Two curved saltires also called St. Andrews crosses during repairs to a building in Germany: The infill has been removed.
BDSM SAINT ANDREWS CROSSES
The St. Andrew's Cross, Crux decussata, X-cross, X-frame or saltire cross is a common piece of equipment in BDSM dungeons. It typically provides restraining points for ankles, wrists, and waist. When secured to a saltire, the subject is restrained in a spreadeagle position.
The St. Andrew's Cross and the spanking bench are the most common pieces of BDSM furniture. Saltires are versatile and easy to manufacture. They are usually firmly attached to a wall, and is distinguished from a BDSM-style Catherine Wheel, which has a central hinge and allows occupants to be turned upside down.
The submissive may be attached to the cross with either the back or front facing the cross. Being restrained facing the cross is the position often used for whipping. Being attached with one's back to the cross is usually more of a sexual bondage position or used for sexual teasing.
The Cross may be purchased from BDSM companies, but many users make their own. Freestanding saltires have a frame which supports the cross. Some homemade freestanding crosses have a tendency to be unstable; a writhing subject can sometimes tip them over, so great caution needs to be exercised in their use. Some freestanding crosses include footrests that greatly improve safety and stability.
The name comes from the crux decussata (diagonal cross) that Saint Andrew is said to have been martyred on.
The so-called "Chrismon of Saint Ambrose" (Chrismon Sancti Ambrosii), on display on the eastern wall of Milan Cathedral, a Chi-Rho combined with Alpha and Omega in a circle. According to Landulf of Milan (12th century), it was used by Saint Ambrose to introduce the catechumens to the mysteries of the Christian faith (whence it was called "oracle" or chresmos of St. Ambrose, written by Landulf as crismon, whence the later New Latin term for the Chi-Rho symbol).
CHRISTS NAME WAS RENDERED BY THE LETTERS CHI RO- CHRIST WAS REPRESENTED BY THE CHI THE CROSS THE X THE QUADRANT
The emperor Honorius holding a variant of the labarum - the Latin phrase on the cloth means "In the name of Christ [rendered by the Greek letters XPI] be ever victorious."
COINS WITH THE CHI RHO- CROSS ON IT
Coin of Vetranio, a soldier is holding two labara. Interestingly they differ from the labarum of Constantine in having the Chi-Rho depicted on the cloth rather than above it, and in having their staves decorated with phalerae as were earlier Roman military unit standards.
CONSTANTINE HAD THE VISION THAT IN THE SIGN OF THE CROSS (the quadrant) he would conquer
From Eusebius, two accounts of a battle survive. The first, shorter one in the Ecclesiastical History leaves no doubt that God helped Constantine but does not mention any vision. In his later Life of Constantine, Eusebius gives a detailed account of a vision and stresses that he had heard the story from the emperor himself. According to this version, Constantine with his army was marching somewhere (Eusebius does not specify the actual location of the event, but it clearly is not in the camp at Rome) when he looked up to the sun and saw a cross of light above it, and with it the Greek words Ἐν Τούτῳ Νίκα. The traditionally employed Latin translation of the Greek is in hoc signo vinces— literally "In this sign, you will conquer." However, a direct translation from the original Greek text of Eusebius into English gives the phrase "By this, conquer!"
RAPHAEL- CONSTANTINES VISION OF THE CROSS/QUADRANT- THE WRITING IN THE SKY OF RAPHAEL'S PAINTING SAYS "IN THIS SIGN YOU SHALL CONQUER" - THE SIGN OF THE CROSS
Detail from The Vision of the Cross by assistants of Raphael, depicting the vision of the cross and the Greek writing "Ἐν τούτῳ νίκα" in the sky, before the Battle of the Milvian Bridge.
THE CROSS OF CONSTANTINES VISION
Finally at the base of the stairs, he placed his equestrian statue of the Roman emperor Constantine the Great. It is meant to display the event, before the Battle of the Milvian Bridge when at Saxa Rubra north of Rome along the Tiber, Constantine sees a vision of the cross with the words In Hoc Signo Vinces (In this sign, you will conquer). The phrase appears prominently placed as a motto on a ribbon unfurled with a passion cross to its left, beneath a window over the Scala Regia, adjacent to the statue of Constantine. Emperors and other monarchs, having paid respects to the Pope, descended the Scala Regia, and would observe the light shining down through the window, with the motto, reminiscent of Constantine's vision, and be reminded to follow the Cross.
