The Rose Cross (also called Rose Croix and Rosy Cross) is a symbol largely associated with the semi-mythical Christian Rosenkreuz, Qabbalist and alchemist and founder of the Rosicrucian Order.[2][3] The Rose Cross is said to be a cross with a white rose at its centre[4]and symbolizes the teachings of a western esoteric tradition formed within the Christian tenets, albeit a Christianity not yet conspicuously in evidence:[5][6]

The Winged Self symbol of the Rose Cross. Painting based on an original, unedited version of the New Atlantis by Francis Bacon

The Rosy Cross Lamen as worn by Adepts in the Rosae Rubae et Aureae Crucis, the inner order of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn.

The Isis-Urania Temple was initially the first temple of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. The three founders, Dr. William Robert Woodman, William Wynn Westcott, and Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers, were Freemasons and members of Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia (S.R.I.A.).[1] It continued as one four daughter organisations into which the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn fragmented, the others being the Alpha et Omega, the Stella Matutina and Aleister Crowley's A∴A∴.

The Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception
Chapter X
The Earth Period
The Globes of the Earth Period are located in the four densest states of matter--the Region of Concrete Thought, the Desire World, the Etheric, and the Chemical Regions (See Diagram 8). The densest Globe (Globe D) is our present Earth.
When we speak of "the densest Worlds" or "the densest states of matter," the term must be taken in a relative sense. Otherwise it would imply a limitation in the absolute, and that is absurd. Dense and attenuated, up and down, east and west, are applicable only relatively to our own status and position. As there are higher, finer Worlds than those touched by our life wave, so there are also denser states of matter which are the field of evolution for other classes of beings. Nor must it be thought that these denser worlds are elsewhere in space; they are interpenetrated by our worlds in a manner similar to that in which the higher Worlds interpenetrate this Earth. The fancied solidity of the Earth and the forms we see are no bar to the passage of a denser body any more than our solid dense walls bar the passage of a human being clothed in his desire body. Neither is solidity synonymous with density, as may be illustrated by aluminum, a solid which is less dense than the fluidic mercury; nevertheless the latter, in spite of its density, will evaporate or exude through many solids.
This being the fourth Period, we have at present four elements. In the Saturn Period there was but one element, Fire--i.e., there was warmth, or heat, which is incipient fire. In the second, or Sun Period, there were to elements, Fire and Air. In the third, or Moon Period, there were three elements, Water being added; and in the fourth, or Earth Period, was added the fourth element, Earth. Thus it will be seen that a new element was added for each Period.
In the Jupiter Period an element of a spiritual nature will be added, which will unite with the speech so that words will invariable carry with them understanding--not misunderstanding, as is frequently the case now. For instance, when one says "house," he may mean a cottage, while the hearer may get the idea of a tenement flat building.
To this environment of the four elements, as specified above, the different classes mentioned in diagram 10 were brought over by the Hierarchies in charge of them. We remember that in the Moon Period these classes formed three kingdoms--animal, animal-plant and plant-mineral. Here on Earth, however, the conditions are such that there can be no large half-way classes. There must be four distinctly different kingdoms. In this crystallized phase of existence the lines between them must be more sharply drawn than was the case in former Periods, where one kingdom gradually merged into the next. Therefore some of the classes mentioned in diagram 10 advanced one-half step, while others went back a half a step.
Some of the mineral-plants advanced completely into the plant kingdom and became the verdure of the fields. Others went down and became the purely mineral soil in which the plants grew. Of the plant-animals some advanced into the animal kingdom, ahead of time, and those species have yet the colorless plant-blood and some, like star-fishes, have even the five points like the petals of flowers.
All of class 2 whose desire bodies could be divided into two parts (as was the case with all of class 1) were fitted to become human vehicles and were therefore advanced into the human group.
We must carefully remember that in the above paragraphs we are dealing with Form, not with the Life which dwells in the Form. The instrument is graded to suit the life that is to dwell in it. Those of class 2, in whose vehicles the above mentioned division could be made were raised to the human kingdom, but were given the indwelling spirit at a point in time later than class 1. Hence, they are not now so far evolved as class 1, and are therefore the lower races of mankind.
Those whose desire bodies were incapable of division were put into the same division as classes 3a and 3b. They are our present anthropoids. They may yet overtake our evolution if they reach a sufficient degree of advancement before the critical point already mentioned, which will come in the middle of the fifth Revolution. If they do not overtake us by that time, they will have lost touch with our evolution.
It was said that man had built his threefold body by the help of others higher than he, but in the previous Period there was no coordinating power; the threefold spirit, the Ego, was separate and apart from its vehicles. Now the time had come to unit the spirit and the body.
Where the desire body separated, the higher part become somewhat master over the lower part and over the dense and vital bodies. It formed a sort of animal-soul with which the spirit could unite by means of the link of mind. Where there was no division of the desire body, the vehicle was given over to desires and passions without any check, and could therefore not be used as a vehicle within which the spirit could dwell. So it was put under the control of a group-spirit which ruled if from without. It became an animal body, and that kind has now degenerated into the body of the anthropoid.
Where there was a division of the desire body, the dense body gradually assumed a vertical position, thus taking the spine out of the horizontal currents of the Desire World in which the group-spirit acts upon the animal through the horizontal spine. The Ego could then enter, work in and express itself through the vertical spine and build the vertical larynx and brain for its adequate expression in the dense body. A horizontal larynx is also under the domination of the group-spirit. While it is true that some animals, as the starling, raven, parrot, etc., previously mentioned, are able, because of the possession of a vertical larynx, to utter words, they cannot use them understandingly. The use of words to express thought is the highest human privilege and can be exercised only by a reasoning, thinking entity like man. If the student will keep this in mind, it will be easier to follow the different steps which lead up to this result.
The Saturn Revolution of the Earth Period
This is the Revolution during which, in each Period. the dense body is reconstructed. This time it was given the ability to form a brain and become a vehicle for the germ of mind which was to be added later. This addition constituted the final reconstruction of the dense body, rendering it capable of attaining the highest degree of efficiency possible to such a vehicle.
Unspeakable Wisdom has been employed in its construction. It is a marvel. It can never be sufficiently impressed upon the mind of the student what immeasurable facilities for the gaining of knowledge are contained in this instrument, and what a great boon it is to man; how much he should prize it and how thankful he should be to have it.
Some examples of the perfection of construction and intelligent adaptability displayed in this instrument have previously been given, but in order to further impress this great truth upon the mind of the student, it might not be out of place to illustrate more fully this Wisdom, also the work of the Ego in the blood.
It is generally know, in a vague kind of way, that the gastric juice acts upon the food to promote assimilation; but only a very few people, outside of the medical profession, are aware that there are many different gastric juices, each appropriate to the treatment of a certain kind of food. The researches of Pavlov, however, have established the fact beyond doubt, that there is one kind of juice for the digestion of meat, another for milk, another for acid fruit, etc. That fact, by the way, is the reason why all foods do not mix well. Milk, for instance, requires a gastric juice that is widely different from almost any other kind except that required for the digestion of starchy foods, and is not readily digested with any food other than cereals. This alone would show marvelous wisdom; that the Ego working subconsciously is able to select the different juices which are appropriate to the different kinds of food taken into the stomach, making each of just the right strength and quantity to digest the food. What makes the matter still more wonderful, however, is the fact that the gastric juice is poured into the stomach in advance of the food.
We do not consciously direct the process of mixing this fluid. The great majority of people know nothing of metabolism or any other phrase of chemistry. So it is not enough to say that, as we taste what is coming, we direct the process by means of signals through the nervous system.
When this fact of the selection of juices was first proven, scientists were sorely puzzled trying to learn how the right kind of juice was selected and caused to enter the stomach before the food. They thought the signal was given along the nervous system. But it was demonstrated beyond doubt that the proper juice was poured into to the stomach even though the nervous system was blocked.
At last Starling and Bayliss, in a series of experiments of brilliant ingenuity, proved that infinitesimal parts of the food are taken up by the blood as soon as the food enters the mouth, go in advance to the digestive glands and cause a flow of the proper juice.
This again, is only the physical side of the phenomena. To understand the whole wonderful connection, we must turn to occult science. That alone explains why the signal is carried by the blood.
The blood is one of the highest expressions of the vital body. The Ego guides and controls its dense instrument by means of the blood, therefore the blood is also the means used to act on the nervous system. During some of the time that digestion is going on, it acts partially through the nervous system, but (especially at the commencement of the digestive process) it acts directly upon the stomach. When, during scientific experiments, the nerves were blocked, the direct way through the blood was still open and the Ego derived the necessary information in that way.
It will also be seen that the blood is driven to wherever the Ego unfolds the greatest activity at any time. If a situation requires sudden though and action, the blood is promptly driven to the head. If a heavy meal is to be digested the greater portion of the blood leaves the head, centering around the digestive organs. The Ego concentrates its efforts on ridding the body of the useless food. Therefore a man cannot think well after a heavy meal. He is sleepy because so much blood has left the brain that the residue is insufficient to carry on the functions necessary to full waking consciousness, besides, nearly all the vital fluid or solar energy specialized by the spleen is absorbed by the blood rushing through that organ after a meal in greater volume than between meals. Thus the rest of the system is also deprived of the vital fluid in a large measure during digestion. It is the Ego that drives the blood into the brain. Whenever the body goes to sleep, the table will invariably tip towards the feet, raising the head. During coition the blood is centered in the sex organs, etc. All these examples tend to prove that during the waking hours, the Ego works in and controls the dense body by means of the blood. The larger portion of the total amount goes to that part of the body where at any given time, the Ego unfolds any particular activity.
The reconstruction of the dense body in the Saturn Revolution of the Earth Period was for the purpose of rendering it capable of inter-penetration by the mind. It gave the first impulse to the building of the frontal part of the brain; also the incipient division in the nervous system which has since become apparent in its subdivisions--the voluntary and the sympathetic. The latter was the only one provided for in the Moon Period. The voluntary nervous system (which has transformed the dense body from a mere automaton acting under stimuli from without, to an extraordinary adaptable instrument capable of being guided and controlled by an Ego from within) was not added until the present Earth Period.
The principal art of the reconstructive work was done by the Lords of Form. They are the Creative Hierarchy which is most active in the Earth Period, as were the Lords of Flame in the Saturn Period, the Lords of Wisdom in the Sun Period, and the Lords of Individuality in the Moon Period.
The Earth Period is pre-eminently the Period of Form, for there the form or matter side of evolution reaches its greatest and most pronounced state. Here spirit is more helpless and suppressed and Form is the most dominant factor--hence the prominence of the Lords of Form.
The Sun Revolution of the Earth Period
During this Revolution the vital body was reconstructed to accommodate the germinal mind. The vital body was fashioned more in the likeness of the dense body, so that it could become fitted for use as the densest vehicle during the Jupiter Period, when the dense body will have become spiritualized.
The Angels, the humanity of the Moon Period, were aided by the Lords of Form in reconstruction. The organization of the vital body is now next in efficiency to the dense body. Some writers on this subject call the former a link, and contend that it is simply a mold of the dense body, and not a separate vehicle.
While not desiring to criticize, and admitting that this contention is justified by the fact that man, at his present stage of evolution, cannot ordinarily use the vital body as a separate vehicle--because it always remains with the dense body and to extract it in toto would cause death of the dense body--yet there was a time when it was not so firmly incorporated with the latter, as we shall presently see.
During those epochs of our Earth's history which have already been mentioned as the Lemurian and the Atlantean, man was involuntarily clairvoyant, and it was precisely this looseness of connection between the dense and the vital bodies that made him so. (The Initiators of that time helped the candidate to loosen the connection still further, as in the voluntary clairvoyant.)
Since then the vital body has become much more firmly interwoven with the dense body in the majority of people, but in all sensitives it is loose. It is that looseness which constitutes the difference between the psychic and the ordinary person who is unconscious of all but the vibrations contacted by means of the five senses. All human beings have to pass through this period of close connection of the vehicles and experience the consequent limitation of consciousness. There are, therefore, two classes of sensitives, those who have not become firmly enmeshed in matter, such as the majority of the Hindus, the Indians, etc., who possess a certain low grade of clairvoyance, or are sensitive to the sounds of nature, and those who are in the vanguard of evolution. The latter are emerging from the acme of materiality, and are again divisible into two kinds, one of which develops in a passive, weak-willed manner. By the help of others they re-awaken the solar plexus or other organs in connection with the involuntary nervous system. These are therefore involuntary clairvoyants, mediums who have no control of their faculty. They have retrograded. The other kind is made up of those who by their own wills unfold the vibratory powers of the organs now connected with the voluntary nervous system and thus become trained occultists, controlling their own bodies and exercising the clairvoyant faculty as they will to do. They are called voluntary or trained clairvoyants.
In the Jupiter Period man will function in his vital body as he now does in his dense body; and as no development in nature is sudden, the process of separating the two bodies has already commenced. The vital body will then attain a much higher degree of efficiency than the dense body of today. As it is a much more pliable vehicle, the spirit will then be able to use it in a manner impossible of realization in the case of the present dense vehicle.
The Moon Revolution of the Earth Period
Here the Moon Period was recapitulated, and much the same conditions prevailed (on an advanced scale) as obtained on Globe D of that Period. There was the same kind of fire-fog atmosphere; the same fiery core; the same division of the Globe into two parts, in order to allow the more highly evolved beings a chance to progress at the proper rate and pace, which it would be impossible for beings such as our humanity to equal.
In that Revolution the Archangels (humanity of the Sun Period) and the Lords of Form took charge of the reconstruction of the desire body, but they were not alone in that work. When the separation of the Globe into two parts occurred, there was a similar division in the desire bodies of some of the evolving beings. We have already noted that where this division took place, the form was ready to become the vehicle of an indwelling spirit, and in order to further this purpose the Lords of Mind (humanity of the Saturn Period) took possession of the higher part of the desire body and implanted in it the separate selfhood, without which the present man with all his glorious possibilities, could never have existed.
Thus in the latter part of the Moon Revolution the first germ of separate personality was implanted in the higher part of the desire body by the Lords of Mind.
The Archangels were active in the lower part of the desire body, giving it the purely animal desires. They also worked in the desire bodies where there was no division. Some of these were to become the vehicles of the animal group-spirits, which work on them from without, but do not enter wholly into the animal forms, as the individual spirit does into the human body.
The desire body was reconstructed to render it capable of being interpenetrated by the germinal mind which, during the Earth Period, will be implanted in all those desire bodies in which it was possible to make the before-mentioned division.
As has been previously explained, the desire body is an unorganized ovoid, holding the dense body as a dark spot within its center, as the white of an egg surrounds the yolk. There are a number of sense centers in the ovoid, which have appeared since the beginning of the Earth Period. In the average human being these centers appear merely as eddies in a current and are not now awake, hence his desire body is of no use to him as a separate vehicle of consciousness; but when the sense centers are awakened they look like whirling vortices.
Rest Periods Between Revolutions
Hitherto we have noted only the Cosmic Nights between Periods. We saw that there was an interval of rest and assimilation between the Saturn and the Sun Periods; another Cosmic Night between the Sun and the Moon Periods, etc. But in addition to these, there are also rests between the Revolutions.
We might liken the Periods to the different incarnations of man; the Cosmic Nights between them to the intervals between deaths and new births; and the rest between Revolutions would then be analogous to the rest of sleep between two days.
When a Cosmic Night sets in, all manifested things are resolved into a homogenous mass--the Cosmos again becomes Chaos.
This periodical return of matter to primordial substance is what makes it possible for the spirit to evolve. Were the crystallizing process of active manifestation to continue indefinitely it would offer an insurmountable barrier to the progress of Spirit. Every time matter has crystallized to such a degree that it becomes too hard for the spirit to work in, the latter withdraws to recuperate its exhausted energy, on the same principle that a power-drill which has stopped when boring in hard metals, is withdrawn to regain its momentum. It is then able to bore its way further into the metal.
Freed from the crystallizing energy of the evolving spirits, the chemical forces in matter turn Cosmos to Chaos by restoring matter to its primordial state, that a new start may be made by the regenerated virgin spirits at the dawn of a new Day of Manifestation. The experience gained in former Periods and Revolutions enables the Spirit to build up to the point last reached, with comparative celerity, also to facilitate further progress by making such alterations as its cumulative experience dictates.
Thus at the end of the Moon Revolution of the Earth Period, all the Globes and all life returned to Chaos, re-emerging therefrom at the beginning of the fourth Revolution.
The Fourth Revolution of the Earth Period
In the exceeding complexity of the scheme of evolution, there are always spirals within spirals, ad infinitum. So it will not be surprising to learn that in every Revolution the work of recapitulation and rest is applied to the different Globes. When the life wave reappeared on Globe A in this Revolution, it went though the development of the Saturn Period; then after a rest which, however did not involve the complete destruction of the Globe; but only an alteration, it appeared on Globe B, where the work of the Sun Period was recapitulated. Then after a rest, the life wave passed on to Globe C, and the work of the Moon Period was repeated. Finally, the life wave arrived on Globe D, which is our Earth, and not until then did the proper work of the Earth Period begin.
Even then, the spiral within the spiral precluded its beginning immediately on the arrival of the life wave from Globe C, for the bestowal of the germ of mind did not actually take place until the fourth Epoch, the first three Epochs being still further recapitulations of the Saturn, Sun and Moon Periods, but always on a higher scale.
Notice how the fourth period is different from the previous three in this Rosicrucian model.

The Rosicrucian quadrant
The primary principle of the Prenatal Epoch has been stated by Max Heindel in The Message of the Stars, where he says that the body is the product of lunar forces and that the position of the Ascendant, or its opposite, at birth, is the Moon's position at conception. The keyword of the Moon is fecundation or fertility, and it is Jehovah and the lunar Angels that preside at the birth of a child. This is stated in the Cosmo-Conception and other works of the Rosicrucian Philosophy. We thus see that the Moon has primary influence over the formation of the physical body, and that the Ascendant represents merely the transference of the Moon's position from conception to birth.
This law was known to the ancients as the "Truitine of Hermes," from Hermes Trismegistus, who first correctly formulated and stated the law as follows: "The place of the Moon at conception becomes the birth ascendant or its opposite point."
"But this proved to be but one-half of a very important law, for while the Ascendant at birth was the place of the Moon at a certain Epoch, the Ascendant or its opposite point at this Epoch was the place of the Moon at birth -- a very remarkable interchange of factors." --E.H. Bailey.
According to the Ancient Wisdom, "The World-Breath has a definite and periodic pulsation, a systole and diastole action, whereby birth and death are controlled." This idea of periodicity, well established by modern science, furthers the idea that birth can take place only in respect to any single locality at intervals, that these intervals are in accord with lunar motion, and that only every seventh impulse of the World-Breath permits of human births.
The modern version of the Prenatal Epoch we first established by the English astrologer known to the astrological world as Sepharial, in the year 1886. It was published by him in 1890. In this he had the collaboration of a trained and veteran scientist, a doctor, who helped him to establish the primary laws of the Prenatal Epoch by years of painstaking research and actual experiments. This doctor was an expert obstetrician and proved the laws of the Prenatal Epoch by actual firsthand data.
These laws have been further verified, extended, and complemented by the painstaking researches of E.H. Bailey, to whom great credit is due for his many and exact proofs of the Prenatal Epoch. His book upon this subject is considered standard authority, and we are in the main following his very worthy contribution to the subject and are extending him full credit.
One of the primary uses of the Prenatal Epoch is the correction or rectification of the birth time when only the approximate time is given. Another is its utility in determining correctly the sex of the native. Finally, it gives sidelights on the character and inner nature of the individual as fundamental as those of the birth chart.
"As births are brought about in exact harmony with lunar laws, it is shown that intrauterine life is in direct relation with the sidereal world without, that the great fact of maternity is capable of purely astronomical measurement and rule .... The law is nothing less than a mathematical measurement of human life, a stupendous natural fact; nothing more exactly mathematical and matter of fact is to be found in the records of scientists than this record of intra- uterine life, for only through its study will the laws of generation be fully understood." -- Sepharial.
"In the measurement of the intra-uterine period we actually measure the whole future of the individual; alter this one fact -- the moment of conception (or its spiritual counterpart, the Epoch) -- and you change the whole course of the progeny's destiny. If we accept the occult theory that the Prenatal Epoch is the descent of the Ego to the Desire World, then it must show the inherent character of the Ego about to incarnate. It may be stated that the Epoch has a more intimate relationship with the individual than the horoscope at birth, the latter appearing to reject the personality and its heredity and environment. In other words, the Epoch represents the man about to manifest in the flesh, the horoscope denotes actual personal conditions and environments into which he is born. Every birth is directly connected with the Epoch, and every authentic natural birth will, within the limits of an error of observation, yield an Epoch in accordance with the rules to be given."-- Bailey.
These laws have been further verified, extended, and complemented by the painstaking researches of E.H. Bailey, to whom great credit is due for his many and exact proofs of the Prenatal Epoch. His book upon this subject is considered standard authority, and we are in the main following his very worthy contribution to the subject and are extending him full credit.
One of the primary uses of the Prenatal Epoch is the correction or rectification of the birth time when only the approximate time is given. Another is its utility in determining correctly the sex of the native. Finally, it gives sidelights on the character and inner nature of the individual as fundamental as those of the birth chart.
"As births are brought about in exact harmony with lunar laws, it is shown that intrauterine life is in direct relation with the sidereal world without, that the great fact of maternity is capable of purely astronomical measurement and rule .... The law is nothing less than a mathematical measurement of human life, a stupendous natural fact; nothing more exactly mathematical and matter of fact is to be found in the records of scientists than this record of intra- uterine life, for only through its study will the laws of generation be fully understood." -- Sepharial.
"In the measurement of the intra-uterine period we actually measure the whole future of the individual; alter this one fact -- the moment of conception (or its spiritual counterpart, the Epoch) -- and you change the whole course of the progeny's destiny. If we accept the occult theory that the Prenatal Epoch is the descent of the Ego to the Desire World, then it must show the inherent character of the Ego about to incarnate. It may be stated that the Epoch has a more intimate relationship with the individual than the horoscope at birth, the latter appearing to reject the personality and its heredity and environment. In other words, the Epoch represents the man about to manifest in the flesh, the horoscope denotes actual personal conditions and environments into which he is born. Every birth is directly connected with the Epoch, and every authentic natural birth will, within the limits of an error of observation, yield an Epoch in accordance with the rules to be given."-- Bailey.
For summary, let us restate the fundamental principle of the Prenatal Epoch known as the Truitine of Hermes: "The Ascendant at birth is the place of the Moon at a certain Epoch, ant the Ascendant or its opposite point at Epoch was the place of the Moon at birth."
This yields the:
Four Laws of the Epoch
1. When the Moon at birth increases in light, it will be on the ascending degree of Epoch, and the Moon at Epoch will be on the ascending degree at birth.
2. When the Moon at birth decrease in light, it will be on the decreasing degree at Epoch, and the Moon at Epoch will be on the descending degree at birth.
3. When the Moon at birth is (a) increasing in light and below the horizon, or (b) decreasing in light and above the horizon, the period of gestation is longer than the norm.
4. When the Moon at birth is (a) increasing in light and above the horizon or (b) decreasing in light and below the horizon, the period of gestation is shorter than the norm.
From these four laws we deduce the following:
Four Orders of Epoch
1. Moon above horizon and increasing in light.......... 273 days minus x.
2. Moon above horizon and decreasing in light.......... 273 days plus x.
3. Moon below horizon and increasing in light.......... 273 days plus x.
4. Moon below horizon and decreasing in light.......... 273 days minus x.
It is to be understood that the 273 days referred to in the above table is the normal period of gestation, or nine solar or ten lunar months. This normal period is increased or decreased in accordance with the distance of the Moon from either the Ascendant or Descendant, and "x" is a certain number of days corresponding to this distance obtained by dividing the distance in degrees by thirteen degrees, the latter being the average daily motion of the Moon.
When making the count, count to the Ascendant (AC) when the Moon is increasing in light, and to the Descendant (DC) when the Moon is decreasing in light. Another more definite way of stating this would be: In orders Nos. 1 and 4 the distance in degrees of the Moon from the horizon last crossed (AC or DC), divided by thirteen, gives "x", or the number of days by which this period is decreased; and in orders Nos. 2 and 3 the distance of the Moon in degrees from the horizon which it is approaching, divided by thirteen, gives the number of days by which this period is increased. These rules are illustrated by the following examples:  

16 is the squares of the quadrant model. This vision is known as the MERKaba vision

Now it came to pass in the thirtieth year, in the fourth month, in the fifth day of the month, as I was among the captives by the river of Chebar, that the heavens were opened, and I saw visions of God.
2 In the fifth day of the month, which was the fifth year of king Jehoiachin's captivity,
3 The word of the Lord came expressly unto Ezekiel the priest, the son of Buzi, in the land of the Chaldeans by the river Chebar; and the hand of the Lord was there upon him.
4 And I looked, and, behold, a whirlwind came out of the north, a great cloud, and a fire infolding itself, and a brightness was about it, and out of the midst thereof as the colour of amber, out of the midst of the fire.
5 Also out of the midst thereof came the likeness of four living creatures. And this was their appearance; they had the likeness of a man.
6 And every one had four faces, and every one had four wings.
7 And their feet were straight feet; and the sole of their feet was like the sole of a calf's foot: and they sparkled like the colour of burnished brass.
8 And they had the hands of a man under their wings on their four sides; and they four had their faces and their wings.
9 Their wings were joined one to another; they turned not when they went; they went every one straight forward.
10 As for the likeness of their faces, they four had the face of a man, and the face of a lion, on the right side: and they four had the face of an ox on the left side; they four also had the face of an eagle.
11 Thus were their faces: and their wings were stretched upward; two wings of every one were joined one to another, and two covered their bodies.
12 And they went every one straight forward: whither the spirit was to go, they went; and they turned not when they went.
13 As for the likeness of the living creatures, their appearance was like burning coals of fire, and like the appearance of lamps: it went up and down among the living creatures; and the fire was bright, and out of the fire went forth lightning.
14 And the living creatures ran and returned as the appearance of a flash of lightning.
15 Now as I beheld the living creatures, behold one wheel upon the earth by the living creatures, with his four faces.
16 The appearance of the wheels and their work was like unto the colour of a beryl: and they four had one likeness: and their appearance and their work was as it were a wheel in the middle of a wheel.
17 When they went, they went upon their four sides: and they turned not when they went.
18 As for their rings, they were so high that they were dreadful; and their rings were full of eyes round about them four.
19 And when the living creatures went, the wheels went by them: and when the living creatures were lifted up from the earth, the wheels were lifted up.
20 Whithersoever the spirit was to go, they went, thither was their spirit to go; and the wheels were lifted up over against them: for the spirit of the living creature was in the wheels.
21 When those went, these went; and when those stood, these stood; and when those were lifted up from the earth, the wheels were lifted up over against them: for the spirit of the living creature was in the wheels.
22 And the likeness of the firmament upon the heads of the living creature was as the colour of the terrible crystal, stretched forth over their heads above.
23 And under the firmament were their wings straight, the one toward the other: every one had two, which covered on this side, and every one had two, which covered on that side, their bodies.
24 And when they went, I heard the noise of their wings, like the noise of great waters, as the voice of the Almighty, the voice of speech, as the noise of an host: when they stood, they let down their wings.
25 And there was a voice from the firmament that was over their heads, when they stood, and had let down their wings.
26 And above the firmament that was over their heads was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone: and upon the likeness of the throne was the likeness as the appearance of a man above upon it.
27 And I saw as the colour of amber, as the appearance of fire round about within it, from the appearance of his loins even upward, and from the appearance of his loins even downward, I saw as it were the appearance of fire, and it had brightness round about.
28 As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud in the day of rain, so was the appearance of the brightness round about. This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the Lord. And when I saw it, I fell upon my face, and I heard a voice of one that spake.
The vehicle that Ezekiel saw is called the Merkaba. It was so holy it was said that some Jewish boys talked about it and they turned to fire. So it was made a law that nobody can talk about the Merkaba unless you were a very high leveled Rabbi (and even then it's dangerous)
The Merkaba has 16 parts. That's the 16 square of the quadrant model. There were four creatures each with four faces. Recall that the 16 squares are four times four, or 4 squared.

There were also 16 grandsons of Noah who populated the Earth.

There were sixteen Judges (or group of Judges) that governed Israel from the time the Israelites took possession of the promised land to the time Saul was anointed their first human king. They were Joshua, Othniel, Ehud, Deborah and Barak, Eli, Gideon, Abimelech (North only), Tola (North only), Jephthah (East only), Samson (in the South and West only), Samuel, Ibzan (East only), Jair (North only), Elon (East only) and Abdon (East only). Samuel's sons comprised the sixteenth and final Judge over Israel.

Early Christian (Latin) Bible texts – in particular those of North-African origin – gave a different sequence of the evangelists: Matthew, John, Luke and Mark. Their sequence changed to the present one (Matthew, Mark, Luke, John) only at the end of the fourth century (384 AD), in the Latin translation by St. Jerome, the so-called ‘Vulgata‘ (HENDERSON, 1987).
The symbolism of the four evangelists is derived from the Bible book Ezekiel and the Revelations of St. John. Ezekiel wrote his visions during the Babylonian exile. He saw a whirlwind coming from the north, with a great cloud and a fire. In it, he saw four living creatures (called the ‘zooia‘ in the Revelations of St. John). The ‘tetramorph‘ became the symbol of the four evangelists and was compared to the works of Christ (MEYR, 1975):

Athanasius completed his work Four Orations against the Arians. Athanasius is considered one of the four Church Fathers of the Eastern Church.

In the Eastern Church three Doctors were pre-eminent: Saint John Chrysostom, Saint Basil the Great, and Saint Gregory Nazianzen. The feasts of these three saints were made obligatory throughout the Eastern Empire by Leo VI the Wise. A common feast was later instituted in their honour on 30 January, called "the feast of the three Hierarchs". In the Menaea for that day it is related that the three Doctors appeared in a dream to John Mauropous, Bishop of Euchaitae, and commanded him to institute a festival in their honour, in order to put a stop to the rivalries of their votaries and panegyrists. This was under Alexius Comnenus (1081–1118; see "Acta SS.", 14 June, under St. Basil, c. xxxviii). But sermons for the feast are attributed in manuscripts to Cosmas Vestitor, who flourished in the tenth century. The three are as common in Eastern art as the four are in Western. Durandus (i, 3) remarks that Doctors should be represented with books in their hands. In the West analogy led to the veneration of four Eastern Doctors, Saint Athanasius being added to the three hierarchs.
The fourth square is always different and does not seem to belong


Bede was the first to refer to Jerome, Augustine, Pope Gregory and Ambrose as the four Latin Fathers of the Church.

Contrary to the common belief that there are 3 steps to becoming a Saint, the Catholic Church teaches that there are 4 steps the becoming a Saint. Many teachers of this matter omit the first step.
Before a person can be considered for sainthood, he/she must have been dead for at least 5 years. (Pope John Paul II waived this requirement in Mother Teresa's case.)
First Step: When the subject arises that a person should be considered for Sainthood, a Bishop is placed in charge of the initial investigation of the person's life. If it is determined that the candidate is deemed worthy of further consideration, the Vatican grants a "Nihil Obstat." This is a Latin phrase that means "nothing hinders." Henceforth, the candidate is called a "Servant of God."
Second Step: The Church Official, a Postulator, who coordinates the process and serves as an advocate, must prove that the candidate lived heroic virtues. This is achived through the collection of documents and testimonies that are collected and presented to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints in Rome. When a candidate is approved, he/she earns the title of "Venerable."
Third Step: To be beatified and recognized as a "Blessed," one miracle acquired through the candidate’s intercession is required in addition to recognition of heroic virtue (or martyrdom in the case of a martyr).
Fourth Step: Canonization requires a second miracle after beatification, though a Pope may waive these requirements. (A miracle is not required prior to a martyr’s beatification, but one is required before his/her canonization.) Once this second miracle has been received through the candidate's intercession, the Pope declares the person a "Saint."

The sign of the cross is in the Methodist liturgy and is made by many clergy during the Great Thanksgiving, Confession of Sin and Pardon, and benediction.[24][25] John Wesley, the principal leader of the early Methodists, prepared a revision of The Book of Common Prayer for Methodist use called The Sunday Service of the Methodists in North America which does instruct the minister to make the sign of the cross on the forehead of children just after they have been baptized.[26] Making the sign of the cross at baptism is retained in the current Book of Worship, and widely practiced (sometimes with oil).[27] Furthermore, on Ash Wednesday the sign of the cross is almost always applied by the elder to the foreheads of the laity.[28] The liturgy for healing and wholeness, which is becoming more commonly practiced, calls for the pastor to make the sign of the cross with oil upon the foreheads of those seeking healing.[29]
Whether or not a Methodist uses the sign for private prayer is a personal choice, but it is encouraged by the bishops of the United Methodist Church.[25] Some United Methodists also perform the sign before and after receiving Holy Communion, and some ministers also perform the sign when blessing the congregation at the end of the sermon or service.[30]

The New Testament can be divided into four main sections — the four gospels, the book of Acts, the twenty-one epistles, and the book of Revelation. Each section forms an integral part of the New Testament, and only by seeing the relationship of the different parts to the whole can the New Testament be properly understood.

The Swedenborgian Church consists of four Churches. They are
General Conference of the New Church (Great Britain): 1,314
Swedenborgian Church of North America, also known as The General Convention (USA): 2,029
General Church of the New Jerusalem: 5,563
Lord's New Church Which Is Nova Hierosolyma: 1,000


Four incidents of purported psychic ability of Swedenborg exist in the literature. There are several versions of each story.

Fire anecdotes

On Thursday, 19 July 1759 a great and well-documented fire broke out in Stockholm, Sweden. In the high and increasing wind it spread very fast, consuming about 300 houses and making 2000 people homeless.[89]

When the fire broke out Swedenborg was at a dinner with friends in Gothenburg, about 400 km from Stockholm. He became agitated and told the party at six o'clock that there was a fire in Stockholm, that it had consumed his neighbor’s home and was threatening his own. Two hours later, he exclaimed with relief that the fire had stopped three doors from his home. In the excitement following his report, word even reached the ears of the provincial governor, who summoned Swedenborg that same evening and asked for a detailed recounting.

At that time, it took two to three days for news from Stockholm to reach Gothenburg by courier, so that is the shortest duration in which the news of the fire could reach Gothenburg. The first messenger from Stockholm with news of the fire was from the Board of Trade, who arrived Monday evening. The second messenger was a royal courier, who arrived on Tuesday. Both of these reports confirmed every statement to the precise hour that Swedenborg first expressed the information. The accounts are fully described in Bergquist, pp. 312–313 and in Chapter 31 of The Swedenborg Epic.

(Bergquist states, but does not document, that Swedenborg confirmed his vision of the fire incident to his good friend, Consul Christopher Springer, "one of the pillars of the church, … "a man of enviable reputation for virtue and intelligence", "and that Swedenborg's innkeeper, Erik Bergström, heard Swedenborg affirming the story.)

It seems unlikely that the many witnesses to Swedenborg’s distress during the fire, and his immediate report of it to the provincial governor,[96][97] would have left room for doubt in the public eye of Swedenborg’s report. If Swedenborg had only received news of the fire by the normal methods there would have been no issue of psychic perception recorded for history. Instead, "when the news of Swedenborg's extraordinary vision of the fire reached the capital, public curiosity about him was very much aroused."

A second fire anecdote, similar to the first one, but less cited, is the incident of the mill owner Bolander. Swedenborg warned him, again abruptly, of an incipient fire in one of his mills. Notice how the first two incidents are the duality. They are similar.

Queen of Sweden

The third event was in 1758 when Swedenborg visited Queen Louisa Ulrika of Sweden, who asked him to tell her something about her deceased brother Prince Augustus William of Prussia. The next day, Swedenborg whispered something in her ear that turned the Queen pale and she explained that this was something only she and her brother could know about.

Lost document

The fourth incident involved a woman who had lost an important document, and came to Swedenborg asking if a recently deceased person could tell him where it was, which he (in some sources) was said to have done the following night.

Although not typically cited along with these three episodes, there was one further piece of evidence: Swedenborg was noted by the seamen of the ships that he sailed between Stockholm and London to always have excellent sailing conditions. When asked about this by a friend, Swedenborg played down the matter, saying he was surprised by this experience himself and that he was certainly not able to do miracles. The fifth is always ultra transcendent

According to Saint Thomas Aquinas (STh Supp q. 69, aa. 1-7), Hell (Latin: Infernus) is divided into four sections or abodes:

Square 1: Gehenna. This is hell in the strict sense, or the place of punishment for the damned, both demons or humans.

Square 2: Limbo of the Children. (Latin: limbus parvulorum) Where those who die in original sin alone, and without personal mortal sin, enjoy natural beatitude without the sensation of pain.

Square 3: Limbo of the Fathers. (Latin: limbus patrum) Where the souls of the Old Testament saints who died before Christ awaited their admission to heaven. Also called “Abraham’s bosom.” Also a natural beatitude without the sensation of pain. Limbo of the Fathers is now vacant.

Square 4: Purgatory. Where the righteous who die in venial sin or who still owe a debt of temporal punishment for sin, are cleansed by suffering before their admission to Heaven.

This pattern corresponds to Jewish belief at the time of Christ. In 1 Enoch we see a similar fourfold arrangement of “Sheol” – the Hebrew term for the underworld. Church Fathers used in due course the same (numerological) method and interpretations. Clement of Alexandria (c. 150 – before 215 AD) distinguished three levels: literal, ethical and mystical. Gregory of Nyssa (c. 330 – 395 AD) applied, in his ‘Vita Moysis‘ (The Life of Moses), a symbolic explanation for the life of Moses. His life was seen as a mystical journey of the soul towards God.
The clarification, as given by Augustinus (354 – 430 AD) in his ‘De Doctrina Christiana‘, was four-fold. He distinguished in symbolism the following ‘signa‘:
1. signa naturalia the given fact
2. signa data signs, scepters, attributes
3. signa propria words
4. signa translata ‘tropes‘, metafores…/01/to-a-new-ther…/


The bible declares ‘Make thee an ark of gopher wood; rooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch’ (Genesis 6:14). It is not exactly clear, which type of wood (or process) was meant. The Greek Septuagint, written from the third to the first century BC, translated the word as ‘xylon tetragonon’, or ‘squared timber’. The Biblical story of the Flood is the history of an apocalypse, in which opposite pairs (of animals) are saved in ‘quadrated wood’. The quadrated wood brings to mind the quadrant. The arc was salvation and the arc was termed "quadrated wood"


(squared means to make a quadrant)
These are two tetrads making eight according to gnostics.
Tertullian's Against the Valentinians gives a slightly different sequence. The first eight of these Aeons, corresponding to generations one through four below, are referred to as the Ogdoad.[4]
First generation
Bythos (the One) and Sige (Silence, Charis, Ennoea, etc.)
Second generation
Nous (Nus, Mind) and Aletheia (Veritas, Truth)
Third generation, emanated from Nous and Aletheia
Sermo (the Word) and Vita (the Life)
Fourth generation, emanated from Sermo and Vita
Anthropos (Homo, Man) and Ecclesia (Church)[5]
Fifth generation
Emanated from Sermo and Vita:
Bythios (Profound) and Mixis (Mixture)
Ageratos (Never old) and Henosis (Union)
Autophyes (Essential nature) and Hedone (Pleasure)
Acinetos (Immovable) and Syncrasis (Commixture)
Monogenes (Only-begotten) and Macaria (Happiness)
Emanated from Anthropos and Ecclesia
Paracletus (Comforter) and Pistis (Faith)
Patricas (Paternal) and Elpis (Hope)
Metricos (Maternal) and Agape (Love)
Ainos (Praise) and Synesis (Intelligence)
Ecclesiasticus (Son of Ecclesia) and Macariotes (Blessedness)
Theletus (Perfect) and Sophia (Wisdom)
According to Irenaeus,[6] the followers of the Gnostics Ptolemy and Colorbasus had Aeons that differ from those of Valentinus. Logos is created when Anthropos learns to speak. The first four are called the Tetrad and the eight are called the Ogdoad.
First generation
Bythos (the One) and Sige (Silence, Charis, Ennoea, etc.)
Second generation (conceived by the One):
Ennoea (Thought) and Thelesis (Will)
Third generation, emanated from Ennoea and Thelesis:
Nous (or Monogenes) and Aletheia
Fourth generation, emanated from Nous and Aletheia:
Anthropos (Homo, Man) and Ecclesia (Church)
Fifth generation, emanated from Anthropos and Ecclesia:
Logos and Zoe
Sixth generation:
Emanated from Logos and Zoe:
Bythius and Mixis
Ageratos and Henosis
Autophyes and Hedone
Acinetos and Syncrasis
Monogenes and Macaria
Emanated from Anthropos and Ecclesia:
Paracletus and Pistis
Patricos and Elpis
Metricos and Agape
Ainos and Synesis
Ecclesiasticus and Macariotes
Theletos and Sophia
The order of Anthropos and Ecclesia versus Logos and Zoe is somewhat debated; different sources give different accounts. Logos and Zoe are unique to this system as compared to the previous, and may be an evolved version of the first, totalling 32 Aeons, but it is not clear if the first two were actually regarded Aeons.
According to the ancients it was important these be divided in tetrads.


In Valentinianism, Nous is the first male Aeon. Together with his conjugate female Aeon, Aletheia (truth), he emanates from the Propator Bythos (Προπάτωρ Βυθος "Forefather Depths") and his coeternal Ennoia (Ἔννοια "Thought") or Sigē (Σιγή "Silence"); and these four form the primordial Tetrad. Like the other male Aeons he is sometimes regarded as androgynous, including in himself the female Aeon who is paired with him. He is the Only Begotten; and is styled the Father, the Beginning of All, inasmuch as from him are derived immediately or mediately the remaining Aeons who complete the Ogdoad (eight), thence the Decad (ten), and thence the Dodecad (twelve); in all, thirty Aeons constitute the Pleroma.

In the 8th century, John of Damascus listed eighteen attributes for God in his An Exact Exposition of the Orthodox Faith (Book 1, Chapter 8).[12] These eighteen attributes were divided into four groups based on time (e.g., being everlasting), space (e.g., being boundless), matter or quality and the list continues to be influential to date, partially appearing in some form in various modern formulations.[12]…/File:Armoiries_de_Jérusalem.svg

The Jerusalem Cross has 16 squares. It is a quadrant model. The crusaders wore the Jerusalem Cross.

The Jerusalem cross (also known as "Crusaders' cross", "Five-fold Cross", or "cross-and-crosslets") is a heraldic cross and Christian cross variant consisting of a large cross potent surrounded by four smaller Greek crosses, one in each quadrant.

There are variants to the design, also known as "Jerusalem cross", with either the four crosslets also in the form of Crosses potent, or conversely with the central cross also in the form of a plain Greek cross.[2]…/File:Armoiries_de_Jérusalem.svg

In Scotland, the fiery cross, known as the Crann Tara, was used as a declaration of war.[1] The sight of it commanded all clan members to rally to the defense of the area. On other occasions, a small burning cross would be carried from town to town. It was used as recently as the War of 1812 to mobilise the Scottish Fencibles and militia settled in Glengarry County, Ontario against the invaders,[2] and in 1820 over 800 fighting men of Clan Grant were gathered, by the passing of the Fiery Cross, to come to the aid of their Clan Lord and his sister in the village of Elgin.[3] The most recent well-known use in Scotland itself was in 1745, during the Jacobite rising,[4] and it was subsequently described in the novels and poetry of Walter Scott.


Cross burning or cross lighting is a practice widely associated with the Ku Klux Klan, although the historical practice long predates the Klan's inception–as far back as Peter of Bruys (1117–1131), who burned crosses in protest of the veneration of crosses. In the early 20th century, the Klan burned crosses on hillsides or near the homes of those they wished to intimidate.


Here are some flags with crosses on them

Flag of England

Flag of Scotland and San Andres

Flag of Quebec

Flag of Nova Scotia

Flag of Red Cross

Flag of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta

Flag of the Navy, Italy

Arms of Schwyz, Switzerland

Flag of the Carabinieri gendarmerie, Italy

Arms of Kreuzlingen, Switzerland

Flag of Madeira Autonomous Region

Flag of Portugal (1095)

Southern cross appearing on a number of flag

Flag of the President of Finland includes the Cross of Liberty, 3rd Class in the canton and the same like design is also found in presidential decorations, as the Crand Cross of the White Rose of Finland with the fir cross Collar

The coat of arms of the Hungarian kingdom, from the 15th century

Flag of Rio de Janeiro

St Piran's Flag (Flag of Cornwall)

Victory Cross in the Flag of Asturias

Cyber Cross

Cyber Cross: Busou Keiji is a video game released for the PC Engine in 1989, it was developed by Face Corporation. It has a sequel called Cross Wiber.

Famous quotes containing the word cross:

“Pilate with his question “What is truth?” is gladly trotted out these days as an advocate of Christ, so as to arouse the suspicion that everything known and knowable is an illusion and to erect the cross upon that gruesome background of the impossibility of knowledge.”
—Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900)


The following table lists only variants in the basic shape of the cross. Heraldic crosses may in addition vary in their flection (i.e. modification of their edges asengrailed (engreslée), embattled (bretessée), indented (denchée), invected (cannelée), wavy, (ondée), raguly (écotée), dancetty or dantelly (denché, émanchée), and so on), or their tincture (they may be party, or chequy, compony, counter-compony, fretty, trellised, vair maçonnée and so on).

A plain heraldic cross is a Greek cross, with four arms of equal length which meet in the fesse-point (center) of the shield. Due to the pointed shape of the shield, however, the horizontal bar is generally shorter than the vertical if the cross arms are drawn as extending to the border of the field, resulting in a Latin cross.

Crosses in heraldry These crosses are used in classical (early modern) heraldry. If no other source is cited, the following crosses are listed in James Parker's A Glossary of Terms Used in Heraldry (1894).

Picture Cross name Description

Azure-Cross-Or-Heraldry.svg "ordinary"

The basic heraldic cross (the default if there are no additional specifying words) has arms of roughly equal length, adapted to fit the particular shape of the shield, extending to the edges of the shield (or subdivision thereof)—as in the coat of the City of London.

A cross which does not extend to the edges of the shield is couped or humetty, in heraldic terminology; it is shown with all its limbs of equal length and is also sometimes called a Greek cross.

ArrowCross.svg cross barby

In the coat of Tillie in Cornwall (cited in Parker's Glossary, s.v. Cross barby). The symbol is also called a "barbed cross" or an "arrow cross". An arrow cross in green was also the symbol of the Arrow Cross Party of Hungary.

Cross-Bottony-Heraldry.svg cross bottony (trefly)

A cross with the ends of the arms bottony (or botonny), i.e. shaped like a trefoil—and so it is sometimes called a cross trefly. In early armory it is not always distinguished from a cross crosslet.

It occurs counterchanged on the flag of Maryland; a saltire botonny can be seen in the coat and flag of the Village of New Maryland, New Brunswick; and a Latin cross trefly can be seen in the coat of Isidore Popowych.

Cross Cercelée.svg cross cercelée (recercely)

A cross recercely seems to be a cross moline parted or voided throughout—though it may be a cross moline very curly (Brooke-Little An heraldic alphabet, p 77).

Cross-Flory-Heraldry.svg cross fleury (flory)

A cross whose arms end in fleurs-de-lys – as in the coat of the Municipalité de la Paroisse de Saint-Philémon. In early armory it was not consistently distinguished from the cross patonce.

Cross-Fourchee-Heraldry.svg cross fourchy (fourchee)

One form of the heraldic cross fourchy or cross fourche (croix fourchée meaning "forked"). An example is the South African Postal Association (South Africa's Bureau of Heraldry)

Argent a fylfot azure.svg cross cramponny (fylfot)

Upright cross with truncated angled arms; essentially a variant of the swastika; uncommon, but can be found in the crest of Gordon of Hallhead (Scots Public Register volume 31, page20). Also known as a gammadion cross, or tetragammadion, as it were combining four capital Greek letters Γ (gamma).