"IN THIS SIGN YOU WILL CONQUER"
Flag of Kallergis brothers.
COINS "IN THIS SIGN YOU WILL CONQUER"- the cross- the quadrant
"In hoc signo vinces" on a 1721 Portuguese coin from the reign of King João V.
Schools (IN THE SIGN OF THE CROSS YOU WILL CONQUER"
In hoc signo vinces is the motto of:
St Michael's Church School, Christchurch, New Zealand
Madras Christian College, Madras, India
St Thomas' Secondary School,Kano,Nigeria
Hardey Preparatory School for Boys, Chicago, Illinois USA
Holy Cross College, Kalutara, Sri Lanka
Quitman High School, Quitman, Louisiana USA
Instituto Tecnológico de Mérida, Mérida, Mexico
Holy Cross College, Arima, Trinidad
Holy Cross School, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
Georgian Institute of Public Affairs, Tbilisi, Georgia
Wah Yan College, Wan Chai, Hong Kong
Wah Yan College, Yau Ma Tei, Hong Kong
College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, MA 
Marist Brothers High School, Fiji Suva city
Saint Joseph's Grammar School, Donaghmore, County Tyrone, Ireland 
St. Eunan's College, Letterkenny, County Donegal, Republic of Ireland 
Holy Cross College of Carigara, Carigara, Leyte, Republic of the Philippines
Strangford Integrated College, Carrowdore, County Down, Northern Ireland 
Bishop Simon Brute College Seminary, Indianapolis, Indiana USA
EMBLEM OF KNIGHTS TEMPLAR FREEMASONRY- SAYS "IN THE SIGN OF THE CROSS YOU WILL CONQUER"
Emblem of the Knights Templar of Freemasonry.
THE VISION OF THE CROSS RAPHAEL - CONSTANTINES VISION OF THE CROSS
The Vision of the Cross
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Vision of the Cross
Raphael Vision Cross.jpg
Artist Circle of Raphael
Location Apostolic Palace, Vatican City
The Vision of the Cross is a painting made between 1520 and 1524 by assistants of the Italian renaissance artist Raphael. After the master's death in 1520, Gianfrancesco Penni, Giulio Romano and Raffaellino del Colle from Raphael's workshop worked together to finish the commission to decorate with frescoes the rooms that are now known as the Stanze di Raffaello, in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican.
The Vision of the Cross is located in the Sala di Costantino ("Hall of Constantine"). In the painting, emperor Constantine I is seen just before the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on October 28, 312. According to legend, a cross appeared to Constantine in the sky, after which as seen in the fresco and following Eusebius of Caesarea Vita Constantini, he adopted the Greek motto "Εν τούτῳ νίκα", i.e. "By this, conquer", a motto that has been rendered in Latin as "In hoc signo vinces", i.e. "In this sign you shall conquer".
This Mannerist painting is a crowded and confused melee and melange of images, including a dragon, a dwarf, two popes, and various symbols. Proportions among the soldiers appear confused, with some dwarfed by more distant figures.
RABBI ISAAC LURIAS DISCIPLES FOUR HIERARCHICAL GROUPS
Student of Isaac Luria
In 1570 Vital became a student of Isaac Luria, the foremost kabbalist of the day. In a study of Lurianic mysticism, Lawrence Fine writes:
Vital provides us with the names of 38 individuals who according to him, made up Luria's discipleship... According to him, the fellowship was divided into four hierarchically ordered groups. The first and most important, was composed of 11 men, listed in this order: Hayyim Vital, Jonathan Sagis, Joseph Arzin, Isaac Kohen, Gedaliah ha-Levi, Samuel Uceda, Judah Mishan, Abraham Gavriel, Shabbatai Menashe, Joseph ibn Tabul, and Elijah Falko (or Falkon). It is largely accepted that within a year Hayyim Vital emerged as the leading student, so that when the Arizal died in 1572, at the age of 38, Vital succeeded him. Since the Arizal had left almost none of his teachings in writing, Vital began to write down everything he had learned from his master.