Jerusalem Cross 2.svg Jerusalem cross

The symbol of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, which existed for almost two hundred years after the First Crusade; in the rendering at left, the large cross is shown slightly "potent" (i.e., with T-shaped ends), but that is not always the case. The four smaller crosses are said to symbolize either the four books of the Gospel or the four directions in which the Word of Christ spread from Jerusalem. Alternatively, all five crosses can symbolize the five wounds of Christ during the Passion. This symbol is used in the flag of Georgia. Also found in the coat of arms of the Papal Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem, Vatican City (matriculated in Scotland as "Argent; a Jerusalem cross cantoned between four crosses couped, gules"—Scots Public Register, volume 75, page 112)—to be seen at various EOHSJ websites; also in the Canadian coat of Robert Gerald Guest (Canadian Public Register Volume III, page 85).

Maltese-Cross-Heraldry.svg Maltese cross

With arms which narrow towards the center, and are indented at the ends, also known as the eight-pointed cross (with no curved lines). Perhaps best known as a badge of the Order of Malta; whether connected with the Order or not, it is a common heraldic device—found in the coat of the London Borough of Hackney and the Canadian coat of Eric Lawrence Barry; as a "cross of eight points" to be found in the crest of Robert G. Loftus, Canada.

Cross-Moline-Heraldry.svg Cross moline (anchory)

In a cross moline, the ends of the arms are bifurcated, split and curved back, also called a cross ancré or anchory. As a mark of cadency in English and Canadian heraldry, it marks an eighth son.[citation needed] Found in the coats of arms of Molyneux and of the House of Broglie.

Cross-Patonce-Heraldry.svg cross patonce

A cross patonce is more or less intermediate between a cross pattée and a cross flory (or fleury). The ends of its limbs are trifurcated into leaf shapes, and seems to come in two sorts: one where the limbs are the same width all along as in the coat of Godfrey McCance Gransden; and the other where the limbs gently widen from the centre (but do not curve) as in the coat of John Chiu (both of Canada). A mediaeval example is shown on the seal of William de Fortibus(d.1260)

Cross-Pattee-Heraldry.svg cross patty (formy)

A cross pattee (pattée, patty), or formée (formy) has arms narrowing towards the centre, but with flat ends. It is usually found with curved inside edges as in the arms of Baron Berkeley (see also Iron Cross); but sometimes encountered with straight edges (triangular arms). The symbol was also used as the military aircraft roundel design for the former German Empire and the former Kingdom of Bulgaria.

Cross-Pommee-Heraldry.svg cross pommy

A cross pommy (croix pommée) has a round knob at the end of each arm, as in the coat of Penwith District Council, England.

Cross-Potent-Heraldry.svg cross potent

This cross has a crossbar at the end of each of its arms. "Potent" is an old word for a crutch, and is used in heraldic terminology to describe a T shape. It is used by many, mostly Roman Catholic, Scouting and Guiding organisations in their logos and insignia. Found in the coat of Stevan Bradley Graeme Ralph and the badge of Fr. Mark Lowell Sargent (both Canada), it was also the symbol of Austrofascism.

Quadrate.gif Cross quadrate

A cross with a square at the intersection point (sometimes with a smaller relative size than shown in the illustration); found in the coats of Francesco Maestri (Canada) and Warwick District Council, England.

Cross-Triple-Parted-Fretted-Or.svg cross (triple) parted and fretted

A cross "parted and fretted" is divided and interlaced; if no number is specified, it has two strips in each direction. Found (triple parted) in the coat, flag and badge of the Greater Vancouver (British Columbia) Transportation Authority Police Service; and (double) in the coat of Croydon County Borough Council, England.

Cross-Voided.svg cross voided

A "cross voided throughout" has the central parts of the limbs cut with the colouring behind it showing through—as in the coat of the City of Lacombe, Alberta. The centre may be filled with another tincture as in the coat of the Town of Abbotsford, British Columbia.

Coa Illustration Cross Pierced round.svg cross pierced

A cross pierced has a circular void at the intersection. c.f. cross pierced quarterly.

Coa Illustration Cross Pierced quarter.svg cross pierced quarterly

A cross pierced quarterly (or quarter pierced) has a square void at the intersection. c.f. cross pierced (no qualification), which shows a circular void. Media related to Crosses quarter pierced at Wikimedia Commons

Coa Illustration Cross Fitchy 2.svg cross fitchy A cross fitchy has the lower limb pointed, as if to be driven into the ground.[7][8]

Cross-Crosslet-Heraldry.svg cross crosslet

A cross with the ends of each arm crossed. A prominent early example is in the arms of the Beauchamp earls of Warwick. In early armory it is not always distinguished from a cross bottony. A variant is the cross crosslet double crossed,[9] with two bars crossing each arm, as in the arms of Robert Willoughby, 1st Baron Willoughby de Broke(d.1502) sculpted on his tomb at Callington Church, Cornwall. It appears in the canon of the arms and flag of the Episcopal Church.

Croix recroisetée au pied fiché.svg cross crosslet fitchy

Shown here is a cross crosslet fitchy, a very frequent charge in British and French armory, appearing in the arms of the House of Howard, the Marquess of Ailsa, the Earl Cathcart, Macpherson of Cluny, Rattray of that Ilk, among many others. This is probably the most common form of the cross fitchy but others do exist, such as the crosses formy fitchy found between the antlers of the stag supporters of South Buckinghamshire District Council, England.

Cross Santiago.svg Cross of Saint James

The Cross of Saint James is similar to a cross flory fitchy, but is more sword-like. (The version shown on the left is the one used by the order of Santiago.) Found in the Scottish arms of Mulino from Venezuela (Scots Public Register volume 87, page 20) and in the coats of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain; and Caracas, Venezuela; Santiago de Tete, Mozambique.

Cross erminée.png cross erminée

A cross erminée is a cross of four ermine-spots, with the heads meeting, sharing their spots. Historically borne by Hurston (Cheshire, England) c. 1490 and others[10]

PatriarchsCross.svg Patriarchal cross The patriarchal cross or double cross was used in Byzantine seals since the early medieval period. It was adopted in the Coat of arms of Hungary in the late 12th century.

Modern innovations and special cases

These crosses are either used in singlar contexts or are modern innovations, not found in classical heraldry

Picture Cross name Description

Flag of Denmark.svg Nordic cross Modern cross variant introduced for rectangular civil ensigns (Denmark 1748) and later national flags.

Regulation WW II Upperwing Balkenkreuz.png Balkenkreuz Introduced in 1918, and used as Nazi German military vehicle emblem.

Bundeswehr Kreuz Black.svg Bundeswehr cross

Vehicle emblem of the modern German military.

Badge of the Order of Alcantara.svg Cross of Saint of Julian (Cruz de San Julián)

Used by the Spanish Order of Alcántara

Cruz de Asturias.svg Victory Cross

The so-called Victory Cross is an early 10th century Asturian Christian ornamented processional crux gemmata. A depiction of this artefact was adopted as the motif of the Coat of arms of Asturias in 1984.


Main article: Glossary of vexillology

Several flags have crosses, including all the nations of Scandinavia, whose crosses are known as Scandinavian crosses, and many nations in the Southern Hemisphere, which incorporate the Southern Cross. The Flag of Switzerland since the 17th century has displayed an equilateral cross in a square (the only square flag of a sovereign state apart from the Flag of the Vatican City); the Red Cross emblem was based on the Swiss flag.

Sovereign state flags with crosses

Flag of Burundi

Flag of Denmark

Flag of Dominica

Flag of Dominican Republic

Flag of Finland

Flag of Georgia

Flag of Greece

Flag of Iceland

Flag of Jamaica

Flag of Malta

Flag of Norway

Flag of Serbia

Flag of Slovakia

Flag of Sweden

Flag of Switzerland

Flag of Tonga

Flag of United Kingdom

The Ruckenkreuz (Rucken Cross) is an 8.4 metre tall, 2.80 metre wide memorial cross of reinforced concrete. It stands on a rocky mountain at Blaubeuren, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, in memory of the inhabitants of Blaubeuren killed in World War I. The Ruckenkreuz was completed on November 21, 1926.
Geographical coordinates: 48°24′38″N 9°47′30″E


A khachkar, also known as an Armenian cross-stone[1] (Armenian: խաչքար, pronounced [χɑtʃʰˈkʰɑɾ], խաչ xačʿ "cross" + քար kʿar "stone") is a carved, memorial stele bearing a cross, and often with additional motifs such as rosettes, interlaces, and botanical motifs.[2] Khachkars are characteristic of Medieval Christian Armenian art.[1][3]

Since 2010, khachkars, their symbolism and craftsmanship are inscribed in the UNESCO list of Intangible Cultural Heritage.[4]

A memorial cross (sometimes called an intending cross) is a cross, which was built as memorial to commemorate a special event; or it may be a simple form of headstone to commemorate the dead.

In England King Edward I had memorial crosses, the so-called Eleanor Crosses, erected in memory of his wife Eleanor of Castile who died in November 1290. Three of the original twelve crosses have survived.

In Germany today, the custom has arisen of erecting crosses (Unfallkreuze or "accident crosses") as roadside memorials at the spot where someone has been killed. These are maintained for shorter or longer periods of time and decorated e.g. with flowers or candles. In South Germany, especially in Bavaria, memorial crosses exist for those who died several generations ago. Some of these crosses are at very remote places. These, too, usually commemorate a fatal accident.

These roadside memorial crosses should not be confused with wayside crosses, which are erected in the Bavarian region on the edge of paths and tracks, and are there simply to give walkers the opportunity to say a short prayer.

Other memorial crosses commemorate war dead and victims of terrorism.

The largest memorial cross in the world is the Monumento Nacional de Santa Cruz del Valle de los Caidos near El Escorial in Spain. It has a height of 152.4 metres.

The Servant songs (also called the Servant poems or the Songs of the Suffering Servant) are songs in the Book of Isaiah in the Hebrew Bible. They were first identified by Bernhard Duhm in his 1892 commentary on Isaiah. The songs are four poems written about a certain "servant of YHWH." God calls the servant to lead the nations, but the servant is horribly abused among them. In the end, he is rewarded.


The first song[edit]

Main article: Isaiah 42

The first poem has God speaking of His selection of the Servant who will bring justice to earth. Here the Servant is described as God's agent of justice, a king who brings justice in both royal and prophetic roles, yet justice is established neither by proclamation nor by force. He does not ecstatically announce salvation in the marketplace as prophets were bound to do, but instead moves quietly and confidently to establish right religion (Isaiah 42:1-4).


The first four verses are quoted in Matthew's gospel, where it is said that the prophecy is fulfilled in Jesus' withdrawal from the cities of Galilee and his request that the crowds do not make him known.[10]


The second song[edit]

Main article: Isaiah 49

The second poem, written from the Servant's point of view, is an account of his pre-natal calling by God to lead both Israel and the nations. The Servant is now portrayed as the prophet of the Lord equipped and called to restore the nation to God. Yet, anticipating the fourth song, he is without success. Taken with the picture of the Servant in the first song, his success will come not by political or military action, but by becoming a light to the Gentiles. Ultimately his victory is in God's hands. Isaiah 49:1-6.


The third song[edit]

Main article: Isaiah 50

The third poem has a darker yet more confident tone than the others. Although the song gives a first-person description of how the Servant was beaten and abused, here the Servant is described both as teacher and learner who follows the path God places him on without pulling back. Echoing the first song's "a bruised reed he will not break," he sustains the weary with a word. His vindication is left in God's hands. Isaiah 50:4-9


The fourth song[edit]

Main articles: Isaiah 52 and Isaiah 53

For more details on this topic, see Man of Sorrows.

The fourth of the "servant songs" begins at Isaiah 52:13, continuing through 53:12 where it continues the discussion of the suffering servant.[11]


There is no clear identification for the "servant" within this song, but if the reader pays close attention to the author's word choice, one can deduce that the song could refer to either an individual or a group. According to theologian Michael Coogan, those who argue the "servant" to be an individual have "proposed many candidates from Israel's past".[12] The song declares that the "servant" intercedes for others, bearing their punishments and afflictions. In the end, he/they are rewarded.


It can be argued that the "servant" represents a group of people, more specifically the nation of Israel, and they feel that they have paid their dues and continue to suffer because of the sins of others (Isaiah 53:7,11-12). Also, through the author's choice of words, we, our, and they, one could also argue that the "servant" was a group.


Early in the passage, the evaluation of the Servant by the "we" is negative: "we" esteemed him not, many were appalled by him, nothing in him was attractive to "us". But at the Servant's death the attitude of the "we" changes after Isaiah 53:4, where the servant suffers because of "our" iniquities, "our" sickness, but by the servant's wounds "we" consequently are healed. Posthumously, then, the Servant is vindicated by God.


Many Christians believe this song to be among the Messianic prophecies of Jesus. Methodist founder John Wesley suggested that it is "so evident" that "it is Christ who is here spoken of".[13]



Yeshua HaNazarei v Melech

HaYehudim: Jesus the Nazarei

and King of the Jews.

What we don't notice in the English translation is that the acrostic made up of the first letter of each word spells out Yahweh (YHWH)!


If Pilate had rewritten it in the manner they had requested him to, it would not have spelled out the Name of God. Did Pilate realize this? Was it deliberate? Did he do it just to upset the Jewish leadership, which he realized delivered Him up for envy? (Matthew 27:18). Or was he beginning to suspect that there was more going on here than he previously realized?


When they requested a special guard for the tomb, he also responded with a enigmatic remark,


"Make it as sure as you can." (Matthew 27:63-66)


What did he mean by that? Did he begin to suspect that Jesus really was who said He was? Was Pilate really surprised when Jesus was resurrected after three days? One wonders.


Other Acrostics


There is a similar occurrence in the Book of Leviticus. After the first count seven letters, and you find a count seven more letters and you find a then seven more and you find another again spelling the YHWH, the Name of God. See below.



Even more remarkable is that in the five books of Moses the Torah appears in letter intervals in both the Books of Genesis and Exodus (see Figure 1). In the Books of Numbers and Deuteronomy, in letter intervals, we again find the "Torah," but spelled backwards! (See Figure 2).



It would seem the "Torah" always points to the Name of God ("YHWH")!

See Figure 3. Many of the secrets hidden behind the text have yet to be discovered.




The CROSS of Christ (an acrostic)


Sunday, August 10 2008 @ 05:00 AM CDT

Contributed by: Harold

Views: 3,169

Radio Programs

Radio transcript for August 10, 2008


Harold Bigham preaches on "The CROSS of Christ (an acrostic)" on Seeking the Lost - International Radio.


Click here to listen to this sermon or Click here to download this sermon.


Good Evening... Welcome to our broadcast tonight.


What do you see when you look at the cross of Christ? For the next few minutes, let us examine the Old Rugged Cross and notice some things by using an Acrostic of the word "CROSS".


First, we see CHRIST. He is the sinless Son of God. He left the glories of heaven even though He was on equality with the Father and Holy Spirit. Paul stated, "Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus: Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God: But made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men: And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross" (Philippians 2:5-8). Jesus is the Saviour of the world. Matthew records, "And she shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name JESUS: for he shall save his people from their sins" (Matthew 1:21). He is the Messiah. Paul stated, "Which in his times he shall shew, who is the blessed and only Potentate, the King of kings, and Lord of lords" (I Timothy 6:15). When we see the crucifixion scene, we see Jesus Christ. Luke records, "And there were also two other, malefactors, led with him to be put to death. And when they were come to the place, which is called Calvary, there they crucified him, and the malefactors, one on the right hand, and the other on the left.Then said Jesus, Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do. And they parted his raiment, and cast lots.And the people stood beholding. And the rulers also with them derided him, saying, He saved others; let him save himself, if he be Christ, the chosen of God.And the soldiers also mocked him, coming to him, and offering him vinegar, And saying, If thou be the king of the Jews, save thyself. And a superscription also was written over him in letters of Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew, 'This is the king of the Jews'. And one of the malefactors which were hanged railed on him, saying, If thou be Christ, save thyself and us. But the other answering rebuked him, saying, Dost not thou fear God, seeing thou art in the same condemnation?And we indeed justly; for we receive the due reward of our deeds: but this man hath done nothing amiss. And he said unto Jesus, Lord, remember me when thou comest into thy kingdom. And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, To day shalt thou be with me in paradise. And it was about the sixth hour, and there was a darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour. And the sun was darkened, and the veil of the temple was rent in the midst. And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said, Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit: and having said thus, he gave up the ghost. Now when the centurion saw what was done, he glorified God, saying, Certainly this was a righteous man. And all the people that came together to that sight, beholding the things which were done, smote their breasts, and returned. And all his acquaintance, and the women that followed him from Galilee, stood afar off, beholding these things. And, behold, there was a man named Joseph, a counsellor; and he was a good man, and a just: (The same had not consented to the counsel and deed of them;) he was of Arimathaea, a city of the Jews: who also himself waited for the kingdom of God. This man went unto Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus. And he took it down, and wrapped it in linen, and laid it in a sepulchre that was hewn in stone, wherein never man before was laid" (Luke 23:32-53).


Second, we see REDEMPTION. Sin separates and divides man from God. Isaiah 59:1-2, states "Behold, the LORDâ??s hand is not shortened, that it cannot save; neither his ear heavy, that it cannot hear: 59:2 But your iniquities have separated between you and your God, and your sins have hid his face from you, that he will not hear". Sin deceives. Hebrews 3:12-13 states, "Take heed, brethren, lest there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief, in departing from the living God. But exhort one another daily, while it is called To day; lest any of you be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin". Sin darkens. Paul said, "Because that, when they knew God, they glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened". While sin divides, deceives and darkens, the Cross of Christ REDEEMS. Paul wrote, "For the preaching of the cross is to them that perish foolishness; but unto us which are saved it is the power of God" (I Corinthians 1:18). He further said, "I am crucified with Christ: neverthless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me: and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and gave himself for me" (Galatians 2:20).


Third, we see OFFERING. Jesus Christ offered Himself for us. He stated, "No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This commandment have I received of my Father" (John 10:18). He "poured out his soul unto death" for us (Isaiah 53:12). He shed His blood and bought the church with it (Acts 20:28). Paul wrote, "But now in Christ Jesus ye who sometimes were far off are made nigh by the blood of Christ" (Ephesians 2:13).


Fourth, we see SUFFERING and SHAME. Jesus SUFFERED for us. Isaiah prophesied of Jesus suffering in Isaiah 53:4. He stated, "Surely he hath born our griefs, and carried our sorrows: yet we did esteem him stricken, smitten of God, and afflicted". The word "borne" means "sustained or carried". Jesus endured the SHAME of the cross. Again, Isaiah stated, "He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth: he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a sheep before her shearers is dumb, so he openeth not his mouth. He was taken from prison and from judgment: and who shall declare his generation? for he was cut off out of the land of the living: for the transgression of my people was he stricken" (Isaiah 53:7-8). Paul said, "Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree" (Galatians 3:13).


Finally, we see SALVATION. Peter wrote, "By whose stripes ye are healed� ( I Peter 2:24). By the cross of Christ, the provision of salvation is made available to all who will obey Him (Hebrews 5:8-9). We like Paul can say, "Thanks be unto God for his unspeakable gift" (II Corinthians 9:15). We must obey the gospel to be freed from our sins. Jesus said, "And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free" (John 8:32). The Book of Acts gives the History of the Lord's Church and how people were converted to Christ. The grand old question "What Must I do" is answered throughout the book of Acts. When people obeyed the plan of Salvation, Christ added them to His church (Acts 2:47). In the Cross we see SALVATION.


So my friend, by the Cross of Christ we see CHRIST, REDEMPTION, OFFERING, SUFFERING and SHAME and finally SALVATION.


Thank you so much for studying the Bible with us tonight.



And now let's listen to what the Bible says about how to become a Christian


Is there something that I must do to become a Christian? Has this thought ever cross your mind? You are not alone in your search for the Truthâ?¦many others have asked the same question today and even in Bible times. After hearing the gospel in Acts chapter two, a group of people asked â??Men and brethren what shall we doâ?? (Acts 2:37). So it is likely that you today are asking the same question! The answers are given in the Bible. We are taught by the gospel of Christ that we must hear the gospel (Romans 10:17-â??So then faith cometh by hearing and hearing by the word of Godâ?); We must also believe in Christ (Mark 16:16 â??He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damnedâ?. We must repent of our sins (Turning away from sin and turning to God) Luke 13:3,5. We must confess the good name of Christ as the only begotten Son of God (Matthew 10:32, 33; Acts 8:37) and we are to be baptized for the remission of our sins (Acts 2:38). When we obey God through obedience to the gospel, we have obeyed that form of doctrine (Romans 6) and Jesus adds us to His church, the church of Christ. We have become a â??Christianâ?. We become a Christian the same way that others did so in the book of Acts. The same process that makes us a Christian makes us a member of the body of Christ, the church of Christ. We must live a faithful Christian life even if we must die for Christ (Rev. 2:10). What a great life it is when we become a Christian! We become a new person with new goals. Paul described it as a â??new creationâ? (II Cor. 5:10). We would like to study with you more in your search for Truth and desire to become a Christian. We would like to mail you our free Bible Study lessons so that we can study the Bible together. Please write down our contact information that will be given in a few seconds.


Thank you for studying the Bible with us today.


We want to send you our free Bible Study lessons to help you in your study of the Bible and search for Truth. The Bible Study lessons are non-denominational and a simple way to help you as you study more about Godâ??s will for us today.


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Listen to our excellent Sunday program "Studying the Bible Together� with Harold Bigham on WWCR at 9:45 P.M. on the Seeking the Lost International Radio Broadcast.


Todayâ??s program is a joint evangelistic effort and has been financially brought to you by the Clinton church of Christ, Clinton, Ms and the Sixth Avenue church of Christ in Jasper, Alabama.


Seeking the Lost International Radio is under the oversight of the Eldership of the Clinton church of Christ, Clinton, Ms.


May God bless you in your study of Godâ??s Word and remember to tune in Sunday night 9:45 P.M. to "Studying the Bible Togetherâ? another program brought to you by the â??Seeking the Lost International Radio broadcast".


Four kingdoms of Daniel

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"Four kingdoms" redirects here. For the Castilian state, see Four Kingdoms of Andalusia.


Daniel's Vision of the Beasts, 1866 engraving by Gustave Doré.

The four kingdoms of Daniel are four kingdoms which, according to the Book of Daniel, precede the "end-time" and the "Kingdom of God".


Contents [hide]

1 The four kingdoms

1.1 Historical background

1.2 Daniel 2

1.3 Daniel 7

1.4 Daniel 8

2 Schools of thought

2.1 Roman Empire schema

2.1.1 Use with Book of Revelation

2.1.2 Second temple theory

3 Traditional views

3.1 Protestant Reformation

3.2 Fifth Monarchists

3.3 Seventh-day Adventist view

4 See also

5 Appendix

6 References

7 Further reading

8 External links

The four kingdoms[edit]

Historical background[edit]

The Book of Daniel originated from a collection of legends circulating in the Jewish community in Babylon and Mesopotamia in the Persian and early Hellenistic periods (5th to 3rd centuries BC), and was later expanded by the visions of chapters 7-12 in the Maccabean era (mid-2nd century).[1]


The "four kingdoms" theme appears explicitly in Daniel 2 and Daniel 7, and is implicit in the imagery of Daniel 8. Daniel's concept of four successive world empires is drawn from Greek theories of mythological history;[2] The symbolism of four metals in the statue in chapter 2 is drawn from Persian writings,[2] while the four "beasts from the sea" in chapter 7 reflect Hosea 13:7–8, in which God threatens that he will be to Israel like a lion, a leopard, a bear or a wild beast.[3] The consensus among scholars is that the four beasts of chapter 7, like the metals of chapter 2, symbolise Babylon, Media, Persia and the Seleucid Greeks, with Antiochus IV as the "small horn" that uproots three others (Antiochus usurped the rights of several other claimants to become king).[4]


Daniel 2[edit]

In chapter 2, Nebuchadnezzar dreams of a statue made of four different materials, identified as four kingdoms:


Head of gold,

explicitly identified as King Nebuchadnezzar.[v.37-38]

Chest and arms of silver.

Identified as an "inferior" kingdom to follow Nebuchadnezzar.[v.39]

Belly and thighs of bronze.

A third kingdom which shall rule over all the earth.[v.39]

Legs of iron with feet of mingled iron and clay

Interpreted as a fourth kingdom, strong as iron, but the feet and toes partly of clay and partly of iron show it shall be a divided kingdom.[v.41]

Daniel 7[edit]

In chapter 7, Daniel has a vision of four beasts coming up out of the sea, and is told that they represent four kingdoms:


A beast like a lion with eagle’s wings;

A beast like a bear, raised up on one side, with three ribs between its teeth;

A beast like a leopard with four wings and four heads;

A fourth beast, with large iron teeth and ten horns.

This is explained as a fourth kingdom, different from all the other kingdoms; it "will devour the whole earth, trampling it down and crushing it."[v.23] The ten horns are ten kings who will come from this kingdom.[V.24] A further horn (the "little horn") then appears and uproots three of the previous horns: this is explained as a future king.

Daniel 8[edit]

In chapter 8 Daniel sees a ram with two horns destroyed by a he-goat with a single horn; the horn breaks and four horns appear, followed once again by the "little horn."


Schools of thought[edit]

From the time of the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century, the "four monarchies" model became widely used by all for universal history, in parallel with eschatology, among Protestants. Some continued to defend its use in universal history in the early 18th century; but the periodization w










[Christopher Cellarius]] (1638–1707), based on the distinctive nature of medieval Latin.[5] The modern historicist interpretations and eschatological views of the Book of Daniel with the Book of Revelation closely resemble and continue earlier historical Protestant interpretations.


There are references in classical literature and arts that apparently predate the use of the succession of kingdoms in the Book of Daniel. One appears in Aemilius Sura,[6] an author quoted by Velleius Paterculus (c. 19 BC – c. AD 31). This gives Assyria, Media, Persia and Macedonia as the imperial powers. The fifth empire became identified with the Romans. (After the 17th century, the concept of a fifth monarchy was re-introduced from Christian millennarian ideas.)


An interpretation that became orthodox[citation needed] after Swain (1940)[7] sees the "four kingdoms" theory becoming the property of Greek and Roman writers at the beginning of the 1st century BCE, as an import from Asia Minor. They built on a three-kingdom sequence, already mentioned by Herodotus (c. 484–425 BC) and by Ctesias (fl. 401 BC).[8] Mendels (1981) contests this dating and origin, placing it[clarification needed] later in the century.[9]


Jewish Reconstructionists and Full Preterists believe that Daniel is completely fulfilled, and that the believers are now working to establish the Kingdom of God on earth.


Two main schools of thought on the four kingdoms of Daniel, are:


the traditionalist view, supporting the conflation of Medo-Persia and identifying the last kingdom as the Roman Empire.

the Maccabean thesis, a view that supports the separation of the Medes from the Persians and identifies the last kingdom as the Seleucid Empire.[10]

Roman Empire schema[edit]

The following interpretation represents a traditional view of Jewish and Christian Historicists, Futurists, Dispensationalists, Partial Preterists, and other futuristic Jewish and Christian hybrids, as well as certain Messianic Jews, who typically identify the kingdoms in Daniel (with variations) as:


the Babylonian Empire

the Medo-Persian Empire

the Greek Empire of Alexander

the Roman Empire, with other implications to come later

Jerome (c.  347 – 420) described this scheme in his Commentary on Daniel.[11] Within this framework there are numerous variations.


Use with Book of Revelation[edit]

Christian interpreters typically read the Book of Daniel along with the New Testament's Book of Revelation. The Church Fathers interpreted the beast in Revelation 13 as the empire of Rome.[12] The majority of modern scholarly commentators understand the "city on seven hills" in Revelation as a reference to Rome.[13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]


Second temple theory[edit]

Full Preterists, Idealists, certain Reconstructionists and other non-futurists likewise typically believe in the same general sequence, but teach that Daniel's prophecies ended with the destruction of the Second Temple of Jerusalem, and have few to no implications beyond that. Jewish and Christian Futurists, Dispensationalists, and, to some degree, Partial Preterists believe that the prophecies of Daniel stopped with the destruction of the Second Temple of Jerusalem; but will resume at some point in the future after a gap in prophecy that accounts for the Church Age.


Traditional views[edit]

The traditional interpretation of the four kingdoms, shared among Jewish and Christian expositors for over two millennia, identifies the kingdoms as the empires of Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greece and Rome. This view conforms to the text of Daniel, which considers the Medo-Persian Empire as one, as with the "law of the Medes and Persians"(6:8, 12, 15) These views have the support of the Jewish Talmud, medieval Jewish commentators, Christian Church Fathers, Jerome, and Calvin.[26]


Jerome specifically identified the four kingdoms of Daniel 2 in this way.[27] The "four monarchies" theory existed alongside the Six Ages and the Three Eras, as general historical structures, in the work of Augustine of Hippo, a contemporary of Jerome.[28]


The alternative view which sees the sequence ending with Greece and the Diadochi, thus excluding Rome, is not without historical precedent however. The pagan critic of Christianity, Porphyry, suggested a variation of this interpretation in the third century CE. In the following centuries, several Eastern Christians espoused this view, including Ephrem the Syrian, Polychronius, and Cosmas Indicopleustes.[29]


During the Medieval ages the orthodox Christian interpretation followed the commentary by Jerome on the Book of Daniel.[30] It tied the fourth monarchy and its end to the end of the Roman Empire; which was considered not to have yet come to pass. This is the case for example in the tenth-century writer Adso, whose Libellus de Antichristo incorporated the characteristic medieval myth of the Last World Emperor.[31][32] Otto of Freising used the principle of translatio imperii and took the Holy Roman Empire as the continuation of the Roman Empire (as fourth monarchy).


Protestant Reformation[edit]

See also: Historicism (Christianity)


This 1630 engraving of Daniel's vision in chapter 7 by Matthäus Merian follows Jerome's interpretation of the four beasts, but with "Assyria" in place of "Babylon".

The eschatological theory of four monarchies was particularly emphasized by a series of Protestant theologians, such as Jerome Zanchius, Joseph Mede, and John Lightfoot.[33] Mede and other writers (such as William Guild, Edward Haughton and Nathaniel Stephens) expected the imminent end of the fourth empire, and a new age.[34] The early modern version of the four monarchies in universal history was subsequently often attributed to the chronologist and astrologer Johann Carion, based on his Chronika (1532). Developments of his Protestant world chronology were endorsed in an influential preface of Philipp Melanchthon (published 1557).


The theory was topical in the 1550s. Johann Sleidan in his De quatuor imperiis summis (1556) tried to summarise the status of the "four monarchies" as historical theory; he had already alluded to it in previous works. Sleidan's influential slant on the theory was both theological, with a Protestant tone of apocalyptic decline over time, and an appeal to German nationalist feeling in terms of translatio imperii.[5][35][36] The Speculum coniugiorum (1556) of the jurist Alonso De la Vera Cruz, in New Spain, indirectly analysed the theory. It cast doubts on the Holy Roman Emperor's universal imperium, by pointing out the historical 'monarchies' in question had in no case held exclusive sway.[37] The Carion/Melanchthon view was that the Kingdom of Egypt must be considered a subsidiary power to Babylon: just as France was secondary compared to the Empire.[38]



The Foure Monarchies was the title of a long poem by Anne Bradstreet from 1650.[39] Title page of the 1678 edition of her poems .

The Catholic Jean Bodin was concerned to argue against the whole theory of 'four monarchies' as a historical paradigm. He devoted a chapter to refuting it, alongside the classical scheme of a Golden Age, in his 1566 Methodus ad facilem historiarum cognitionem.[40]



Title page of A Brief description of the Fifth Monarchy or Kingdome (1653) by William Aspinwall.


Monument to the Four Kingdoms of Daniel: two each.


Monument to the Four Kingdoms of Daniel: two each.


The lion represents the King of Babylon, Nebuchadnezzar. The bear represents the Persian King, Cyrus.


The leopard represents the King of the Greek Empire, Alexander. The fourth beast represents the Roman Empire, Julius Caesar.

Fifth Monarchists[edit]

Main article: Fifth Monarchists

In the conditions leading to the English Civil War and the disruption that followed, many Protestants were millennarians, believing they were living in the 'end of days'.[41] The Fifth Monarchists were a significant element of the Parliamentary grouping and, in January 1661, after Charles II took the throne following the English Restoration, 50 militant Fifth Monarchists under Thomas Venner attempted to take over London to start the 'Fifth Monarchy of King Jesus'. After the failure of this uprising, Fifth Monarchists became a quiescent and devotional part of religious dissent.[41]


Seventh-day Adventist view[edit]

See also: Historicism (Christianity) § Book of Daniel

The Seventh-day Adventist Church shares the traditional view that the four kingdoms of Daniel, as paralleled in chapters 2 and 7, correspond to the Neo-Babylonian Empire, the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire and the Roman Empire. Furthermore, they hold the view that the ram and goat correspond to the Achaemenid Empire, and the Macedonian Empire. They also hold to the traditional view that the "little horn" in Daniel 7:8 refers to the Papacy; the reference to changing "times and law" (Daniel 7:25) refers to the change of the Christian sabbath from Saturday to Sunday, and the attack on the sanctuary (Daniel 8:11) to the mediatorial ministry of Roman Catholic priests.[42] The "time, times and half a time" (Daniel 7:25) represents for Adventists a period of 1260 years from 538 CE to 1798 CE, when the Roman Catholic Church dominated the Christian world.[43] The feet of the statue in Daniel 2, made of mixed iron and clay, represent modern Europe.[44] The Adventist interpretation depends on the day-year principle", the established idea that when used in prophetic context, a day is equivalent to a year.


They also believe a tribulation will occur - a seven-year period of time when believers will experience worldwide persecution and martyrdom. Futurists differ on when believers will be raptured, but there are three primary views: 1) before the tribulation; 2) near or at the midpoint of the tribulation; or 3) at the end of the tribulation. There is also a fourth view of multiple raptures throughout the tribulation, but this view does not have a mainstream following.
Four Views on the Book of Revelation by Kenneth L. Gentry Jr., Sam Hamstra Jr., C. Marvin Pate and Robert L. Thomas (Zondervan, 1998) ISBN 0-310-21080-1


In the Christian liturgical calendar, there are several different Feasts of the Cross, all of which commemorate the cross used in the crucifixion of Jesus. While Good Friday is dedicated to the Passion of Christ and the Crucifixion, these days celebrate the cross itself, as the instrument of salvation.


In English, it is called The Exaltation of the Holy Cross in the official translation of the Roman Missal, while the 1973 translation called it The Triumph of the Cross. In some parts of the Anglican Communion the feast is called Holy Cross Day, a name also used by Lutherans. The celebration is also sometimes called Holy Rood Day.


As per Christian faith the True Cross was discovered in 326 by Saint Helena, the mother of the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great, during a pilgrimage she made to Jerusalem. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre was then built at the site of the discovery, by order of Helena and Constantine. The church was dedicated nine years later, with a portion of the cross. One-third remained in Jerusalem, one-third was brought to Rome and deposited in the Sessorian basilica Santa Croce in Gerusalemme (Holy Cross in Jerusalem), and one-third was taken to Constantinople to make the city impregnable.[1]


The date of the feast marks the dedication of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in 335.[2] This was a two-day festival: although the actual consecration of the church was on September 13, the cross itself was brought outside the church on September 14 so that the clergy and faithful could pray before the True Cross, and all could come forward to venerate it.


In Roman Catholic liturgical observance, red vestments are worn at church services conducted on this day, and if the day falls on a Sunday, its Mass readings[note 1] are used instead of those for the occurring Sunday in Ordinary Time. The lectionary of the Church of England (and other Anglican churches) also stipulates red as the liturgical colour for 'Holy Cross Day'


Until 1969, the Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday of the calendar week after the one in which 14 September falls were designated as one of each year's four sets of Ember days by the Church in the West. Organization of these celebrations is now left to the decision of episcopal conferences in view of local conditions and customs.


September 14 is the titular feast of the Congregation of Holy Cross, The Companions of the Cross and the Episcopal Church's Order of the Holy Cross. This date also marked the beginning of the period of fasting, except on Sundays and ending on Easter Sunday, that was stipulated for Carmelites in the Carmelite Rule of St. Albert of 1247.[3] The Rule of St. Benedict also prescribes this day as the beginning of monastic winter (i.e., the period when there are three nocturns of psalms and readings at matins) which also ends at Easter.


Contents [hide]

1 History

2 Syriac Church of the East

3 Eastern Orthodox practice

3.1 Uncovering of the Precious Cross and the Precious Nails by Empress Saint Helen

4 Armenian Apostolic Church

5 Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church

6 Malankara Syrian Orthodox Church

7 Russian Orthodox Church

8 August 1

9 Moveable Feasts

10 Wednesday and Friday

11 Veneration of the Cross

11.1 Feast Days

11.2 End of Services

12 Exaltation of the Holy Cross

13 See also

14 Footnotes

15 References

16 External links


The Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, celebrated every year on September 14, recalls three events: the finding of the True Cross by Saint Helena, the mother of the emperor Constantine; the dedication of churches built by Constantine on the site of the Holy Sepulchre and Mount Calvary; and the restoration of the True Cross to Jerusalem by the emperor Heraclius II after it had fallen into the hands of Chosroas, King of the Persians. Under Constantine, around 327, Macarius, Bishop of Jerusalem, caused excavations to be made in order to ascertain the location of Calvary as well as that of the Holy Sepulchre. It was in the course of these excavations that the wood of the Cross was recovered. It was recognized as authentic, and for it was built a chapel or oratory, [4] Soon after the discovery of the Cross its wood was cut up into small relics and quickly scattered throughout the Christian World.[1]


The feast was observed in Rome before the end of the seventh century.[5] The Second Council of Nicæa of 787, drew the distinction between veneration of the cross and worship or latria, "which, according to the teaching of the faith, belongs to the Divine nature alone." [4] Petavius noted that this cult must be considered as not belonging to the substance of religion, but as being one of the things not absolutely necessary to salvation.[4]


The honour paid to the image passes to the prototype; and he who adores the image, adores the person whom it represents.[4]


In the Gallican usage, beginning about the seventh century, the Feast of the Cross was celebrated on May 3, and called "Crouchmas" (for "Cross Mass") or "Roodmas". When the Gallican and Roman practices were combined, the September date was assigned to commemorating the rescue of the Cross from the Sassanid Persians, and the May date was kept as the Finding of the Holy Cross or Invention of the True Cross to commemorate the finding. (In this context "invention" [from Latin invenire, "to find"] does not have the modern sense of creating something new.) Pope John XXIII removed this duplication in 1960, so that the General Roman Calendar now celebrates the Holy Cross only on September 14.


May 3 is the date given in the Church of England's Book of Common Prayer liturgy, but the new Common Worship liturgy, following the Roman Catholic Church's lead, celebrates Holy Cross Day on September 14.[6]


Syriac Church of the East[edit]

The Syriac Church of the East celebrates the finding of the Cross on September 13, and considers it to be a major feast. The Syriac Church considers the Sign of the Cross to be a seventh sacrament, by which all of the other sacraments are sealed and perfected (it takes the place of marriage, which they do not name in their traditional list of sacraments). Saranaya (Syriac) hold a shara every year in cities like Chicago, Illinois, and Modesto, California, and other parts of the world. The shara in Modesto is held every Sunday prior to September 13 at East La Loma Park, where they sacrifice lambs in remembrance of the Feast Of the Cross. People gather and feast and sing and dance to celebrate a happy day.


Eastern Orthodox practice[edit]


Orthodox Cross set for special veneration on the feast of The Universal Exaltation of the Precious and Life Giving Cross.

In Byzantine liturgical observance, the Universal Exaltation (also called Elevation in Greek Churches) of the Precious and Life-creating Cross commemorates both the finding of the True Cross in 326 and its recovery from the Persians in 628, and is one of the Twelve Great Feasts of the church year. September 14 is always a fast day and the eating of meat, dairy products and fish is prohibited. The Feast of the Exaltation has a one-day forefeast and an eight-day afterfeast. The Saturday and Sunday before[note 2] and after[7] September 14 are also commemorated with special Epistle and Gospel readings[note 3] about the Cross at the Divine Liturgy.


On the eve of the feast before small vespers the priest, having prepared a tray with the cross placed on a bed of fresh basil leaves or flowers, covered with an aër (liturgical veil), places it on the table of prothesis; after that service, the priest carries the tray on his head preceded by lighted candles and the deacon incensing the cross, processes to the holy table (altar), in the centre whereof he lays the tray, in the place of the Gospel Book, the latter being set upright at the back of the altar.[8] Those portions of the vespers and matins which in sundry local customs take place before the Icon of the Feast (e.g.,the chanting of the Polyeleos and the Matins Gospel[note 4]) instead take place in front of the Holy Table.[9] The bringing out of the cross and the exaltation ceremony occur at matins.[8]


The cross remains in the centre of the temple throughout the afterfeast, and the faithful venerate it whenever they enter or leave the church. Finally, on the leave-taking (apodosis) of the feast, the priest and deacon will incense around the cross, there will be a final veneration of the cross, and then they will solemnly bring the cross back into the sanctuary through the Holy Doors. This same pattern of bringing out the cross, veneration, and returning the cross at the end of the celebration is repeated at a number of the lesser times.


Uncovering of the Precious Cross and the Precious Nails by Empress Saint Helen[edit]

On March 6, the liturgical calendar of the Eastern Orthodox Church, commemorates the Uncovering of the Precious Cross and the Precious Nails by Empress Saint Helen—that is to say, the anniversary of the actual discovery; the date for the September 14 feast was determined by the consecration of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. This is a lesser feast, and does not have any of the liturgical peculiarities of the September 14 feast.[10]


Armenian Apostolic Church[edit]

The Armenian Apostolic Church observes a five-day fast, called the Fast of the Holy Cross from September 10 through September 14, in preparation for the Feast of the Holy Church in view of the Holy Cross, which they celebrate on September 15. September 16 is observed as the Feast of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross (Khachverats in Armenian), a feast which continues for several days thereafter. It is counted as one of the five major feasts of the Armenian Church, and the most important of the four feasts of the Holy Cross. According to Armenian tradition, the first one to "exalt" the Cross was the Apostle James of Jerusalem, the "Brother of the Lord". On the Sunday nearest September 14, the liturgy is marked with an antasdan service (blessing of the fields) during which the processional cross is adorned with basil (a symbol of royalty) and the four corners of the church are blessed as a sign of the sanctification of the world.


On the Sunday nearest September 28 (always two weeks after the Exaltation) the Armenian Church celebrates the Feast of the Holy Cross of Varak (Varaka Khach) commemorating the third century placement of an authentic relic of the cross in Armenian soil at Varagavank. This is a cross feast unique to the Armenian Church.


On the Sunday closest to October 26, the Armenian Church celebrates the Discovery of the Holy Cross (Kyood Khach), commemorating the finding of the True Cross by Saint Helena (327 AD).


Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church[edit]

The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and the Coptic Church of Alexandria, commemorate the finding of the true cross on Meskerem 17 of the Ethiopian Calendar (17 Thoout in the Coptic calendar) correspondng to September 27 in the Julian calendar (or, in leap years, one day later). The eve of this day is popularly called "Demera" in Amharic - meaning Bonfire. The patriarch of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church lights a large bonfire in Maskal Square, Addis Ababa's greatest open arena, and smaller bonfires are lit by individuals and local parishes throughout the country. Thousands attend the colourful and vibrant ceremony of religious chantings around the bonfire in Maskal Square, which owes its name to the ceremony, maskal meaning in Ge'ez "cross". According to tradition, the bonfire commemorates how Queen Helena, as legend has it, found with the smoke of a bonfire, where to search for the true cross in Jerusalem, or how, by a series of bonfires, she signalled to her son Constantine in Constantinople her success in finding it.


Malankara Syrian Orthodox Church[edit]

In the Malankara Syrian Orthodox Church a special offering called panchasarayumanda is made on this day, in particular at the Akaparambu Mor Sabor-Mor Aphroth Church in the Ernakulam District, Kerala.


Russian Orthodox Church[edit]

In the Russian Orthodox Church, October 12 is the commemoration of the Translation of a Portion of the Life-Giving Cross from Malta to Gatchina. A portion of the Life-Giving Cross of the Lord, as well as the Philermos icon of the Mother of God and the right hand of John the Baptist were preserved on the island of Malta by the Knights of the Catholic Order of St. John of Jerusalem, who controlled the island.


In 1798, when the French seized the island, the Maltese Knights turned to the Russian Empire for defense and protection. To this end, they elected Paul I, the Tsar of Russia, as Grand Master of the Order. The Tsar accepted his election. On October 12, 1799, Maltese knights came to their new Priory Palace, just built for them by Paul in Gatchina (45 km. [27 miles] south of St. Petersburg), and offered these ancient and holy treasures to their new Grand Master, the tsar.


In the autumn of 1799 the holy items were transferred to St. Petersburg and placed in the Winter Palace within the internal church dedicated to the Icon of the Savior Not-Made-by-Hands. The feast for this event was established in 1800.[11]


August 1[edit]

The Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Rite Catholics commemorate the Procession of the Precious Wood of the Life-giving Cross of Jesus Christ on August 1, which is also the first day of the Dormition Fast. The propers of the feast are combined with those of the Holy Maccabean Martyrs, the commemoration of whose endurance is deemed appropriate for the first day of a fast. Unlike the September 14 observance, this commemoration is considered to be a minor feast, but it does have the bringing out of the cross and veneration by the faithful like the September feast.


The history of this feast begins in Constantinople where it was the custom to carry the relic of the True Cross through the streets and squares of the city to ask for God's blessing and for relief from sickness. On the eve of the feast (July 31), observed as a forefeast, it was taken out of the imperial treasury, and laid upon the altar of the "Great Church" (Hagia Sophia) and the following day solemnly placed in the middle of the Great Church for the faithful to venerate. It was taken in procession daily throughout the city, offering it to the people to venerate, until the Feast of the Dormition of the Theotokos (August 15), when it was returned to the imperial treasury.


In commemoration of this tradition, it is customary to have an outdoor procession with the Lesser Blessing of Water on August 1. It is the first of three "Feasts of the Saviour" in the month of August, the other two being the Transfiguration (August 6) and the Icon of Christ "Not Made by Hands" (August 16). Because of the blessing of holy water, this holy day is sometimes called "Saviour of the Water." There may also be celebrated on this day the Rite of Blessing New Honey, for which reason the day is also referred to as "Saviour of the Honey."


According to Saint Nikolaj Velimirović, this feast was instituted by mutual agreement of the Greeks and Russians to commemorate the simultaneous victories of the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos over the Bulgarians and the Russian Prince Andrei Bogolyubsky over the Saracens in the 12th century.[12]


In the Russian Orthodox Church, this feast also celebrates the Baptism of Rus, which occurred on August 1, 988.



Moveable Feasts[edit]

In addition to celebrations on fixed days, the Cross may be celebrated during the variable, particularly in Lent and Eastertide.


Eastern Christians celebrate an additional Veneration of the Cross on the third Sunday of Great Lent. The services for this day are modeled on the Feast of the Exaltation (September 14), and include bringing the cross to the holy table at little vespers and with solemnity out into the center of church at matins, albeit without the ceremony of the Exaltation of the Cross, for veneration by the faithful.[13] It remains in the centre of the church for nearly a week (the Fourth Week of Great Lent). On the Monday and Wednesday of that week, a veneration of the Cross takes place at the First Hour (repeating a portion of the service from matins of the previous Sunday). On Friday of that week, the veneration takes place after the Ninth Hour, after which the priest and deacons return the cross to the sanctuary.[14]


Orthodox Churches, the Roman Catholic Church, and some Anglican churches have a formal Adoration of the Cross during the services on Good Friday.


In the Roman Breviary before the 1961 reform, a Commemoration of the Cross is made during Eastertide except when the office or commemoration of a double or octave occurs, replacing the suffrage of the Saints said outside Eastertide.


Wednesday and Friday[edit]

In addition to all of the above commemorations, Orthodox also hold Wednesday and Friday throughout the year as a commemoration of the Cross.


Veneration of the Cross[edit]

Feast Days[edit]

In the Eastern Orthodox Church, on several of the feast days mentioned above, there is a public veneration of the cross. It may take place at matins, after the cross is brought out, at the end of the celebration of the Divine Liturgy, or at the end of one of the Little Hours, depending upon the particular feast and local custom.