THE FOUR SYMBOLS QUADRANT ON THE GREAT CROSS OF HENDAYE
Fulcanelli's Deciphering: Base
The four symbols found on the base are: Sun, Moon, Great Star, and a Simple circle. The circle is divided by two perpendicular diameters into four sectors in which there are four As displayed.
The four As can be used to explain the four phases of the Great Cyclic Period in Medieval times. The four phases were represented either by: the four evangelists; by their symbolic letter, which is the Greek letter alpha; or by the four evangelical beasts surrounding Christ. These four quadrants are believed to stand for the four ages of the world. This symbolizes the diagram used to indicate the solar cycle, upon which the Galactic Alignment and procession rest.
This traditional formula is often seen on the tympana of Roman porches. Where Jesus is shown seated with his left hand resting on a book and his right hand is raised in the gestures of benediction. He is separated from the four beasts which attend him by an ellipse, which is called the mystic almond. These groups are seen in many chapel and cathedrals throughout Europe, including Church of Templars at Luz in Hautes Pyrénées
EUROPEAN GEOMANCY FOUR MOTHERS 16 FIGURES
In European geomancy four figures called - the Mothers- are produced using the random marks method and from these further figures are calculated. The divination can be made direct from the figures themselves or by using a system of correspondences translated on to an astrological chart and interpreted according ot the rules of astrology. Readers who wish for details are advised to see Skinner's book or Israel Regardie's - A Practical Guide to Geomantic Divination for further information). For medievalists, methods can be found in Agrippa's - Of Geomancy and Gerard of Cremona's - On Astronomical Geomancy. Both documents can be downloaded from Norton's Imperium - Ben Rowe's Enochian website.
The sixteen figures in full, with planetary and zodiacal correspondences, are:
16 SQUARES QMR- FOUR TRIADS
Uproot sixteen potatoes from a field and count the eyes or roots on each to see whether they’re even or odd (no, really).
As for the rest of the figures in the chart (the Mothers, Daughters, and Nieces), there are different methods of allocating meaning to them. In Western geomancy, they’re used in a more astrological way, which forms the basis of the Geomantic Chart. Another Western method of using the rest of the figures in the tableau is to split them up into four groups of three, two Mothers or Daughters and the Niece that they form. Each of these groups, called triplicities or triads, can be viewed as mini-Courts, with the same rules applying to them as applies to the Witnesses and Judge.
The First Triad (First Mother, Second Mother, First Niece) reflect the querent’s current self, circumstances, and nature.
The Second Triad (Third Mother, Fourth Mother, Second Niece) reflect the current situation inquired about.
The Third Triad (First Daughter, Second Daughter, Third Niece) reflect the places and surroundings of the querent, including the people and activities involved there.
The Fourth Triad (Third Daughter, Fourth Daughter, Fourth Niece) reflect the people involved with the querent’s life, including their friends, colleagues, coworkers, and the interplay of the relationships among them.
The music video for "Jesus Christ Pose" was directed by Eric Zimmerman, who would later direct the music video for "Rusty Cage". The video's intro includes words similar to John 3:16; "And God So Loved Soundgarden He Gave Them His Only Song". The video features the band members wandering around a desert interspersed with various images of crosses, cyborgs, a crucified girl, a crucified skeleton and even vegetables crucified in a human form. Thayil said, "A lot was chosen by the director Eric Zimmerman, and we checked it out and decided what we liked and didn't like." Cornell said, "It was a pretty unanimous decision by the band to have a woman being crucified in the video ... As a visual, it's powerful and it's also challenging to people, because women basically have been persecuted since before recorded history, and it would almost make more sense than seeing a man on it." He also added, "There's upside down crosses and right-side up ones. But there's certainly no blatant direction as far as religious conviction in the video."
CHRIST FIGURE CROSS- HAIR
In Hair, the character of Claude becomes a classic Christ figure at various points in the script. In Act I, Claude enters, saying, "I am the Son of God. I shall vanish and be forgotten," then gives benediction to the tribe and the audience. Claude suffers from indecision, and, in his Gethsemane at the end of Act I, he asks "Where Do I Go?". There are various textual allusions to Claude being on a cross, and, in the end, he is chosen to give his life for the others.
IT IS ABOUT THE CROSS- LET THE HOLY CROSS BE MY LIGHT
Vade retro satana ("Go back, Satan" or "Step back, Satan") is a Medieval Catholic formula for exorcism, recorded in a 1415 manuscript found in the Benedictine Metten Abbey in Bavaria; its origin is traditionally associated with the Benedictines.
The Latin text says:
Crux sacra sit mihi lux / Numquam draco sit mihi dux
Vade retro satana / Numquam suade mihi vana
Sunt mala quae libas / Ipse venena bibas
In approximate translation:
"Let the Holy Cross be my light / Let not the dragon be my guide
Step back Satan / Never tempt me with vain things
What you offer me is evil / You drink the poison yourself."
FOUR STAGES REMBRANDT CROSSES
The Three Crosses does not allow for dramatic contrasts of light and shade, known as chiaroscuro. Rembrandt produced the work in four stages, increasing the effects of the light and shade contrasts at each stage. Etching and drypoint are labor-intensive processes and one of the early forms of printmaking. 
ALLUSIONS TO CHRIST'S CRUCIFIXION IN ROMEO AND JULIET--- CROSS IS QUADRANT- IN ONE OF THE ALLUSIONS JULIET SAYS "CROSS"
1. Juliet: “What if it be a poison which the friar / Subtly had ministered to have me dead / Lest in this marriage he should be dishonoured / Because he married me before to Romeo?” (4.3.23- 26).
2. Romeo: I have a soul of lead / So stakes me to the ground I cannot move” (1.4.15-16). Then said Jesus unto them, My soul is very heavy, even unto the death (Matthew 26: 38)
1 For biblical allusions in Hamlet see “Echoes of John the Baptist in William Shakespeare’s Hamlet” (November 2014) and “Further Biblical Allusions to John the Baptist in Shakespeare’s Hamlet” (June 2015) of this journal.
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Allusions to the Passion of Christ in William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet 174
Then assembled together the chief Priests, and the Scribes, and the Elders of the people into the hall of the high Priest called Caiaphas: And consulted together that they might take Jesus by subtilty, and kill him. (Matthew 26: 3-4)
3. Lady Capulet: “Do as thou wilt” (3.5.203)
4. Juliet: How cam’st thou hither, tell me, and wherefore? (2.1.104)
So he went a little further, and fell on his face, and prayed, saying, O my Father, if it be
possible, let this cup pass from me: nevertheless, not as I will, but as thou wilt. (Matthew 26: 39)
Then Jesus said unto him, Friend, wherefore art thou come?
(Matthew 26: 50)
5. Juliet: “It was the nightingale, and not the lark, / That pierced the fear-full hollow of thine
And behold, one of them which were with Jesus, stretched out his hand, and drew his sword, and
struck a servant of the high Priest, and smote off his ear.
(Matthew 26: 51)
6. Friar Lawrence: “And weep ye now, seeing she is advanced / Above the clouds as high as
heaven itself?” (4.4.100-101).
Jesus said to him, ‘Thou hast said it: nevertheless I say unto you, Hereafter shall ye see the Son of man, sitting at the right hand of the power of God, and come in the clouds of the heaven’.
(Matthew 26: 64).
7. Nurse: “A perilous knock, and it cried bitterly” (1.3.56).
(Matthew 26: 75)
Then Peter remembered the words of Jesus, which had said unto him, Before the cock crow thou
shalt deny me thrice. So he went out, and wept bitterly.
8. Prince: Romeo slew hi, he slew Mercutio. / Who now the price of his dear blood doth owe?”
And the chief Priests took the silver pieces, and said, It is not lawful for us to put them into
the treasure, because it is the price of blood.
(Matthew 27: 6)
9. Prince: “Capulet, Montague, / See what a scourge is laid upon your hate, / That heaven finds
means to kill your joys with love” (5.3.290-292).
Thus let he Barabbas loose unto them, and scourged Jesus, and delivered him to be crucified.
(Matthew 27: 26)
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10. Romeo: “Is love a tender thing? It is too rough, / Too rude, too boist’rous, and it pricks like a
And platted a crown of thorns,
11. Juliet: “To move the heavens to smile upon my state, / Which— well thou knowest— is cross and full of sin” (4.3.4-5).
And as they came out, they found a man of Cyrene, named Simon: him they compelled to bear
12. Tybalt: “I will withdraw, but this intrusion shall, / Now seeming sweet, convert to bitt’rest
“There the soldiers gave Jesus some wine mixed with gall.”