The faithful come forward and make two prostrations, make the sign of the cross on themselves, and kiss the feet of Christ on the cross, and then make a third prostration. After this, they will often receive a blessing from the priest and bow towards their fellow worshippers on each side of the church (this latter practice is most commonly observed in monasteries).


End of Services[edit]

At the end of the Divine Liturgy, and at some other services as well, it is customary for the faithful to come forward and venerate the "Blessing Cross" (hand-cross) which is held by the bishop or priest, and to kiss his hand. This practice is also called the "Veneration of the Cross", though it does not involve making prostrations. The cross which is venerated is small (typically 10-16 inches). This cross is usually metal, often gold or gold-plated, and can be enameled and/or decorated with jewels. The figure of Jesus on the Cross (the soma) is usually engraved, enameled, or painted on the cross, rather than being a separate three-dimensional figure as is found on a crucifix. This is due to the Orthodox practice of using icons rather than statues in church.


Exaltation of the Holy Cross[edit]

The readings for this day draw a comparison between the bronze serpent of Numbers 21, which was raised up on a pole so that all who looked upon it would be cured of the deadly poison of venomous snakes, and John 3: 14-15, "And just as Moses lifted up the serpent in the desert, so must the Son of Man be lifted up, so that everyone who believes in him may have eternal life."[15]

four letter name


The Name of Jesus Christ

Jesus Christ in the Ancient Aramaic language is:

Eashoa' M'sheekha

[name of Jesus in Aramaic]

In the Ancient Aramaic His name is written as shown above. Click on the name to hear the audio.

Eashoa' means, "the Life-Giver." Msheekha means, "the Anointed One." Eashoa' Msheekha: The Anointed Life-Giver.

Many visitors to this website e-mail me about the use of the name Jesus Christ. They say why do you use the English designations when the true name of Jesus is "Eashoa" and Christ is "The Anointed One." Some of the people e-mailing me prefer the spelling "Yeshua." And there are some other variations, but none of these are accurate transliterations. I prefer my own transliteration: Eashoa'.

I take this occasion to explain the usages, now that even God is in danger of being removed from the Pledge of Allegiance. First of all, the name of Jesus is not different from His name in the original language. In the Ancient Aramaic, the name is spelled "yeh-sheen-waw-ein." In English the "yeh" becomes "J," the "sheen" becomes "s," the "waw" becomes a "u," and the "ein," becomes an "s." Now, this might not sound like the same name, but since three of the four letters in the name don't have English language equivalents, the English pronunciation had to be modified. Eashoa' and Jesus are the very same name, albeit the transliterations are of two very different languages, with four thousand years of divergent evolution.

The name of Christ comes from the Greek word for "anointed." The Greek word "Khristos" comes from the word for "oil." The English language is based on the Latin, which in turn is based on the Greek. The word "Msheekhah" is the original word for "The Anointed." Another good choice for "Christ" is the Messiah -- again from "Msheekhah." The same word in all the languages, designating Jesus as the Messiah prophesied by the Old Testament.

There are many misconceptions regarding the language of the Bible. In my opinion they're all aimed at misleading people from the Truth, which is the Faith in Eashoa (Jesus) the Messiah.


America's spiritual pioneer of the 19th Century, Mary Baker Eddy, has worked extensively with the "City of God" concept. This is evident in the fact that she divided all of her major works into 16 parts, or multiples thereof, including her textbook that is made up of 16 chapters. She wrote about the City of God in the last pages of the last chapter of her book, Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures. She used different sets of terms there, for the description of the columns, such as: The Word, Christ, Christianity, and divine Science. She also used terms related to the cycle of the Sun in the sky, Northward for dawn, Eastward for sunrise, Southward for noon day, and Westward for the golden sunset.

The Occitan cross probably first appears in the coat of arms of the counts of Forcalquier and then during the reign of Raymond V, count of Toulouse, as a particular description of his official seal dated from 1165[1] corroborates. It soon spreads across the whole south-western part of today's France and is even spotted in various towns up north throughout the 12th century. Several interpretations have been proposed for the cross, often stressing the symbolic side of it and leaving aside the fact that "heraldry is not a science of symbols, but one of emblems" (M. Pastoureau).

In 1950, Henri Rolland[2] suggested that the origin of the Occitan cross be traced back to the marquisate of Provence, north of the Durance, more precisely the town of Venasque.[3]

In 1966, in the L'Auta review, Roger Camboulives voices his idea that the Occitan cross derives from a sun cross and perhaps the Nestorian cross found in China's Turkestan. It would have arrived in Toulouse via northern Italy and Provence, probably sometime in the 10th century. In 1980, Camboulives again emphasizes the role played by the Wisigoths in the presence of small spheres at the end of the arms of the cross: they could represent the twelve houses of the zodiac.[4] This hypothesis would definitely locate the birth of the Occitan cross in or around Toulouse.

A demonstration for Occitania and the Occitan language in Béziers on March 17, 2007

In 1986, Jean-Yves Royer (in Le Pays de Forcalquier) claims that the cross was originally from Provence but admits that Henri Rolland's theory was flawed and built around wrong dates. Royer concludes that Rolland possibly mistook the Occitan cross with that of Forcalquier.[5] He draws evidence most notably from two crosses carved in the lid of a sarcophagus found in the small Alpes-de-Haute-Provence commune of Ganagobie.

In the December, 1994 edition of the Archistra magazine, Pierre Saliès once again maintains that the cross is from Toulouse and is the fruit of successive local evolutions, possibly from the Jerusalem cross.[6]

Two years after, in L'Auta (#612), Jean Rocacher confirms that the Occitan cross "is first the own emblem of the old county of Venasque, later torn between the houses of Toulouse and Forcalquier."

In 2000, Laurent Macé (in Les Comtes de Toulouse et leur entourage) claims that the Occitan cross became the counts' emblem after Raymond IV took part in the First Crusade. It would originate from Constantinople.[7] Macé indicates that its pattern was first found in the Byzantine area and spread across Western Europe through Italy and Provence. The crosses of Venasque and Forcalquier would thus share the same origin, though one was not inspired by the other.

Later in the same year, Bertran de la Farge (in La Croix occitane) locates the original Occitan cross somewhere in the marquisate of Provence, probably Venasque. He argues it could be a mixture of the Constantinople cross and the Coptic cross, which was brought to Provence by monks and maybe also through Saint Maurice.

As for now, there is no undeniable evidence as to which side is right.


There are a variety of used by the Coptic Christians.

Old Coptic crosses often incorporate a circle which may vary in size depending on the representation. For the Coptic Church, the circle represents the eternal and everlasting love of God, as shown through Christ's crucifixion, Christ's halo and resurrection.[1]


The Coptic cross is widely used in the Coptic church and the Ethiopian and Eritrean churches. Many Copts have the cross tattooed on the inside of their right arm.[6] The Coptic cross in its modern and ancient forms is considered a sign of faith and pride to the Copts [7] The Ethiopians Christians wear it as a symbol of faith.[8]

The Coptic cross is widely used in the Coptic church and the Ethiopian and Eritrean churches. Many Copts have the cross tattooed on the inside of their right arm.[2] The Coptic cross in its modern and ancient forms is considered a sign of faith and pride to the Copts [3] The Ethiopians Christians wear it as a symbol of faith.[4]
In 1984, a Coptic Cross was given as a gift by the Coptic Orthodox Church and mounted on the top of the All Africa Conference of Churches building, since the Coptic Church is considered to be the mother church in Africa.[5]
One of the forms of the Coptic cross, which is referred to as the Ethiopian Coptic cross[6] was worn by Stevie Ray Vaughan.[7] Keith Richards [8] also wears an Ethiopian Coptic Cross.
Bertran de la Farge (in La Croix occitane) located the original Occitan cross somewhere in the marquisate of Provence, probably Venasque. He argued it could be a mixture of the Constantinople cross and the Coptic cross,[9] which was brought to Provence by monks and maybe also through Saint Maurice.
A "Coptic cross" according to Rudolf Koch, The Book of Signs
Another form was called a "Coptic" cross by Rudolf Koch in his The Book of Signs (Dover)Template:1955[page needed], though in this form it is not prominent in Coptic Christian symbolism. Sometimes the arms of the cross extend through the circle (dividing it into four quadrants).
Modern form[edit]
The form used in the Coptic Church and defined as the Coptic cross is made up of two bold lines of equal length that intersect at the middle at right angles. At each angle are three points, representing the Trinity of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. All together, the cross has 12 points symbolizing the Apostles whose mission it was to spread the Gospel message throughout the world.[10]



The Cross of Tau, named after the Greek letter it resembles, is a form of the Christian cross symbol.[1] It is also variously St. Anthony's Cross, Old Testament Cross, Anticipatory Cross, Cross Commissee, Egyptian Cross, Advent Cross, Croce taumata, Saint Francis's Cross, Crux Commissa.[citation needed]

The shape of the letter tau or T was interpreted as representing a crucifix from antiquity. The staurogram, from Greek ΣTAΥPOΣ "cross", was a tau-rho ligature used to abbreviate the Greek word for cross in very early New Testament manuscripts such as P66, P45 and P75.[2] The tau was also considered a symbol of salvation due to the identification of the tau with the sign which in Ezechiel 9:4 was marked on the forehead of the saved ones (וְהִתְוִיתָ תָּו עַל־מִצְחֹות הָאֲנָשִׁים "set a mark (tav; after the Phoenician cross-shape 𐤕) on the forehead of the men"), or due to the tau-shaped outstretched hands of Moses in Exodus 17:11.[2]

St. Anthony of Egypt bore a cross in the form of a tau on his cloak.[1] The Tau Cross is most commonly used in reference to the Franciscan Order and Saint Francis of Assisi, who adopted it as his personal coat of arms after hearing Pope Innocent III talk about the Tau symbol.[3] It is now used as a symbol of the Franciscan Order.


bell; pig; book; Tau cross[1][2] Tau cross with bell pendant[3]



Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the concept in the Christian Bible. For other uses, see Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (disambiguation).


Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse – Death, Famine, War, and Conquest, an 1887 painting by Viktor Vasnetsov. The Lamb is visible at the top.

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The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse are described in the last book of the New Testament of the Bible, called the Book of Revelation of Jesus Christ to John of Patmos, at 6:1-8. The chapter tells of a book or scroll in God's right hand that is sealed with seven seals. The Lamb of God opens the first four of the seven seals, which summons four beings that ride out on white, red, black, and pale horses. Though theologians and popular culture differ on the first horseman, the four riders are often seen as symbolizing Conquest[1] or Pestilence (and less frequently, the Christ or the Antichrist), War,[2] Famine,[3] and Death[citation needed]. The Christian apocalyptic vision is that the four horsemen are to set a divine apocalypse upon the world as harbingers of the Last Judgment.[1][4] One reading ties the four horsemen to the history of the Roman Empire subsequent to the era in which the Book of Revelation was written. That is, they are a symbolic prophecy of the subsequent history of the empire.[5]


Contents [hide]

1 White Horse

1.1 As righteous

1.2 As infectious disease

1.3 As evil

1.4 As empire prosperity

2 Red Horse

2.1 As empire division

3 Black Horse

3.1 As Imperial Oppression

4 Pale Horse

4.1 Destroying an Empire

5 Interpretations

5.1 Prophetic interpretation

5.2 Historicist interpretation

5.3 Preterist interpretation

5.4 Other interpretations

6 Other Biblical references

6.1 Zechariah

6.2 Ezekiel

7 See also

8 References

White Horse[edit]

See also: White horse (mythology)


The first horseman, Conquest on the White Horse as depicted in the Bamberg Apocalypse (1000-1020). The first "living creature" (with halo) is seen in the upper right.

Then I saw when the Lamb broke one of the seven seals, and I heard one of the four living creatures saying as with a voice of thunder, “Come.” I looked, and behold, a white horse, and he who sat on it had a bow; and a crown was given to him, and he went out conquering and to conquer.

— Revelation 6:1-2 New American Standard Bible (NASB)

Based on the above passage, a common translation into English, the white rider is generally referred to as "Conquest".[1] The name could also be construed as "Victory", as in the translation found in the Jerusalem Bible (the Greek words are derived from the verb νικάω, to conquer or vanquish). He carries a bow, and wears a victor's crown.


The rider has also been called "Pestilence", particularly in popular culture (see below).


As righteous[edit]


Albrecht Dürer, Knight, Death and the Devil, 1513

Irenaeus, an influential Christian theologian of the 2nd century, was among the first to interpret this horseman as Christ himself, his white horse representing the successful spread of the gospel.[3] Various scholars have since supported this notion,[6] citing the later appearance, in Revelation 19, of Christ mounted on a white horse, appearing as The Word of God. Furthermore, earlier in the New Testament, the Book of Mark indicates that the advance of the gospel may indeed precede and foretell the apocalypse.[3][7] The color white also tends to represent righteousness in the Bible, and Christ is in other instances portrayed as a conqueror.[3][7]


However, opposing interpretations argue that the first of the four horsemen is probably not the horseman of Revelation 19. They are described in significantly different ways, and Christ's role as the Lamb who opens the seven seals makes it unlikely that he would also be one of the forces released by the seals.[3][7]


Besides Christ, the horseman could represent the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit was understood to have come upon the Apostles at Pentecost after Jesus' departure from Earth. The appearance of the Lion in Revelation 5 shows the triumphant arrival of Jesus in Heaven, and the white horseman could represent the sending of the Holy Spirit by Jesus and the advance of the gospel of Jesus Christ.[8]


Other interpretations relying on comparative religious research ascribe the first horseman as guiding for "the right path"; Mahabharata Lord Krishna was a charioteer to Arjuna by riding on white horses, while Arjuna himself was an archer.[9]


As infectious disease[edit]

Under another interpretation, the first horseman is called Pestilence, and is associated with infectious disease and plague. It appears at least as early as 1906, when it is mentioned in the Jewish Encyclopedia.[10] The interpretation is common in popular culture references to the Four Horsemen.[11]


The origin of this interpretation is unclear. Some translations of the Bible mention "plague" (e.g. the NIV) or "pestilence" (e.g. the RSV) in connection with the riders in the passage following the introduction of the fourth rider; cf. "They were given power over a fourth of the earth to kill by sword, famine, plague, and by the wild beasts of the earth." (Revelation 6:7-8 NASB). However, it is a matter of debate as to whether this passage refers to the fourth rider, or to the four riders as a whole.[1]


Vicente Blasco Ibáñez, in his 1916 novel The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (filmed in 1921 and in 1962), provides an early example of this interpretation, writing "The horseman on the white horse was clad in a showy and barbarous attire. [...] While his horse continued galloping, he was bending his bow in order to spread pestilence abroad. At his back swung the brass quiver filled with poisoned arrows, containing the germs of all diseases."[12]


This interpretation exists in Kevin Kauffmann's Forsaken Comedy trilogy. In this depiction, a human named Niccolo contracts leprosy, dies, and falls to Hell, where he rises through the ranks to become the Horseman of Pestilence, under Lucifer's tutelage.


As evil[edit]


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One interpretation held by evangelist Billy Graham, casts the rider of the white horse as the Antichrist,[13] or a representation of false prophets, citing differences between the white horse in Revelation chapter 6 and Jesus on the white Horse in Revelation chapter 19.[14] In Revelation 19,[15] Jesus has many crowns. In Revelation 6, the rider has just one; a crown given, not taken. This indicates a third person giving authority to the rider to accomplish his work.


As empire prosperity[edit]

According to Edward Bishop Elliott's interpretation, that the four horsemen represent a prophecy of the subsequent history of the Roman Empire, the white color of this horse signifies triumph, prosperity and health in the political Roman body. For the next 80 or 90 years succeeding the banishment of the apostle John to Patmos covering the successive reigns of the emperors Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian and the two Antonines (Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius), a golden age of prosperity, union, civil liberty and good government unstained with civil blood unfolded. The agents of this prosperity personified by the rider of the white horse are these five emperors wearing crowns that reigned with absolute authority and power under the guidance of virtue and wisdom, the armies being restrained by their firm and gentle hands.[5]:129–131,134


This interpretation points out that the bow was preeminently a weapon of the inhabitants of the island of Crete and not of the Roman Empire in general. The Cretans were renowned for their archery skills. The significance of the rider of the white horse holding a bow indicates the place of origin of the line of emperors ruling during this time. This group of emperors can be classed together under one and the same head and family whose origins were from Crete.[5]:140,142–144


According to this interpretation, this period in Roman history, remarkable, both at its commencement and at its close, illustrated the glory of the empire where its limits were extended though not without occasional wars, which were always uniformly triumphant and successful on the frontiers. The triumphs of the Emperor Trajan, the Roman Alexander, added to the empire Dacia, Armenia, Mesopotamia and other provinces during the course of the first 20 years of the period, which deepened the impression on the minds of the barbarians of the invincibility of the Roman Empire. Roman war progressed triumphantly into the invader's own territory, and the Parthian war was successfully ended by the total overthrow of those people. Roman conquest is demonstrated even in the most mighty of these wars, the Marcomannic succession of victories under the second Antonine unleashed on the German barbarians, driven into their forests and reduced to Roman submission.[5]:131–133


Red Horse[edit]


The second horseman, War on the Red Horse as depicted in a thirteenth-century Apocalypse manuscript

When He broke the second seal, I heard the second living creature saying, “Come.” And another, a red horse, went out; and to him who sat on it, it was granted to take peace from the earth, and that men would slay one another; and a great sword was given to him.

— Revelation 6:3-4 NASB

The rider of the second horse is often taken to represent War[2] (he is often pictured holding a sword upwards as though ready for battle[16]) or mass slaughter.[1][4][17] His horse's color is red (πυρρός, from πῦρ, fire); and in some translations, the colour is specifically a "fiery" red. The color red, as well as the rider's possession of a great sword, suggests blood that is to be spilled.[3] The sword held upward by the second horseman may represent war or a declaration of war, as seen in heraldry. In military symbolism, swords held upward, especially crossed swords held upward, signify war and entering into battle.[18] (See for example the historical and modern images, as well as the coat of arms, of Jeanne of Arc.)


The second horseman may represent civil war as opposed to the war of conquest that the first horseman is sometimes said to bring.[3][19] Other commentators have suggested that it might also represent the persecution of Christians.[7][20][full citation needed]


As empire division[edit]

According to Edward Bishop Elliott's interpretation of the four horsemen as symbolic prophecy of the history of the Roman Empire, the second seal is opened and the Roman nation that experienced joy, prosperity and triumph is made subject to the red horse which depicts war and bloodshed — Civil War. Peace left the Roman earth resulting in the killing of one another as insurrection crept into and permeated the Empire beginning shortly into the reign of the Emperor Commodus.[5]:147–148


Elliott points out that Commodus, who had nothing to wish and everything to enjoy, that beloved son of Marcus who ascended the throne with neither competitor to remove nor enemies to punish, became the slave of his attendants who gradually corrupted his mind. His cruelty degenerated into habit and became the ruling passion of his soul.[21]:86–87


Elliott further recites that, after the death of Commodus, a most turbulent period lasting 92 years unfolded during which time 32 emperors and 27 pretenders to the Empire hurled each other from the throne by incessant civil warfare. The sword was a natural, universal badge among the Romans, of the military profession. The apocalyptic figure indicated by the great sword indicated an undue authority and unnatural use of it. Military men in power, whose vocation was war and weapon the sword, rose by it and also fell. The unrestrained military, no longer subject to the Senate, transformed the Empire into a system of pure military despotism.[5]:150–152


Black Horse[edit]


The third horseman, Famine on the Black Horse as depicted in the Angers Apocalypse Tapestry (1372-82)

When He broke the third seal, I heard the third living creature saying, “Come.” I looked, and behold, a black horse; and he who sat on it had a pair of scales in his hand. And I heard something like a voice in the center of the four living creatures saying, “A quart of wheat for a denarius, and three quarts of barley for a denarius; but do not damage the oil and the wine.”

— Revelation 6:5-6 NASB

The third horseman rides a black horse and is popularly understood to be Famine as the horseman carries a pair of balances or weighing scales, indicating the way that bread would have been weighed during a famine.[3][19] Other authors interpret the third horseman as the "Lord as a Law-Giver" holding Scales of Justice.[22] In the passage, it is read that the indicated price of grain is about ten times normal (thus the famine interpretation popularity), with an entire day's wages (a denarius) buying enough wheat for only one person, or enough of the less nutritious barley for three, so that workers would struggle to feed their families.[3]


Of the four horsemen, the black horse and its rider are the only ones whose appearance is accompanied by a vocal pronunciation. John hears a voice, unidentified but coming from among the four living creatures, that speaks of the prices of wheat and barley, also saying "and see thou hurt not the oil and the wine". This suggests that the black horse's famine is to drive up the price of grain but leave oil and wine supplies unaffected (though out of reach of the ordinary worker). One explanation for this is that grain crops would have been more naturally susceptible to famine years or locust plagues than olive trees and grapevines, which root more deeply.[3][19] The statement might also suggest a continuing abundance of luxuries for the wealthy while staples, such as bread, are scarce, though not totally depleted;[19] such selective scarcity may result from injustice and the deliberate production of luxury crops for the wealthy over grain, as would have happened during the time Revelation was written.[2][6] Alternatively, the preservation of oil and wine could symbolize the preservation of the Christian faithful, who used oil and wine in their sacraments.[23]


As Imperial Oppression[edit]


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According to Edward Bishop Elliott's interpretation, through this third seal, the black horse is unleashed — aggravated distress and mourning. The balance in the rider's hand is not associated with a man's weighing out bits of bread in scanty measure for his family's eating but in association with the buying and selling of corn and other grains. The balance during the time of the apostle John's exile in Patmos was commonly a symbol of justice since it was used to weigh out the grains for a set price. The balance of justice held in the hand of the rider of the black horse signified the aggravation of the other previous evil, the bloodstained red of the Roman aspect into the darker blackness of distress.[5]:161,164–167,170The black horse rider is instructed not to harm the oil and the wine which signifies that this scarcity should not fall upon the superfluities, such as oil and wine, which men can live without, but upon the necessities of life — bread.[24]


In history, the Roman Empire suffered as a result of excessive taxation of its citizens. During the reign of Emperor Caracalla, whose sentiments were very different from the Antonines being inattentive, or rather averse, to the welfare of the people, he found himself under the necessity of gratifying the greed and excessive lifestyle which he had excited in the Army. During his reign, he crushed every part of the empire under the weight of his iron scepter. Old as well as new taxes were at the same time levied in the provinces. In the course of this history, the land tax, the taxes for services and the heavy contributions of corn, wine, oil and meat were exacted from the provinces for the use of the court, army and capital. This noxious weed not totally eradicated again sprang up with the most luxurious growth and going forward darkened the Roman world with its deadly shade.[21]:138–139


In reality, the rise to power of the Emperor Maximin, whose cruelty was derived from a different source being raised as a barbarian from the district of Thrace, expanded the distress on the empire beyond the confines of the illustrious senators or bold adventurers who in the court or army exposed themselves to the whims of fortune. This tyrant, stimulated by the insatiable desires of the soldiers, attacked the public property at length. Every city of the empire was destined to purchase corn for the multitudes as well as supply expenses for the games. By the Emperor's authority, the whole mass of wealth was confiscated for use by the Imperial treasury — temples stripped of their most valuable offerings of gold, silver and statues which were melted down and coined into money.[21]:142–143


Pale Horse[edit]


Gustave Doré -The fourth horseman, Death on the Pale Horse (1865)

When the Lamb broke the fourth seal, I heard the voice of the fourth living creature saying, “Come.” I looked, and behold, an ashen horse; and he who sat on it had the name Death; and Hades was following with him. Authority was given to them over a fourth of the earth, to kill with sword and with famine and with pestilence and by the wild beasts of the earth.

— Revelation 6:7-8 NASB

The fourth and final horseman is named Death. Known as "Θάνατος/Thanatos",[Rev 6:8] of all the riders, he is the only one to whom the text itself explicitly gives a name. Unlike the other three, he is not described carrying a weapon or other object, instead he is followed by Hades (the resting place of the dead).[citation needed] However, illustrations commonly depict him carrying a scythe (like the Grim Reaper),[citation needed] sword,[25] or other implement.