13. Romeo: “By the hour of nine” (2.1.214).
14. Friar Laurence: “Is Rosaline, that thou didst love so dear, / So soon forsaken?” (2.2.66-67).
“Now from the sixth hour was there darkness over all the land, unto the ninth hour.”
(Matthew 27: 45)
“Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani? that is, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?”
15. Juliet: “Or bid me go into a new-made grave / And hide me with a dead mean in his tomb” (4.1.84-85).
“So Joseph took the body, and wrapped it in a clean linen cloth, And put it in his new tomb,
which he had hewn out in a rock, and rolled a great stone to the door of the sepulcher, and departed.
(Matthew 27: 59-60)
16. Nurse: “’Tis since the earthquake now eleven years” (1.3.25).
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And behold, there was a great earthquake: for the Angel of the Lord descended from heaven,
and came and rolled back the stone from the door, and sat upon it.
17. Juliet: “It is too rash, too unadvised, too sudden, / Too like the lightning which doth cease to be / ere one can say it lightens” (2.1.160-162).
“And his countenance was like lightning,”
(Matthew 28: 3)
18. Juliet: “For thou wilt lie upon the wings of night / Whiter than new snow on a raven’s back”
“and his raiment white as snow.”
19. Romeo: “Call me but love and I’ll be new baptized” (2.1.93).
20. Juliet: “And all my fortunes at thy foot I’ll lay, / And follow thee, my lord, throughout the world.”
The Nurse’s vivid description of Tybalt’s death is worth considering: “I saw the wound, I saw it with mine eyes, / God save the mark, here on his manly breast— / A piteous corpse, a bloody, piteous corpse— / Pale, pale as ashes, all bedaubed in blood, / All in gore blood; I swooned at the sight” (3.2.52-56). In light of the above, one cannot help but recall another bloody, gory scene of a man crucified on a cross whose last words included: “Father, forgive them: for they know not what they do” (Luke 23:34), which are echoed by Benvolio. At the same time the play also brings to mind a central tenet of Christianity, namely that of the resurrection. It is noteworthy that one encounters such words as Easter and Lent embedded in the tragedy in addition to all the biblical allusions centered on the death and resurrection of Christ.
ALLUSIONS TO CHRISTS CRUCIFIXION
5 Allusions to Psalm 22 at Christ’s Crucifixion
Miles Custis | Fri, April 6, 2012 | Misc.
Logos Talk is bringing you special Holy Week devotionals from a number of authors. If you’d like more resources to prepare your heart for Easter, Logos has discounted a number of Holy Week titles.
Psalm 22 stands out among the Psalms in its depiction of the psalmist’s agony and suffering. It is no wonder that Jesus quoted the psalmist’s anguished cry of “my God, my God why have you forsaken me?” as he died on the cross. However, this is not the only reference to Psalm 22 in the gospel accounts of Christ’s death. In fact, there are five possible allusions. None of these allusions refer to Jesus’ physical suffering; instead, they focus on the rejection and contempt He experienced while paying the penalty for our sins.
Psalm 22:18—“they divide my garments among them, and for my clothing they cast lots.” The psalmist says this to portray how close he is to death. His enemies are anticipating his death so much that they have already divided his clothes among themselves. All four gospels describe this event with John taking it further by describing it as a fulfillment of Scripture (Jn 19:23–24; Mt 27:35; Mk 15:24; Lk 23:34).
Psalm 22:7—“they wag their heads.” The psalmist’s description of people’s reaction to him indicates their scorn and derision. Both Matthew and Mark allude to this: “And those who passed by derided him, wagging their heads” (Mt 27:39; Mk 15:29). Just like the psalmist, Jesus experienced rejection and ridicule by people. How difficult it must have been for the Son of God to endure such contempt for those he was sacrificing himself to save!
Psalm 22:8—“He trusts in the LORD; let him deliver him . . . for He delights in him.” In Psalm 22 the psalmist wrestled with God’s silence. Despite his cries, God did not answer or deliver him (Ps 22:1–5). Because of God’s apparent absence, this taunt would have especially stung. Only Matthew includes a reference to this verse as he describes the crowd mocking Jesus for His trust in God: “He trusts in God; let God deliver him now, if he desires him” (Mt 27:43). Jesus also prayed to be delivered from His suffering, while still submitting Himself to God’s will (Mt 26:39). To be mocked for His humble submission to God’s must have been particularly painful for Christ.