The color of Death's horse is written as khlōros (χλωρός) in the original Koine Greek,[26] which can mean either green/greenish-yellow or pale/pallid.[27] The color is often translated as "pale", though "ashen", "pale green", and "yellowish green"[19] are other possible interpretations (the Greek word is the root of "chlorophyll" and "chlorine"). Based on uses of the word in ancient Greek medical literature, several scholars suggest that the color reflects the sickly pallor of a corpse.[3][28] In some modern artistic depictions, the horse is distinctly green.[29][30][31]


The verse beginning "they were given power over a fourth of the earth" is generally taken as referring to Death and Hades,[19][32] although some commentators see it as applying to all four horsemen.[1]


Destroying an Empire[edit]

This fourth, pale horse, was the personification of death with Hades following him jaws open receiving the victims slain by death. Its commission was to kill upon the Roman Earth with all of the four judgements of God — with sword, famine, pestilence and wild beasts. The deadly pale and livid appearance displays a hue symptomatic of approaching empire dissolution. According to Edward Bishop Elliott, an era in Roman history commencing within about 15 years after the death of Alexander Severus strongly marks every point of this terrible emblem.[5]:191–192 Edward Gibbon speaks of a period from the celebration of the great secular games by the Emperor Philip to the death of Gallienus as the 20 years of shame and misfortune, of confusion and calamity, as a time when the ruined empire approached the last and fatal moment of its dissolution. Every instant of time in every province of the Roman world was afflicted by military tyrants and barbarous invaders — the sword from within and without.[5]:192 [21]:189


According to Elliott, famine, the inevitable consequence of carnage and oppression, which demolished the produce of the present as well as the hope of future harvests, produced the environment for an epidemic of diseases, the effects of scanty and unwholesome food. That furious plague, which raged from the year 250 to the year 265, continued without interruption in every province, city and almost every family in the empire. During a portion of this time, 5000 people died daily in Rome; and many towns that escaped the attacks of barbarians were entirely depopulated.[5]:193


In reality, the strength of Aurelian had on every side crushed the enemies of Rome, yet after his death they revived with an increase of numbers and fury.[21]:246 During the following year, hosts of the Alani that spread themselves over Pontus, Cappadocia, Cilicia and Galatia etched their course by the flames of cities and villages they pillaged.[5]:197


As for the wild beasts of the earth, according to Elliott, it is a well-known law of nature that they quickly occupy the scenes of waste and depopulation — where the reign of man fails and the reign of beast begins. After the reign of Gallienus and 20 or 30 years had passed, the multiplication of the animals had risen to such an extent in parts of the empire that they made it a crying evil.[5]:194


One notable point of apparent difference between the prophecy and history might seem to be expressly limited to the fourth part of the Roman earth, but in the history of the period the devastations of the pale horse extended over at all. The fourth seal prophecy seems to mark the malignant climax of the evils of the two preceding seals to which no such limitation is attached. Turning to that remarkable reading in Jerome's Latin Vulgate which reads "over the four parts of the earth,"[5]:201 [33] it requires that the Roman empire should have some kind of quadripartition. Dividing from the central or Italian fourth, three great divisions of the Empire separated into the West, East and Illyricum under Posthumus, Aureolus and Zenobia respectively — divisions that were later legitimized by Diocletian.[5]:202


Diocletian ended this long period of anarchy, but the succession of civil wars and invasions caused much suffering, disorder and crime which brought the empire into a state of moral lethargy from which it never recovered.[5]:203 After the plague had abated, the empire suffered from general distress, and its condition was very much like that which followed after the black death of the Middle Ages. Talent and art had become extinct in proportion to the desolation of the world.[34]



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The Horsemen of the Apocalypse, depicted in a woodcut by Albrecht Dürer (ca. 1497–98), ride forth as a group, with an angel heralding them, to bring Death, Famine, War, and Conquest unto man.[35]


Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, Saint-Sever Beatus, 11th century.

Prophetic interpretation[edit]

Some Christians interpret the horsemen as a prophecy of a future Tribulation,[6] during which many on earth will die as a result of multiple catastrophes. The Four Horsemen are the first in a series of "Seal" judgements. This is when God will judge the Earth, and is giving the World a chance to repent before they die.[citation needed]


Historicist interpretation[edit]

According to E.B. Elliott, the first seal, as revealed to John by the angel, was to signify what was to happen soon after John seeing the visions in Patmos and that the second, third and fourth seals in like manner were to have commencing dates each in chronological sequence following the preceding seal. Its general subject is the decline and fall, after a previous prosperous era, of the Empire of Heathen Rome. The first four seals of Revelation, represented by four horses and horsemen, are fixed to events, or changes, within the Roman earth.[5]:121,122


Preterist interpretation[edit]

Some modern scholars interpret Revelation from a preterist point of view, arguing that its prophecy and imagery apply only to the events of the first century of Christian history.[19] In this school of thought, Conquest, the white horse's rider, is sometimes identified as a symbol of Parthian forces: Conquest carries a bow, and the Parthian Empire was at that time known for its mounted warriors and their skill with bow and arrow.[3][19] Parthians were also particularly associated with white horses.[3] Some scholars specifically point to Vologases I, a Parthian shah who clashed with the Roman Empire and won one significant battle in 62 AD.[3][19]


Revelation's historical context may also influence the depiction of the black horse and its rider, Famine. In 92 AD, the Roman emperor Domitian attempted to curb excessive growth of grapevines and encourage grain cultivation instead, but there was major popular backlash against this effort, and it was abandoned. Famine's mission to make wheat and barley scarce but "hurt not the oil and the wine" could be an allusion to this episode.[19][28] The red horse and its rider, who take peace from the earth, might represent the prevalence of civil strife at the time Revelation was written; internecine conflict ran rampant in the Roman Empire during and just prior to the 1st century AD.[3][19]


Other interpretations[edit]

Artwork which shows the horsemen as a group, such as the famous woodcut by Albrecht Dürer, suggests an interpretation where all four horsemen represent different aspects of the same tribulation.[36]


American Protestant Evangelical interpreters regularly see ways in which the horsemen, and Revelation in general, speak to contemporary events. Some who believe Revelation applies to modern times can interpret the horses based on various ways their colors are used.[37] Red, for example, often represents Communism, the white horse and rider with a crown representing Catholicism, Black has been used as a symbol of Capitalism, while Green represents the rise of Islam. Pastor Irvin Baxter Jr. of Endtime Ministries espouses such a belief.[38]


Some equate the four horsemen with the angels of the four winds.[39] (See Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, and Uriel, angels often associated with four cardinal directions)


Other Biblical references[edit]


The Book of Zechariah twice mentions colored horses; in the first passage there are three colors (red, speckled/brown, and white),[40] and in the second there are four teams of horses (red, black, white, and finally dappled/"grisled and bay") pulling chariots.[41] The second set of horses are referred to as "the four spirits of heaven, going out from standing in the presence of the Lord of the whole world."[41] They are described as patrolling the earth, and keeping it peaceful. It may be assumed that when the tribulation begins, the peace is taken away, so their job is to terrify the places in which they patrol.[3]




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The four living creatures of Revelation 4:6-8 are very similar to the four living creatures in Ezekiel 1:5-12. In Revelation each of the living creatures summons a horseman, where in Ezekiel the living creatures follow wherever the spirit leads, without turning.


In Ezekiel 14:21, the Lord enumerates His "four disastrous acts of judgment" (ESV), sword, famine, wild beasts, and pestilence, against the idolatrous elders of Israel. A symbolic interpretation of the four horsemen links the riders to these judgments, or the similar judgments in 6:11-12.


See also[edit]


3. How many coverings were over the sanctuary?[edit]

The Sanctuary was covered with four layers as described below.


a. List the type of coverings in the order from inside to outside.[edit]

Exodus 26


Inner royal liner: Covering was made of red, blue, purple linens.

Goat's hair: bleached white.

Ram's skin: dyed red.

Badger's skin: plain and brown. Note that this passage is translated as "badger's skin" in the New King James Version of the Bible. As the Hebrew term in unclear, it has many other translations, including "durable leather" (NIV), "fine leather" (CEV), "seal's skin" (ASV), or "goatskins" (ESV).

b. Tell what each covering represented.[edit]

Inner royal liner represents Jesus. Red represents Christ's sacrifice. Blue represents His obedience. Purple represents royalty. Gold represents divinity.

Woven goat's hair represents Jesus's perfection and purity.

The ram's skin dyed red represents the blood of Jesus.

The badger's skin represents Jesus covering His divinity with humanity.


On the outside of the breastplate were 12 precious stones. They were arranged as four rows of three. Their sequence, from left to right and from top to bottom were: sardis (brownish red), topaz (yellow to yellowish red), carbuncle (red), emerald (clear green), sapphire (deep blue), diamond (sparkling clear), jacinth (bright yellow), agate (delicate blue), amethyst (violet), beryl (green-yellow), onyx (bright yellow), jasper (red, brown, or yellow). FOUR SQUARES IS QUADRANT


The International Church of the Foursquare Gospel, commonly referred to as the Foursquare Church, is a Protestant evangelical Pentecostal Christian denomination founded in 1923 by preacher Aimee Semple McPherson. As of 2000, it had a worldwide membership of over 8,000,000, with almost 60,000 churches in 144 countries. In 2006, membership in the United States was 353,995 in 1,875 churches. While congregations are concentrated along the West Coast, the denomination is well distributed across the United States. The states with the highest membership rates are Oregon, Hawaii, Montana, Washington, and California. The church maintains its headquarters in Los Angeles, California.

The church's name refers to the four-fold ministry of Jesus Christ as Savior, Baptizer with the Holy Spirit, Healer, and Soon-coming King.



The Cross, The Sanctuary And The Second Tabernacle

Your way, O Lord, is in the sanctuary. (Psalm 77: 13)


The shape of the cross can be seen in the sanctuary when you look at the orientation of the Ark of the Covenant and the Altar of Incense from above. The same shape is in the combination "T" shaped building of Herod's temple.

The new Testament describes the incense altar as being in the Most Holy Place. We know that it was actually in the Holy Place and it was placed next to the curtain. It might have even touched the poles of the ark that protruded from the curtain. However, there is a reason why this altar is seen as part of the Most Holy by the disciples.

Sanctuary Top view

Top View of the Most Holy Place

- Porch -

Sanctuary Altar

- -

Ark of the covenant

Altar of Incense


High Priest

Poles extended into the Holy Place

The Cross

Two Views of the Cross.

» The Cross Lying Down. When He was first nailed to the cross, the top view from heaven is the outline you see in the sanctuary in our illustration of the ark and the altar of incense and the inner veil is his body. This is what God saw. The first nail marked the moment God was broken. It is the view of the lamb tied up, placed on the wood on the altar made of earth and stone. The cross is the wood lying flat on the altar of earth.

» The "T" shaped temple built by Herod and the altar of sacrifice also formed a cross shape. His body is the veil to the outer court.

» The Cross Lifted Up. When the cross was placed upright, the view you saw would be the veil hung on hooks. This is what humans saw.

When it forms the shape of the cross with the Ark of the Covenant, and the body of Christ (the veil) in between, it becomes one altar of sacrifice that bridges the Holy Place and the Most Holy Place (Heaven and Earth).


Altar. An altar is a place where an offering is made to God. We know that as the Lamb, Christ was actually killed on the altar of sacrifice in the outer court. However, it is only as we view the combination of the incense altar and the ark that forms the shape of the cross can we really see the altar of incense as a true altar. It became part of the cross where Jesus died as the veil.

Veil. The Bible described the veil as His body which was torn in two. Now you can see that body (veil) trapped between the two pieces of furniture is literally on the cross.

Therefore, brethren, since we have confidence to enter the holy place by the blood of Jesus, by a new and living way which He inaugurated for us through the veil, that is, His flesh. (Hebrews 10: 19-20)

The veil was hung on the four pillars by hooks. The body of Jesus was pierced by four nails and hung up on the cross. These nails held Him up high on the cross just as the hooks held the curtains suspended high.

Incense Altar. This represents His head. It is the place where we communicate from our mouth. It also means that while the church is in this phase (after the crucifixion), Christ is the head. We are the body hid under His garments of righteousness. The symbol means that in heaven we are by faith in Christ as He brings the body of Christ before the throne. So we can go boldly before the throne of grace because the Father expects to see us there.

Ark Of The Covenant. This is the throne of God. It represents His divinity, His internal body that was cloaked as a human. Within this body was life. We see this cloaking of divinity with humanity when the ark was transported. It was first covered with the veil. This cloaking also occurred because the Most Holy Place was hidden by the veil.

High Priest On The Right. Jesus is described as being on the right hand of God. We can see that the position of the High Priest at the altar is on the right of the throne (Ark of the covenant).

The Bridge. The components that form the cross form a bridge between both rooms.

The 10 cubit poles of the Ark of the Covenant extends into the Holy Place. (1 Kings 8: 8)

The Altar of Incense is described as being part of the Most Holy Place.

For there was a tabernacle prepared, the outer one in which there were the lampstand and the table and the sacred bread; this is called the holy place. Behind the second veil there was a tabernacle which is called the holy of holies, having a golden altar and the ark of the covenant covered on all sides with gold, in which was a golden jar holding the manna, and Aaron's rod which budded, and the tables of the covenant. (Hebrews 9: 2-4)

We know that it was physically in the holy place. But this verse describes these two as being part of one sacred unit (a tabernacle). The menorah and the table of shewbread were seen as another sacred unit.

» The Two Tabernacles. In Hebrews 9: 9 the two tabernacles are seen as two phases of time.

Temporary (Before the Cross). Hebrews 9: 6, 9 goes on to say that the priests of the first tabernacle continually made offerings. The system was not perfect.

Permanent (After the Cross). Hebrews 9: 6, 12 describes this second tabernacle as being better because the priest only makes one offering for all people for all time. No memorial is needed.

Once per year the High Priest can go between both rooms. Christ is only sacrificed once. The veil is only pierced once.

» The Second Tabernacle. This better covenant is based on these things.

Christ. He is our High Priest.

Eternal Redemption. Christ only needed to die once for all.

Heaven. We will be entering the Most Holy Place as priests of God with a perfect conscience.

Prayer. We access God by talking directly to Him. The permanent solution includes the altar of incense. These are the contents of Ezekiel's temple. There is no menorah, only one table before the LORD.

The Top View Of The Cross In Both Tabernacles. The outline of the cross can be seen in two places in the sanctuary. In both, one of the altars bears the head of Christ. Each represents a different phase of atonement as taught by Moses when he struck the Rock in the desert.

Altar of Sacrifice ("Strike The Rock"). The image of the cross is formed by the "T" shaped temple of Herod, with the altar at its head. On this altar, Christ was sacrificed for forgiveness of sin in this temple. It represents the last, but perfect sacrifice in the first tabernacle.

Altar of Incense ("Speak To The Rock"). The image of the cross is formed by the poles of the Ark and the altar of incense. On this altar we speak to God in prayer to ask for forgiveness of sin in the second tabernacle.

In both of these views of the cross and in Ezekiel's temple, this is the position of His body.

Head. His head is on an altar.

Arms. His arms are stretched out.

Body. His broken body is the curtain hung on hooks.

Feet. His feet are symbolically in the Most Holy Place, which is the most holy ground. Since He was naked and barefoot on the cross, the priests must also walk barefoot in the sanctuary as they symbolized the day He did His most important work. They wear white clothes, which represents His righteousness, to cover their nakedness (sinful state).

Then He said, "Do not come near here; remove your sandals from your feet, for the place on which you are standing is holy ground. (Exodus 3: 5)

He makes priests walk barefoot and overthrows the secure ones. (Job 12: 19)

» The Barefoot God. We now know that they were barefoot as a sign of the events of the cross, but why were His feet protected in the Most Holy Place?

And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her seed; He shall bruise you on the head, and you shall bruise him on the heel. (Genesis 3: 15)

This was where Satan would cause His wound. He would give up His omnipresence for a time, but He would be protected by the Father and the Spirit. When He died it was signified by the broken middle bread of the Passover surrounded by two whole matzos. The Afikoman, the largest half was hidden for a while. It represents His divinity. After He paid the price for sin, He gave up omnipresence, His ability to walk everywhere, to be in the grave (sheol).

» The Barefoot God: A Sign of Redemption.

Now this was the custom in former times in Israel concerning redemption and the exchange of land to confirm any matter: a man removed his sandal and gave it to another; and this was the manner of attestation in Israel. (Ruth 4: 7)

» The Death of His Feet. When Mary washed His feet with perfume and dried them with her hair she was not only preparing Christ for His death, she was symbolizing the death of God's feet. Nailed fast to the cross and confined to the grave are ultimate symbols of this loss of power to go anywhere.

And stood at his feet behind him weeping, and began to wash his feet with tears, and did wipe them with the hairs of her head, and kissed his feet, and anointed them with the ointment. (Luke 7: 38)

But He can escape death.

Whom God has raised up, having loosed the pains of death: because it was not possible that He should be held by it. (Acts 2: 24)

» Earth is His Footstool. It is symbolic of the time when the Most Holy Place (Heaven) is on earth and all powers have been subjected under His feet. Psalm 110:1-3 and Isaiah 66: 1

Nailed To The Cross.

Take this book of the law and place it beside the ark of the covenant of the Lord your God, that it may remain there as a witness against you. (Deuteronomy 31: 26)

The book of the law containing the blessings and curses was placed beside the Ark of the covenant. This could have been in one of two places.

Most Holy Place. If this was the location, it could only be accessed once each year. It could have been laid across the bars or propped up against the ark between the poles.

Holy Place. If this was the location, it could be accessed every day. It could have been laid across the section of the poles that extended into this part, or propped up against the poles and the pillars.

So when the Bible described these laws as nailed to the cross, you can still see them actually being placed on this cross. These laws taught us about the future sacrificial work of Christ.

Having canceled out the certificate of debt consisting of decrees against us, which were hostile to us; and he has taken it out of the way, having nailed it to the cross. (Colossians 2: 14)


Ark of the covenant

Altar of Incense


High Priest

Poles extended into the Holy Place

The Cross

Two Views of the Cross.

» The Cross Lying Down. When He was first nailed to the cross, the top view from heaven is the outline you see in the sanctuary in our illustration of the ark and the altar of incense and the inner veil is his body. This is what God saw. The first nail marked the moment God was broken. It is the view of the lamb tied up, placed on the wood on the altar made of earth and stone. The cross is the wood lying flat on the altar of earth.

» The "T" shaped temple built by Herod and the altar of sacrifice also formed a cross shape. His body is the veil to the outer court.

» The Cross Lifted Up. When the cross was placed upright, the view you saw would be the veil hung on hooks. This is what humans saw.


The badger skin covering was a dull and unattractive skin.

It was the only covering which was visible on the outside.

The Curtain Coverings (Ex 26:1-14)




images/T9.gifThe Tabernacle itself had four coverings, the first was linen, the second was goats hair, the third was ram's skin dyed red, and the fourth was badger skins. The badger skin covering was the only covering which was seen on the outside which was that dull and unattractive skin.



Exod 26:1-14 "Moreover you shall make the tabernacle with ten curtains of fine woven linen and blue, purple, and scarlet thread; with artistic designs of cherubim you shall weave them. The length of each curtain shall be twenty-eight cubits, and the width of each curtain four cubits. And every one of the curtains shall have the same measurements. Five curtains shall be coupled to one another, and the other five curtains shall be coupled to one another. And you shall make loops of blue yarn on the edge of the curtain on the selvedge of one set, and likewise you shall do on the outer edge of the other curtain of the second set. Fifty loops you shall make in the one curtain, and fifty loops you shall make on the edge of the curtain that is on the end of the second set, that the loops may be clasped to one another. And you shall make fifty clasps of gold, and couple the curtains together with the clasps, so that it may be one tabernacle. You shall also make curtains of goats' hair, to be a tent over the tabernacle. You shall make eleven curtains. The length of each curtain shall be thirty cubits, and the width of each curtain four cubits; and the eleven curtains shall all have the same measurements. And you shall couple five curtains by themselves and six curtains by themselves, and you shall double over the sixth curtain at the forefront of the tent. You shall make fifty loops on the edge of the curtain that is outermost in one set, and fifty loops on the edge of the curtain of the second set. And you shall make fifty bronze clasps, put the clasps into the loops, and couple the tent together, that it may be one. The remnant that remains of the curtains of the tent, the half curtain that remains, shall hang over the back of the tabernacle. And a cubit on one side and a cubit on the other side, of what remains of the length of the curtains of the tent, shall hang over the sides of the tabernacle, on this side and on that side, to cover it. You shall also make a covering of ram skins dyed red for the tent, and a covering of badger skins above that."

The Tabernacle itself had four coverings, the first was linen, the second was goats hair, the third was ram's skin dyed red, and the fourth was badger skins. The badger skin covering was the only covering which was seen on the outside which was that dull and unattractive skin.


The First Covering (A Curtain)


The first covering consisted of fine twined linen (finely twisted) woven together with blue, purple and scarlet material. The colors were dyed linen. The word for 'finely twisted' linen as given in the text is an Egyptian one. Egypt was famous at the time for their production of linen and especially 'twined linen' in which every thread was twisted from many strands.


Also this extravagant curtain was decorated with figures of cherubim which were skillfully embroidered on it. Cherubim were only found on this curtain and the veil. Therefore whether it be the holy place or the holy of holies the Cherubim were seen through the framework on the innermost curtain and on the veil.




(See The Cherubim)


Cherubim (which is the plural of cherub) were celestial angelic beings in the spiritual realm. They are always associated with the holiness of God. When Adam sinned cherubim were stationed at the entrance to the Garden of Eden to guard the way to the Tree of Life.


- They represent the righteous government of God, and are the executers of God's righteous judgment.


As the priests ministered in the Holy Place they saw above them and around them at all times - the four faced Cherubim who were visual reminders of the holiness of God. The Lord continually reminded them:


Lev 11:44-45 'For I am the LORD your God. You shall therefore consecrate ourselves, and you shall be holy; for I am holy...For I am the LORD who brings you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God. You shall therefore be holy, for I am holy.


This first beautiful covering with its cherubim put over the framework really formed the tabernacle and made it one:


Exod 26:6 "And you shall make fifty clasps of gold, and couple the curtains together with the clasps, so that it may be one tabernacle."


There were 10 of these curtains coupled together. Each of them was 28 cubits long (42 feet) by 4 cubits wide so one single length being hung over the roof and down the sides of the framework would hang 1 cubit (18 inches) short of the ground on either side. In fact they were not hung individually but five of them were joined together to make two large units, each 28 by 20 cubits.


In order to couple these two curtains together fifty loops of blue thread were sewn on the side of one curtain and the same on the other curtain. Fifty clasps of gold were then used to join the curtains to one another in order, as the instructions went, 'that it may be one tabernacle'


Exod 26:1-6 "Moreover you shall make the tabernacle with ten curtains of fine woven linen and blue, purple, and scarlet thread; with artistic designs of cherubim you shall weave them. The length of each curtain shall be twenty-eight cubits, and the width of each curtain four cubits. And every one of the curtains shall have the same measurements. Five curtains shall be coupled to one another, and the other five curtains shall be coupled to one another. And you shall make loops of blue yarn on the edge of the curtain on the selvedge of one set, and likewise you shall do on the outer edge of the other curtain of the second set. Fifty loops you shall make in the one curtain, and fifty loops you shall make on the edge of the curtain that is on the end of the second set, that the loops may be clasped to one another. And you shall make fifty clasps of gold, and couple the curtains together with the clasps, so that it may be one tabernacle."


It is interesting that this bringing together and making one, is just like the words that Jesus used when He prayed for the lives of his followers:


John 17:20-22 "I do not pray for these alone, but also for those who will believe in Me through their word; that they all may be one, as You, Father, are in Me, and I in You; that they also may be one in Us, that the world may believe that You sent Me. And the glory which You gave Me I have given them, that they may be one just as We are one"


Just as there must be no possibility of the separation or drawing apart of the curtains covering the holy place, so the body of Christ (His Church) should be one and not divided.


The Second Covering (Goats Hair)


Over this first tent covering there was a second tent placed which was slightly larger in size. It was made from black goat's hair woven together. Instead of starting with ten narrow curtains, this time eleven were used, each of them was 30 cubits by 4 cubits. This meant, that because it was 2 cubits longer than the linen curtain, it reached right down to ground level and entirely covered the first one.


Six of these curtains were joined to make a large curtain and the remaining five to form another. The two large curtains were then united in a similar way to the first but since this curtain was less precious than that which enfolded the Holy area, the clasps holding the 50 loops were made of bronze and not of gold.


The principle was the same throughout the entire tabernacle. The further you moved from the holy of holies the less valuable were the materials used. And the lesson for us is that in the presence of God there is beauty and purity (gold) and as you move away back out into the world there is only judgment (bronze) and a need of continual cleansing.


The entire length of the completed curtain, 44 cubits (66 feet) by 30 cubits (45 feet) was used for making a fold in front above the entrance and also for overlapping the under-curtain around the sides and at the back of the tent.


Exod 26:9 "And you shall couple five curtains by themselves and six curtains by themselves, and you shall double over the sixth curtain at the forefront of the tent."


It also meant that the two curtains (this one and the one beneath) could be draped in such a way that their attachments did not coincide.


The Third Covering (Ram Skins Dyed Red)


The third covering was of ram skins dyed red. It was the first of the two weatherproof coverings


Exod 26:14 "You shall also make a covering of ram skins dyed red for the tent, and a covering of badger skins above that."


Rams were used for sacrifice, as in the account with Abraham and Isaac, and the red always represents blood for the atonement.


(See Blood Atonement)


It is interesting that there were no measurements given for this covering.


(4) The Fourth Covering (Badger Skins)


The fourth covering was made of badgers' skins and again no measurements were given.


The Hebrew word for badger skins 'tachash' may refer to a badger or a Dugong or Sea Cow. A Dugong is an aquatic mammal previously found swimming along the shores of the Red Sea, it is now almost extinct.


Once again in the tabernacle covering there was a progression from the more beautiful to the less attractive. From the first covering of the finest white linen woven with blue, purple and scarlet and decorated with cherubim to the unattractive badger skin covering on the outside.


But the final cover of badger skins was far from beautiful. You can't help but imagine what a foreigner passing by must have thought to see this unattractive tent as the focal point for the worship of Yahweh. But as with everything in the kingdom of God, the harder we search and the deeper we look for the things of god, the more beauty and splendor we find.


images/STAR3.gif A Type of Christ


Each of the tabernacle coverings pointed to Jesus Christ. The innermost curtain with its four colors and the cherubim woven into the fine white linen, the second covering of goats hair spoke of Jesus Christ and His sacrifice, remember the scapegoat that carried away the sins of the nation in the wilderness, and the third covering of rams skins dyed red also pointed to Jesus as our substitute just as the ram was the substitute for Isaac when his father Abraham was lifting the knife. But the last covering was of the badger skins. It also pointed to Jesus Christ. As the badger skins had that unattractive outward appearance so Jesus was a normal Israelite man with nothing especially attractive about Him that would make us think he was the King of kings. He was humble in character. No one has any idea what Jesus looked like whatsoever except that He had a beard because Isaiah spoke of His beard being plucked. He was a Jew and He had a beard and that is all that can be derived from the Bible and history. But His appearance was just as any common Israelite.


In the tabernacle there was a clear resemblance to Jesus Christ. The person who looks at Him on just the outside at his physical appearance would never grasp the beauty and the wonder that resides in Jesus.


As Isaiah prophesied:


Isa 53:2 "For He shall grow up before Him as a tender plant, and as a root out of dry ground. He has no form or comeliness; and when we see Him, there is no beauty that we should desire Him."


Isaiah spoke of Christ:


Isa 33:17 "Your eyes will see the King in His beauty..."


He was indeed a sin offering


2 Cor 5:21 For He made Him who knew no sin to be sin for us, that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.

Matt 27:46 And about the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice, saying, "Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?" that is, "My God, My God, why have You forsaken Me?"


He was our substitute


Heb 2:9 But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels, for the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor, that He, by the grace of God, might taste death for everyone.

Jn 1:29 The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, "Behold! The Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!


Is 53:6 All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned, every one, to his own way; and the LORD has laid on Him the iniquity of us all.


Is 53:2-3 For He shall grow up before Him as a tender plant, and as a root out of dry ground. He has no form or comeliness; and when we see Him, there is no beauty that we should desire Him. He is despised and rejected by men, a Man of sorrows and acquainted with grief. And we hid, as it were, our faces from Him; he was despised, and we did not esteem Him.


Matt 13:13 "Therefore I speak to them in parables, because seeing they do not see, and hearing they do not hear, nor do they understand.


Matt 13:16-17 "But blessed are your eyes for they see, and your ears for they hear; "for assuredly, I say to you that many prophets and righteous men desired to see what you see, and did not see it, and to hear what you hear, and did not hear it.



His outward appearance was not adorned..


Painting of the Tabernacle in the Old Testament










The Tabernacle of Moses in Ancient Israel




The Bronze Altar The Bronze Laver The Golden Lampstand


The Cherubim The Tabernacle of Moses in the Wilderness The Cherubim

The Golden Table of Shewbread The Golden Altar of Incense The Ark of the Covenant


"And let them make Me a sanctuary, that I may dwell among (in) them" - Exodus 25:8

The Purpose and Heart of the Law - A Devotional Message


Blood Atonement - A Bible Study


The Tabernacle of Ancient Israel was a sanctuary which was given in a vision to Moses as a pattern and constructed by the children of Israel. God's promise was that He would dwell within the Holy of Holies above the Mercy Seat of the Ark of the Covenant.


Why Study the Tabernacle?


A) 50 Chapters Mention The Tabernacle


Because at least 50 chapters (13-Ex, 18-Lev, 13-Num, 2-Deut, 4-Heb) in the Bible tell of the construction, the ritual, the priesthood, the carrying of the tabernacle, and the meaning of it all. Also many other places in Scripture speak in figurative language concerning the tabernacle. In many Bible studies this subject is overlooked and considered insignificant.



B) The Tearing of the Veil

God Himself thought so much of the importance of the type, as shown by the tearing of the veil:


Matt 27:50-51 And Jesus cried out again with a loud voice, and yielded up His spirit. Then, behold, the veil of the temple was torn in two from top to bottom; and the earth quaked, and the rocks were split,

If we don't understand the meaning in Scripture of the holy of holies and the veil we miss out on extremely significant information concerning exactly what Christ's death meant to sinful mankind.



C) The Tabernacle is a Type of Christ:


Remember what the Word says, "all Scripture is given by inspiration (God-breathed) of God..." When we look at the Bible we must remember that it is completely God-breathed. When we look at each Word we must remember that every Word is specifically God-breathed. That was the view of Christ when it came to the Scriptures, that was the view of the apostles, and that must be our view. This is the very Word of God. It doesn't just contain the Word of God, or just point to religious experience, this is the Word of God.


Is it any wonder then that each and every detail and Word about the tabernacle has spiritual significance? As we look to the tabernacle structure itself and its unique pieces of redemptive furniture there is great symbolism and typology found in them. Remember, everything was a finger pointing to the Messiah. The tabernacle, as a type, designed specifically and in detail by God, would point to the character and aspects of the ministry of Christ. The more we become familiar with the tabernacle the more we become familiar with Christ and all that He means to us. What a great reason to become familiar with the Scriptures concerning the tabernacle.


Heb 10:20 by a new and living way which He consecrated for us, through the veil, that is, His flesh,


Col 2:17 which are a shadow of things to come, but the substance is of Christ.


Jn 1:14 And the Word became flesh and dwelt among us, and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth.



D) It is a Representation of the True Tabernacle in Heaven:


The Lord wants us to be aware of His nature and character. Even the angels don't fully understand the nature and character of God but they learn from watching His dealings with His church (Eph 3). Things are really happening in the heavenly dimension and the Lord wants to reveal to us what took place in heaven after the resurrection of Christ. There is a real tabernacle in the heavenlies and Christ really appeared before the throne of heaven as the Lamb of God (Rev 5). There is no doubt that some of these things are a mystery but the more we draw close to God and His Word the more He draws close to us.


Heb 9:11 But Christ came as High Priest of the good things to come, with the greater and more perfect tabernacle not made with hands, that is, not of this creation.



E) The Presence Within the Holy of Holies Dwells Within the Believer in Jesus:


Jesus said I am the temple (Mishkan) of God. When the glory (Heb. Sh'chinah) would come down like a tornado or funnel right through the roof of the holy of holies and the Presence would manifest on the mercy seat between the cherubim after the blood was sprinkled, that was the mishkan. That Presence was what Jesus said dwelt within Him. And in fact Paul said about the church, "Know ye not that you are the temple (Mishkan) of God?" We, as the body of Christ, have the same Presence dwelling within us. God doesn't dwell in buildings now but within His people.


1 Cor 6:19 Or do you not know that your body is the temple of the Holy Spirit who is in you, whom you have from God, and you are not your own?



F) Its teaching covers in type almost all of New Testament truth.

The study of the tabernacle is so rich in meaning to the Christian and so pregnant with Messianic significance that we can spend a lifetime in the study of it and only begin to understand the riches and the depth of truth that lies within the study of the tabernacle.


Rom 15:4 "Whatever things that were written before were written for our learning."


G) Studying the Tabernacle will absolutely strengthen our faith in the Bible.


Be assured that anyone who has delved into the wonderful details of the tabernacle will confess that the Bible is more than just a book. No man could have thought of this. The Bible is the Word of God.


"all Scripture is given by inspiration of God..."

The use of 4 40 and 400 is prevalent in the bible“I+have+not+made+trouble+for+Israel,”+Elijah+replied.+“But+you+and+your+father’s+family+have.+You+have+abandoned+the+Lord’s+commands+and+have+followed+the+Baals.+19+Now+summon+the+people+from+all+over+Israel+to+meet+me+on+Mount+Carmel.+And+bring+the+four+hundred+and+fifty+prophets+of+Baal+and+the+four+hundred+prophets+of+Asherah,+who+eat+at+Jezebel’s+table.”&source=bl&ots=hxQ6Ozh8pF&sig=J0MLitOfRU8BE8ZgUyO4CMy60TY&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiY0P_Es_3SAhVDxGMKHcihAYYQ6AEIKjAD#v=onepage&q=18%20“I%20have%20not%20made%20trouble%20for%20Israel%2C”%20Elijah%20replied.%20“But%20you%20and%20your%20father’s%20family%20have.%20You%20have%20abandoned%20the%20Lord’s%20commands%20and%20have%20followed%20the%20Baals.%2019%20Now%20summon%20the%20people%20from%20all%20over%20Israel%20to%20meet%20me%20on%20Mount%20Carmel.%20And%20bring%20the%20four%20hundred%20and%20fifty%20prophets%20of%20Baal%20and%20the%20four%20hundred%20prophets%20of%20Asherah%2C%20who%20eat%20at%20Jezebel’s%20table.”&f=false

So Obadiah went to meet Ahab and told him, and Ahab went to meet Elijah. 17 When he saw Elijah, he said to him, “Is that you, you troubler of Israel?”

18 “I have not made trouble for Israel,” Elijah replied. “But you and your father’s family have. You have abandoned the Lord’s commands and have followed the Baals. 19 Now summon the people from all over Israel to meet me on Mount Carmel. And bring the four hundred and fifty prophets of Baal and the four hundred prophets of Asherah, who eat at Jezebel’s table.”


The sixteen grandsons of Noah


Secular history gives much evidence to show that the survivors of Noah's Flood were real historical figures, whose names were indelibly carved on much of the ancient world


by Harold Hunt with Russell Grigg


When Noah and his family stepped out of the Ark, they were the only people on Earth. It fell to Noah's three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth, and their wives, to repopulate the Earth through the children that were born to them after the Flood. Of Noah's grandchildren, 16 grandsons are named in Genesis chapter 10.


Ruins in Turkey

Ruins in Turkey. There is evidence suggesting that this country's name is derived from that of Noah's descendant Togarmah (see text).

God has left us ample evidence to confirm that these 16 grandsons of Noah really lived, that the names the Bible gives were their exact names, and that after the Babel dispersion (Genesis 11) their descendants fanned out over the earth and established the various nations of the ancient world.


The first generations after the Flood lived to be very old, with some men outliving their children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren. This set them apart. The 16 grandsons of Noah were the heads of their family clans, which became large populations in their respective areas. Several things happened:


People in various areas called themselves by the name of the man who was their common ancestor.

They called their land, and often their major city and major river, by his name.

Sometimes the various nations fell off into ancestor worship. When this happened, it was natural for them to name their god after the man who was ancestor of all of them, or to claim their long-living ancestor as their god.

All of this means that the evidence has been preserved in a way that can never be lost, and all the ingenuity of man cannot erase. We will now examine it.


The seven sons of Japheth


Genesis 10:1-2 reads:


'Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth: and unto them were sons born after the flood. The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.'


The first of Noah's grandsons mentioned is Gomer. Ezekiel locates the early descendants of Gomer, along with Togarmah (a son of Gomer), in the north quarters (Ezekiel 38:6). In modern Turkey is an area which in New Testament times was called Galatia. The Jewish historian Flavius Josephus records that the people who were called Galatians or Gauls in his day (c. AD 93) were previously called Gomerites.1


They migrated westward to what are now called France and Spain. For many centuries France was called Gaul, after the descendants of Gomer. North-west Spain is called Galicia to this day.


Some of the Gomerites migrated further to what is now called Wales. The Welsh historian, Davis, records a traditional Welsh belief that the descendants of Gomer 'landed on the Isle of Britain from France, about three hundred years after the flood'.2 He also records that the Welsh language is called Gomeraeg (after their ancestor Gomer).


Other members of their clan settled along the way, including in Armenia. The sons of Gomer were 'Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah' (Genesis 10:3). Encyclopaedia Britannica says that the Armenians traditionally claim to be descended from Togarmah and Ashkenaz.3 Ancient Armenia reached into Turkey. The name Turkey probably comes from Togarmah. Others of them migrated to Germany. Ashkenaz is the Hebrew word for Germany.


The next grandson mentioned is Magog. According to Ezekiel, Magog lived in the north parts (Ezekiel 38:15, 39:2). Josephus records that those whom he called Magogites, the Greeks called Scythians.1 According to Encyclopaedia Britannica, the ancient name for the region which now includes part of Romania and the Ukraine was Scythia.4


The next grandson is Madai. Along with Shem's son Elam, Madai is the ancestor of our modern-day Iranians. Josephus says that the descendants of Madai were called Medes by the Greeks.1 Every time the Medes are mentioned in the Old Testament, the word used is the Hebrew word Madai (maday). After the time of Cyrus, the Medes are always (with one exception) mentioned along with the Persians. They became one kingdom with one law--'the law of the Medes and Persians' (Daniel 6:8, 12, 15). Later they were simply called Persians. Since 1935 they have called their country Iran. The Medes also 'settled India'.5


The name of the next grandson, Javan, is the Hebrew word for Greece. Greece, Grecia, or Grecians appears five times in the Old Testament, and is always the Hebrew word Javan. Daniel refers to 'the king of Grecia' (Daniel 8:21), literally 'the king of Javan'. Javan's sons were Elishah, Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim (Genesis 10:4), all of whom have connections with the Greek people. The Elysians (an ancient Greek people) obviously received their name from Elishah. Tarshish or Tarsus was located in the region of Cilicia (modern Turkey).


Encyclopaedia Britannica says that Kittim is the biblical name for Cyprus.6 The people who initially settled around the area of Troy worshipped Jupiter under the name of Jupiter Dodonaeus, possibly a reference to the fourth son of Javan, with Jupiter a derivative of Japheth. His oracle was at Dodena. The Greeks worshipped this god but called him Zeus.


Next is Tubal. Ezekiel mentions him along with Gog and Meshech (Ezekiel 39:1). Tiglath-pileser I, king of Assyria in about 1100 BC, refers to the descendants of Tubal as the Tabali. Josephus recorded their name as the Thobelites, who were later known as Iberes.1


'Their land, in Josephus' day, was called by the Romans Iberia, and covered what is now (the former Soviet State of) Georgia whose capital to this day bears the name Tubal as Tbilisi. From here, having crossed the Caucasus mountains, this people migrated due north-east, giving their tribal name to the river Tobol, and hence to the famous city of Tobolsk.'7


Meshech, the name of the next grandson, is the ancient name for Moscow. Moscow is both the capital of Russia, and the region that surrounds the city. To this day, one section, the Meschera Lowland, still carries the name of Meshech, virtually unchanged by the ages.


According to Josephus, the descendants of grandson Tiras were called Thirasians. The Greeks changed their name to Thracians.1 Thrace reached from Macedonia on the south to the Danube River on the north to the Black Sea on the east. It took in much of what became Yugoslavia. World Book Encyclopaedia says: 'The people of Thrace were savage Indo-Europeans, who liked warfare and looting.'8 Tiras was worshipped by his descendants as Thuras, or Thor, the god of thunder.


The four sons of Ham


Next we come to the sons of Ham: Cush, Mizraim, Phut, and Canaan (Genesis 10:6).


The descendants of Ham live mainly in south-west Asia and Africa. The Bible often refers to Africa as the land of Ham (Psalms 105:23,27; 106:22). The name of Noah's grandson Cush is the Hebrew word for old Ethiopia (from Aswan south to Khartoum). Without exception, the word Ethiopia in the English Bible is always a translation of the Hebrew word Cush. Josephus rendered the name as Chus, and says that the Ethiopians 'are even at this day, both by themselves and by all men in Asia, called Chusites'.9


Noah's next grandson mentioned was Mizraim. Mizraim is the Hebrew word for Egypt. The name Egypt appears hundreds of times in the Old Testament and (with one exception) is always a translation of the word Mizraim. E.g. at the burial of Jacob, the Canaanites observed the mourning of the Egyptians and so called the place Abel Mizraim (Genesis 50:11).


Phut, the name of Noah's next grandson is the Hebrew name for Libya. It is so translated three times in the Old Testament. The ancient river Phut was in Libya. By Daniel's day, the name had been changed to Libya (Daniel 11:43). Josephus says, 'Phut also was the founder of Libia [sic], and called the inhabitants Phutites, from himself'.9


Canaan, the name of Noah's next grandson, is the Hebrew name for the general region later called by the Romans Palestine, i.e. modern Israel and Jordan. Here we should look briefly at a few of the descendants of Ham (Genesis 10:14-18). There is Philistim, obviously the ancestor of the Philistines (clearly giving rise to the name Palestine), and Sidon, the founder of the ancient city that bears his name, and Heth, the patriarch of the ancient Hittite empire. Also, this descendant is listed in Genesis 10:15-18 as being the ancestor of the Jebusites (Jebus was the ancient name for Jerusalem--Judges 19:10), the Amorites, the Girgasites, the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, the Arvadites, the Zemarites, and the Hamathites, ancient peoples who lived in the land of Canaan.


The most prominent descendant of Ham was Nimrod, the founder of Babel (Babylon), as well as of Erech, Accad and Calneh in Shinar (Babylonia).


Great empires of the past: Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, and Persia all have strong historical links to the Biblical figures connected with the sons of Noah. Most, if not all, tribes and nations can be traced to these men through their descendants.

Carved statue A huge carved statue of the great pharaoh Ramesses II of Egypt.


Ruin Ruins from the ancient Nabatean city of Petra.

The five sons of Shem


Last we come to the sons of Shem: Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram (Genesis 10:22).


Elam is the ancient name for Persia, which is itself the ancient name for Iran. Until the time of Cyrus the people here were called Elamites, and they were still often called that even in New Testament times. In Acts 2:9, the Jews from Persia who were present at Pentecost were called Elamites. The Persians are thus descended from both Elam, the son of Shem, and from Madai, the son of Japheth (see above). Since the 1930s they have called their country Iran.


It is interesting to note that the word 'Aryan', which so fascinated Adolf Hitler, is a form of the word 'Iran'. Hitler wanted to produce a pure Aryan 'race' of supermen. But the very term 'Aryan' signifies a mixed line of Semites and Japhethites!


Asshur is the Hebrew word for Assyria. Assyria was one of the great ancient empires. Every time the words Assyria or Assyrian appear in the Old Testament, they are translated from the word Asshur. He was worshipped by his descendants.


'Indeed, as long as Assyria lasted, that is until 612 BC, accounts of battles, diplomatic affairs and foreign bulletins were daily read out to his image; and every Assyrian king held that he wore the crown only with the express permission of Asshur's deified ghost.'10


Arphaxad was the progenitor of the Chaldeans. This 'is confirmed by the Hurrian (Nuzi) tablets, which render the name as Arip-hurra--the founder of Chaldea.'11 His descendant, Eber, gave his name to the Hebrew people via the line of Eber-Peleg-Reu-Serug-Nahor-Terah-Abram (Genesis 11:16-26). Eber's other son, Joktan, had 13 sons (Genesis 10:26-30), all of whom appear to have settled in Arabia.12


Lud was the ancestor of the Lydians. Lydia was in what is now Western Turkey. Their capital was Sardis--one of the seven churches of Asia was at Sardis (Revelation 3:1).


Aram is the Hebrew word for Syria. Whenever the word Syria appears in the Old Testament it is a translation of the word Aram. The Syrians call themselves Arameans, and their language is called Aramaic. Before the spread of the Greek Empire, Aramaic was the international language (2 Kings 18:26 ff). On the cross, when Jesus cried out, 'Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani' (Mark 15:34),13 He was speaking Aramaic, the language of the common people.




We have only taken the briefest glance at Noah's sixteen grandsons,14 but enough has been said to show that they really did live, that they were who the Bible says they were, and that their descendants are identifiable on the pages of history. Not only is the Bible not a collection of myths and legends, but it stands alone as the key to the history of the earliest ages of the world.




Josephus: Complete Works, Kregal Publications, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 'Antiquities of the Jews', 1:6:1 (i.e. book 1, chapter 6, section 1).

J. Davis, History of the Welsh Baptists from the Year Sixty-three to the Year One Thousand Seven Hundred and Seventy, D.M. Hogan, Pittsburgh, 1835, republished by The Baptist, Aberdeen, Mississippi, p. 1, 1976.

Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2:422, 1967.

Encyclopaedia Britannica, 20:116, 1967.

A.C. Custance, Noah's Three Sons, Vol.1, 'The Doorway Papers', Zondervan, Michigan, p. 92, 1975.

Encyclopaedia Britannica 3:332, 1992.

Bill Cooper, After the Flood, New Wine Press, Chichester, England, p. 203, 1995.

World Book Encyclopaedia, Vol. 18, p. 207, 1968.

Ref. 1, 1:6:2

Ref. 7, p. 170.

Ref. 7, p. 172.

Ref. 5, p. 117.

Matthew 27:46 and Mark 15:34 quote the Aramaic form of Psalm 22:1, but Matthew reconverted Eloi to the Hebrew Eli.

For example, we made no attempt here to trace the origins of the Chinese. For evidence on this subject see 'The original, "unknown" God of China', Creation 20(3):50-54, 1998.

The following are from "Old Earth, why not?" by James I. Nienhuis. You can read the entire eBook by clicking here.


Egypt, considered by many to be the world’s old est civilization, is said to have had royal dynasties which began before 3000 B.C. Since the Flood occurred about 2400 B.C. (as deduced by counting the ages of the patriarchs in the Bible), it seems one of these figures is incorrect.


The Egyptian historian, Manetho, who lived around 300 B.C., compiled a list of Egyptian kings that is the cornerstone of mainstream ancient Egyptian chronological studies. However, his list has been shown to be fraught with inaccuracies. The scholar James H. Breasted wrote that Manetho’s list of kings is “a late, careless and uncritical compilation which can be proven wrong from the contemporary monuments in the vast majority of cases, where such monuments have survived.”


Sir Alan Gardner mocks Manetho’s work in saying, “what is proudly advertised as Egyptian history is merely a collection of rags and tatters.” Sir Isaac Newton noted that Manetho reported the same reigns twice under different names, listed kings in the wrong order, corrupted their names, repeated them again and again, and included the names of other great men and women who were only the relations of kings or their viceroys or secretaries of state. Ancient Egypt had regional rulers who controlled various “kingdoms” within Egypt simultaneously. These contemporaneous kings were inaccurately recorded by Manetho in sequential order, therefore, Manetho’s list should not trusted, and the timeline for ancient Egypt must be shortened.