Psalm 22:1—“my God, my God why have you forsaken me?” The opening line of Psalm 22 beautifully expresses the anguish of the psalmist. He is suffering greatly, but his chief concern is that God—the source of his trust and deliverance—appears to have abandoned him. Matthew and Mark both attribute these words to Jesus (Mt 27:46; Mk 15:34). Jesus’ physical sufferings pale in comparison to the trauma of being forsaken by God as he takes the weight of our sin upon himself
Psalm 22:31—“he has done it.” Psalm 22 ends, not with suffering, but with praise as the psalmist worships God for delivering him (Ps 22:25–31). He enthusiastically proclaims God’s act of salvation and deliverance throughout the world and to all generations. The final line—which consists of one word in Hebrew—can be translated either “he has done it” or simply “it is done.” Jesus may be alluding to this when he says—with one word in Greek—“it is finished” (Jn 19:30). Christ’s dying words carry many implications: God’s plan of salvation has been completed; our sin is paid for; Christ’s work on earth is done. Perhaps it is also a shout of praise like the psalmist’s words in Psalm 22:31. It is finished. God’s ultimate deliverance has been carried out. Just as the psalmist proclaimed God’s deliverance of him, so should we proclaim Christ’s work of salvation on the cross to the ends of the earth and throughout all generations.
What crucifixion imagery impacts you the most in the gospel accounts? Leave us a comment and let us know, then take a look at our special Holy Week resources.
THERE IS ALSO A PASSAGE IN THE BIBLE THAT IS FULL OF TAVS AND IT BEGINS ALEPH AND ENDS TAV AND IT PREDICTS JESUS- PSALM 22 PREDICTS JESUS CRUCIFIXION AND 22 IS THE 22ND LETTER TAV THE CROSS- ALSO TAV IS 400 FOUR
The reality of prophecy and of the divine inspiration of Scripture is no where more clearly displayed than here in Psalm 22 where the crucifixion of the Lord Jesus Christ is foretold.
Every theme of the Bible is united here in this sacred passage which God indexed so carefully, and so obviously, with the Number 22, the Number of Tav, the final letter of the divine alphabet, the letter of the Cross.
Every aspect of Christ's sufferings is seen in this Psalm, and His separation from the Father when He bore our sins is heard in the cry, "My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?" He, the King of Glory, willingly became "a worm", "a reproach of men, and despised of the people" so that we who were lost might find grace and forgiveness through His sacrifice. This is what the Bible is all about. It is the axis of the Wheel.
In Johns description of the Cross, we read (John 19:30):
After this, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst. Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar: and they filled a spunge with vinegar, and put it upon hyssop, and put it to his mouth. When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost.
Just as Tav completes the alphabet, so Jesus completes His work upon the cross with the words "It is finished."
All four gospel relate vinegar with the death of Christ. The receiving of vinegar was the sign that marked the time of the death of Jesus. We have the identity:
ALEPH IS SWASTIKA TAV IS CROSS
The author of Psalm 119 intentionally starts the chapter with an Aleph and ends it with a Tav in his praise of YHWH's Torah, which is the Word of God that came straight from YHWH's mouth.
GENESIS 1 RELATES THE ALEPH TAV (THE SWASTIKA THE CROSS) TO THE WORD OF GOD (THE WORD MADE FLESH)
I'm thinking that the Aleph Tav may be more than just a direct object marker (I'm in my second year studying Hebrew). As we know the Scriptures contain hidden as well as obvious teachings and that is why we can always learn more from it the more we study it. The fact that Yeshua compared himself to the Aleph and Tav suggests there's more to it. (It's not just some flowery words) If you take the first instance (Gen 1:1) and then relate the Aleph Tav to be the Word of God it adds up because we know that God created the world by the Word. The Hebrew language is unique in that the very letters contain meaning and all words derived from it have deeper meaning. Not all will accept this, but the Hebrew language is the language of God, thereby making it the language used to create the universe. Logically, there has to have been an original language that Adam conversed with God, and he had to be taught it by God. Spiritually we find the evidence in the Scriptures themselves (that only makes sense in Hebrew) we don't have to rely on someone else's theology.