The heavy rainfall in Egypt, during the Ice Age, is evidenced by the extensive water erosion of the limestone quarry in which the allegedly 4,500-year-old Sphinx was built, and now rests. But the Ice Age supposedly ended 10,000 years ago? Much heavier rain did water the Middle East and northern Africa in the centuries after the Flood, and thus, caused the intensive limestone weathering of the Sphinx’s quarry. China is said to date back to about 3000 B.C. This date is based upon the flawed carbon 14 results from ancient settlements and the allegedly long “legendary period” of China. One of the legendary heroes named “Yu” engineered a massive land reclamation project. Apparently, a large area was flooded with water, and he organized the project which drained the land of this water. Could this be one of the residual “puddles” from Noah’s Flood that was discussed in Chapter 10?


One ancient classic Chinese writing, called the Hikking, tells the story of Fuhi, whom the Chinese consider to be the father of their civilization. This history records that Fuhi, his wife, three sons and three daughters, escaped a great flood. He and his family were the only people left alive on earth. After the great flood they repopulated the world. An ancient temple in China has a wall painting that shows Fuhi’s vessel in the raging flood waters. Dolphins are swimming around the boat and a dove with an olive branch in its beak is flying towards it. Details in this story virtually match the Biblical details, as do details in other flood legends from around the world (which are discussed in Chapter 5).


The first solar eclipse ever recorded happened in 2134 B.C. in China, so it appears the “legendary period” in China is not as long as popularly imagined. But, the “stone age” settlements’ assumed great antiquity (due to flawed 14C dates) allows old-earthers to imagine that the Chinese civilization is older than it really is.


The ancient Babylonians are said to have begun building their impressive structures about 3000 B.C. However, a king of Babylon, Nebuchadnezzar, (who ruled about 500 B.C.) wrote on a plaque that was discovered at the ruins of an ancient tower, that he (Nebuchadnezzar) had refurbished this tower which originally was nearly completed by the first king of Babylon, but could not be completed because the builders could no longer understand one another’s spoken words. Nebuchadnezzar further inscripted on the plaque that this first king ruled 42 generations before about 500 B.C. Here an ancient king of Babylon stated that Babylon began about 2200 B.C.! This time frame fits that presented in the Bible; Nimrod, occultist and rebel against God, was the first king of Babylon, about 200 years after the Flood. At the tower of Babel, God confused the languages, so the clans then could not understand each other, and hence, moved away from Mesopotamia as God had previously commanded, “Go forth and repopulate the world.”


Legends of this historical event abound from disparate people groups from around the world. Astronomical records, obtained by Alexander the Great from the Babylonians, are dated back 1903 years from 331 B.C. The Babylonians told Alexander that Babylon began when the astronomical records began, in 2234 B.C. This is the record of Babylonians, not the possessors of the Old Testament, the Jews. The Babylonians had no interest in historical agreement with their rivals, the Jews. And yet, both nations agree on the time of the founding of Babylon.


According to the fourth century historian Eusebius of Caesarea, Egialeus, the first king in Greece, began his reign in 2089 B.C., 1313 years before the first Olympiad in 776 B.C. Yet, old-earthers say Greece and the other civilizations are older than indicated because of faith in the flawed carbon 14 results (as explained in Chapter 12) and their Darwinian philosophy. These results and philosophy have been shown to be doubtful, at best; therefore, we should look hard at the truly solid scientific and historical evidences.


The Byzantine chronicler, Constatinius Manasses, wrote that the Egyptians state lasted 1663 years. If correct, then counting backward from the time that Cambyses, King of Persia, conquered Egypt in 526 B.C., gives us the year 2188 B.C. for the founding of Egypt. Menes, the legendary founder of Egypt, is the Misraim (Hebrew) or Mestre (Greek) of the second generation from Noah. Once again the Biblical timeframe matches.


When the Saxons began to migrate to Britain from the European mainland about 500 A.D., the native Britains (Welsh) noted the barbarous, pagan savagery of their new neighbors. The Saxons practiced ancestor worship (of Odin and Geat), and had no knowledge of the Bible. The Welsh (which ironically means “barbaric foreigner” in Saxon) had been evangelized about 300 years before, so the cold-blooded, pagan lifestyle of the Saxons was appalling to the Welsh.


These “savages” brought with them records of their kings going back to their first king, Noah. These, obviously Biblically ignorant Saxons, compiled their king’s list through the centuries, with the Biblical Noah appearing as their first king. We know that the Biblical personages of Noah and the Saxon’s second king, Sceaf (corruption of Iafeth or Japheth), were not inserted at the beginning of their king’s list, after Saxon christianization, for several reasons. Once they became christianized, the Saxons changed their second king’s name to Iafeth or Japheth (as in the Bible) because they realized Sceaf was a corrupted spelling of Japheth, as they read the book of Genesis. They wanted to get it right. And if the king’s list was concocted to concur with Genesis ancestries, why did they stop at only two Biblical people to fraudulently insert into their lineage? And why did they report that Sceaf (changed later to Japheth) was born on the Ark, when the Bible clearly states that he helped build the Ark?


There were five Saxon clans that came to England around 500 A.D. These respective clans had their own unique king’s lists that converged in the distant past at their common ancestor, Odin. This Odin was worshipped by all the Saxon clans as a deified forefather. The Saxon clans’ lists are identical from Odin back to Sceaf (Japheth), and to Noah. These rival clans did not want to have common ancestry with their rival “Houses” (House of Lindsay, House of Kent, House of Mercia, House of Northumbria, House of East Anglica), and yet, they could not deny their common heritage.


The Vikings of Scandinavia also trace their kings back through Odin, Seskef (Japheth), and Noe (Noah). Why would the Saxons and the Vikings, archenemies for centuries, agree to get along and fake their kings’ lists, as to have common ancestors and Biblical people as their shared, earliest kings? The Viking’s were not evangelized until at least 900 A.D., so the christianized Saxons (evangelized about 500 A.D.) looked with horror at the practices of these barbaric Vikings; no way could these savages from the north have our heritage, thought the Saxons. But they did, no doubt, because they were once united on the European mainland some 2,000 years before.


The Welsh trace their kings all the way back to Noah, as well. Noah’s son, Japheth, is listed, as is his grandson Javan; from there, the king’s list goes off into strange non-Biblical names of kings or tribes. We know that this list was compiled by Biblically illiterate pagans because the source material is from ancient literature, written in a now extinct language (from before the time of Christ), which was translated into modern languages at several points during the Dark Ages (500-1200 A.D. )


The Miautso tribe of southern China also traces its ancestry back through a son of Japheth, the son of Noah. Whereas the Welsh trace through Japheths’ son Javan, the Miautso trace through another of Japheth’s (Jah-phu’s) sons, Gomer (Gomena). Also within their history are the brothers of Japheth (Jah-phu), Ham (Lo Han) and Shem (Lo Shen). The Miatso seemed to know a lot about the Bible without having even heard of it. Their Noah (Nuah) rode out a catastrophic global flood, released a dove (remember the Chinese wall art?), and landed on the drying land. They trace their lineage even farther back than Noah (Nuah), all the way to the first man, whose name translates “Dirt”20 (Adam was formed from the earth).


Historians even corroborate this pre-Flood world where the Bible says people lived 800-900 years. The following pagan ancient historians mention much longer life spans in a previous age: Hestiaeus, Mochus, Berosus, Manetho, Hieronymus, Hesiod, Hecataeus, Ephorus, and Nicolaus. These long life spans were made possible by: a much larger gene pool than had Noah’s small group, lower UV radiation in the pre-Flood world caused by possibly higher atmospheric pressure and by stronger earth magnetism (that deflected UV), higher oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere (as reflected in Flood sedimentary rocks), and perhaps other factors [e.g. water canopy]. After the Flood, the limited gene pool of the eight survivors (the genetic bottleneck theorized by secular geneticists, and noted in Chapter 14) coupled with the diminution of the aforementioned pre-Flood conditions, resulted in progressively diminished life spans during the ten generations, or so, after the Flood.


So you can see that secular history actually corroborates the most accurate history book ever written, the Bible. These pagan tribes, absent the Hebrew account of history, nevertheless had a general knowledge of the Flood and the ensuing genealogies, as related to them by their ancestors, the offspring of Noah’s sons.

These four major basilicas are distinguished by their having a holy door and for being prescribed as destinations for visits as one of the conditions for gaining the Roman Jubilee. Only the Pope and his delegatees may celebrate mass at the high altar. Until recently, the four churches were open 24 hours a day; their staff included a college of priests to be continually available to hear confessions.

To this class belong the four great ancient churches of Rome:

Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, also called the Lateran Archbasilica, is the cathedral of the Bishop of Rome, the Pope. It is the only one called an "archbasilica". Its full official name is "Papal Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran, Archbasilica of the Most Holy Saviour and of Saints John the Baptist and the Evangelist at the Lateran, Cathedral of Rome".[8]

St. Peter's Basilica, also called the Vatican Basilica, is a major pilgrimage site, built over the burial place of Saint Peter. Perhaps the largest church in the world, it is used for most of the chief religious ceremonies in which the Pope participates. Its official name is the "Papal Basilica of Saint Peter in the Vatican".[9]

Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls, also known as the Ostian Basilica because it is situated on the road that led to Ostia, is built over the burial place of Paul the Apostle. Its official name is the "Papal Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls".[10]

Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore, also called the Liberian Basilica because the original building (not the present one) was attributed to Pope Liberius, is the largest church in Rome dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, hence its name of Saint Mary Major, i.e. the Greater. Its official name is the "Papal Basilica of Saint Mary Major".

The Whole Story of the Bible in 16 Verses


By Chris Bruno


Availability: In Stock

Retail Price: $10.99

About The Whole Story of the Bible in 16 Verses

16 Key Verses.

1 Overarching Story.

This book highlights 16 key Bible verses that stand as “turning points” in the biblical storyline—enabling us to see God’s incredible plan to redeem his people and glorify his name from Genesis to Revelation. Whether it’s exploring the creation of humanity, the establishment of the covenants, or the coming of the Messiah, this book will help Christians see how God’s Word tells a single story about his sovereignty, glory, and grace.



Chris Bruno (PhD, Wheaton College) serves at Trinity Christian School in Kailua, Hawaii. He previously taught Bible and theology at Cedarville University and Northland International University and served as a pastor at Harbor Church in Honolulu, Hawaii. Chris and his wife, Katie, have four sons.


“How would you answer the question, What’s the main message of the Bible? How does the Bible itself answer that question? Introducing readers to biblical theology, Bruno teases out answers to these questions from Scripture, methodically tracing the major milestones of redemptive history to illuminate the gospel thread and to tie it all together. Whether you’re new to the Bible or have grown up hearing its stories in Sunday school, Bruno’s book will lead you to a greater love for God’s Word and hope in the Savior to whom every part of it points.”

J. Mack Stiles, author, Evangelism: How the Whole Church Speaks of Jesus and Marks of the Messenger

“This compact and insightful book is ideal for one-on-one discipleship, as well as more formal teaching contexts. All Christians, whether mature or young in the faith, will find much to meditate on and rejoice in as Bruno faithfully sketches in the story of redemption.”

Thomas R. Schreiner, James Buchanan Harrison Professor of New Testament Interpretation and Professor of Biblical Theology, The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, Kentucky

“In order to understand our Bibles, we need to understand the big story of God’s redemptive plan. Chris Bruno focuses on sixteen key texts to provide a clear and accessible outline of this big story. I recommend the book highly.”

Douglas J. Moo, Wessner Chair of Biblical Studies, Wheaton College

More Endorsements

Table of Contents

Part 1: The Time Is Coming

Creation (Genesis 1:31)

Human Beings (Genesis 1:27–28)

The Fall (Genesis 3:6–7)

Redemption Promised (Genesis 3:15)

Abraham (Genesis 12:2–3)

Judah the King (Genesis 49:10)

The Passover Lamb (Exodus 12:23)

King David (2 Samuel 7:12–13)

The Suffering Servant (Isaiah 53:6)

Resurrection Promised (Ezekiel 37:3–5)

New Creation (Isaiah 65:17)

Part 2: The Time Has Come

Fulfillment! (Mark 1:14–15)

The Cross (John 19:30)

Resurrection (Romans 1:3–4)

Justification (Romans 3:21–26)

Glory (Revelation 21:1–4)

The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest military decoration awarded for valour "in the face of the enemy" to members of the armed forces of various Commonwealth countries, and previous British Empire territories.[3] It is first in the order of wear in the United Kingdom honours system, and takes precedence over all other orders, decorations, and medals, including the Order of the Garter. It may be awarded to a person of any military rank in any service and to civilians under military command. The VC is usually presented to the recipient or to their next of kin by the British monarch at an investiture held at Buckingham Palace.



By repositioning the letters around the central letter Ν (en), a Greek cross can be made that reads Pater Noster (Latin for "Our Father", the first two words of the "Lord's Prayer") both vertically and horizontally. The remaining letters – two each of A and O – can be taken to represent the concept of Alpha and Omega, a reference in Christianity to the omnipresence of God. Thus the square might have been used as a covert symbol for early Christians to express their presence to each other.[8]


An example of the Sator Square found in Manchester dating to the 2nd century AD has been interpreted according to this model as one of the earliest pieces of evidence of Christianity in Britain.[9]


The 'Prayer of the Virgin in Bartos' claimed that Christ was crucified with five nails, which were named Sator, Arepo, Tenet, Opera and Rotas.[10]


Other authorities believe the Sator Square was Mithraic or Jewish in origin, because it is not likely that Pompeii had a large Christian population in 79 AD and the symbolism inferred as Christian and the use of Latin in Christianity is not attested until later.[11]

The Sator Square is a four-times palindrome, and some people have attributed magical properties to it, considering it one of the broadest magical formulas in the Occident. An article on the square from The Saint Louis Medical and Surgical Journal, vol. 76, reports that palindromes were viewed as being immune to tampering by the devil, who would become confused by the repetition of the letters, and hence their popularity in magical use. The same principle, alongside the above "Paternoster cross", is also present in the Greek magical palindrome: ΑΒΛΑΝΑΘΑΝΑΛΒΑ, which probably derives from the Hebrew or Aramaic אב לן את, meaning "Thou art our father".



In particular, this is a square 2D palindrome, which is when a square text admits four symmetries: identity, two diagonal reflections, and 180 degree rotation. As can be seen, the text may be read top-to-bottom, bottom-to-top, left-to-right, or right-to-left; and it may be rotated 180 degrees and still be read in all those ways.

A chart from Johannes Trithemius's Steganographia in the hand of John Dee who copied the entire manuscript in 1591

Dee's glyph, whose meaning he explained in Monas Hieroglyphica as representing (from top to bottom): the moon; the sun; the elements; and fire.


The four paths[edit]
In the second chapter CRC sits down to rest under three tall cedars. There is a tablet fastened to one of them which tells of four paths. An important point is that it's the Bridegroom (Bible) that is offering these paths. It reads as follows:

By us the Bridegroom offers you a choice between four ways, all of which, if you do not sink down in the way, can bring you to his royal court. The first is short but dangerous, and one which will lead you into rocky places, through which it will scarcely be possible to pass. The second is longer, and takes you circuitously; it is plain and easy, if by the help of the Magnet you turn neither to left nor right. The third is that truly royal way which through various pleasures and pageants of our King, affords you a joyful journey; but this so far has scarcely been allotted to one in a thousand. By the fourth no man shall reach the place, because it is a consuming way, practicable only for incorruptible bodies. Choose now which one you will of the three, and persevere constantly therein, for know whichever you will enter, that is the one destined for you by immutable Fate, nor can you go back in it save at great peril to life.

The first path leads to rocky places and this is reminiscent of Peter, "the rock" as he's portrayed in the synoptic gospels. The second path in the text is the path taught in John's gospel, as CRC is told not to turn to the left or right on this path and John's is the only account not to mention two men crucified to the right and to the left of Jesus while on the cross as thieves (John 20:18). The third path would be the general letters of Peter, James, Jude, and John. In the letter of James we find reference to the royal way or royal law (Jas 2:8). In the second letter of Peter we find the only reference to one in a thousand (II Pet 3:8). The fourth path is the letters of Paul. This is where one finds the teaching of the dead raised incorruptible (I Cor 15:52), and the only place that the word "consuming" appears in the New Testament (Heb 12:29).

The story then continues, Whereupon I presently drew out my bread and cut a slice of it. It shouldn't go unnoticed that, after reading this tablet, CRC cuts the bread. Symbol XXIV of the symbols of Pythagoras indicates "Never break the bread". Bread is broken in the gospels of Mark, Luke, and Matthew; however bread is never broken in John's gospel. Bread is also broken in the letters of Paul and the Book of Acts; however bread is never broken in the general letters of Peter, James, Jude and John.

As the story proceeds it's evident that CRC took the second path with the following words, yet I still proceeded with my compass, and would not budge one step from the Meridian Line. Meaning that CRC didn't turn to the left or right. It's also noteworthy that CRC says, "I patiently took up my cross, got up onto my feet". Only in John's gospel did Jesus bear the cross. It was Simon of Cyrene who bore the cross for Jesus in Mark, Luke and Matthew's gospels. But at the same time in Mark's gospel Jesus offered a man "take up the cross, and follow me"(Mark 10:21).


June 20, 1584, Edward Kelley has his vision of four Gigantic Watchtowers. The so-called "Golden Talisman" showing this Vision can still be seen in the British Museum, though a close study of this talisman will show that it really corresponds more to a drawing of Causabon's A True and Faithful Relation than to Dee's original manuscripts, and thus may really date from the next century.


The Golden Talisman

The "Golden Talisman" in the British Museum, courtesy of


A complete description of Kelley's vision as transcribed by Dee is available on-line or in many published works.[18] The contents or occupants of the Watchtower are usually mapped to the four quadrants of the Great Table of Earth (though note that the Great Table has not yet been received.) These include 4 Trumpeters, 12 Banners, 24 Seniors, 4 Kings, 20 Princes, and 16 Crosses, each with 4 angles and 10 faces. These names generated from the Great Table are "mapped back" to Kelley's vision and forward to other material.



Outside of each quadrant, you'll see the Seal or Sigil still associated with that quadrant. As the quadrants shift in later drawings, notice that the Seals shift with them or disappear, but never appear with a different quadrant of letters: for instance, the capital "T" with four squiggles always stays associated with the quadrant that contains "oro ibAh aospi / oro ibAh aozpi;" the one that looks like a little sun always stays next to "oiP tea pDoce." You'll also see, in the Black Cross that holds these names together, the names most now associate with the Tablet of Union. Here, these names are never tabled out into a 4x5 grid of their own (as is modern practice, and as Dee did in June of 1584), but appear in the Black Cross that binds the other four quadrants together.


If you shift to the next set of Tables, you'll see the Governor Seals / Sigils / jagged lines drawn onto four more tables. They appear thus:


If you compare the Seals or Sigils to the preceding, you'll see that the quadrants are now in this special arrangement, but numbered outside of the tables in this order:


oro ibAh aozpi

MOr dial hCtGa

oiP tea pDoce

mph arsl gaiol

The spatial relationship corresponds to the original order in which they were received; the numbering 1-2-3-4 corresponds to the "Tabula Recensa" discussed last issue, assuming you start at the upper left and go around clock-wise.


If you go to the effort of determining what Governors each of the jagged lines correspond to, you'll find that they map by shape to the Governors in our appendix with one exception which will be discussed below.


The only quadrant in the same place is the first, the one we've labeled "oro ibAh aozpi," now usually associated with the East. However, if you follow the sequence of the first or "Tabula Recensa" group, starting with "oro ibAh aozpi," and go clockwise around the quadrants, you'll get the same sequence that you would get if you follow the numbered versions above:


oro ibAh aozpi

mph arsl gaiol

MOr dial hCtGa

oiP tea pDoce

(Notice that this also suggests the sequence of names used by modern esotericists for the Tablet of Union, which by Sloane ms. 3191 no longer appears. We'll discuss this further in the next section.)


After the third Table, that above which shows the Governor sigils, Dee presents yet another Table with letters. The lettered quadrants now match the spatial relationship of the Governors above, are numbered in the same way as the Table of Governors above, and now the Seal or Sigils from the first group of tables have been moved to match the corresponding tablet. On the original manuscript, in the upper right hand corner, you can still see Dee's marginal note that says "so they must be placed," and gives letters that suggest the first letters of the quadrants as ordered in the "Tabula Recensa;" that is, r/T above, b/d below. In other words, he's made the drawing out of order and put in a marginal note to reorder it.


These Great Tables seem, to us, to show Dee looking at the four Watchtowers and either trying to figure out some sort of principle explaining their order in space in relation to one another, or, more likely, creating a teaching tool to show this to some other person or group.[41] Dee makes it almost impossible for anyone to make directional attributions that make sense unless that person first comprehends the deeper structure. And in fact, he has been writing for himself, and perhaps others, subtle directions showing the logic he has applied: he has presented first the new "Tabula Recensa" order, then shown the Governors in an older order that made sense to him, [42] adjusted letters to match the Governors but done so with multiple corrections and a marginal note to go back to the order of the first lettered drawing (the second in the sequence) which has the fewest multi-lettered squares. Thus drawings three and four show the process he has gone through to come up with drawing two. This alone shows that Dee considered that the Governors ruled the placement of the quadrants themselves, implies that they should govern placement of individual letters, and shows he considers the material important enough that he will only convey it indirectly. As with his Sigillum, if someone just copies the material without understanding the built-in blinds, they will have material with errors: in this case, incorrect or multi-lettered squares.


The next drawing is the most confusing of the group, and one we'll return to and discuss briefly near the end of this article and in detail next issue, for it will be a key in understanding how Dee projects the Great Table of Earth upon the celestial sphere and how he may even connect it to his belief in a coming Golden Age. Dee presents this graphic just before beginning his Invocations:





John Dee was dedicated to the newly formed Church of England (or the Anglican Faith), and this can be seen throughout his journals and his "Enochian" system of Angel Magic. Therein, we find an obvious belief in the Trinity (Father, Son and Holy Spirit). We also find a fourth Supreme Being in the figure of "Galvah" (Omega) — who is also called the Mother, Wisdom and "I AM" in Dee's journals. This figure is known in Judaism as the Shekhinah — Divine Presence; to the Gnostics as Sophia — Wisdom; and to the Hermetic Qabalah as Aima Elohim — Mother of the gods.


Beneath these four Divinities are several hierarchies of angels, or intelligent rulers, set over such things as the Planets, the Stars and the four Quarters of the Earth.


The angels of the four quarters are symbolized by the "Watchtowers" — four large magical word-square Tables (collectively called the Great Table of the Earth). Most of the well-known Enochian Angels are drawn from the Watchtowers of the Great Table.


Each of the four Watchtowers is collectively governed by six Seniors (aka Elders) — making a total of 24 Elders as seen in the Revelation of St. John. Each Watchtower is further divided into four sub-quadrants, where we find the names of various Archangels and Angels who govern the quarters of the world. In this way, the entire universe, visible and invisible, is teeming with living intelligences.

The Chief Princes of the Altitudes ( Choras) the Four Cardinal Points


According to the Ars Almadel Part IV of the Lemegeton "By this art Solomon attained great wisdom

from the Chief Angels that govern the four Altitudes of the World: for you must observe that

there are four Altitudes which represent the four Corners of the West, East, North and South. [See paragraph two]:


According to Rowe, "The four Altitudes of the Almadel are not exactly cognate with the four directions,

or with the Elements. Rather they seem to be representatives of the equinox and solstice points, viewed as the anchor points of the zodiac and the seasons. They are called “corners”, in much the same way that the horizon and vertical points of an astrological chart are called “angles”. Their colors as well appear seasonal rather than elemental; white the pure unsullied freshness of the spring breeze, the red heat of summer, the green of mature plants invigorated by the fall rains, and the darkness of mid winter"


Chiefs of the 1st Altitudes - or Chora Orientis

Colour - Lilly White.






They carry in their hands a banner or flag with a red cross on it; carry a crown of rose flowers; speak with a low voice.


Chiefs of the 2nd Altitudes

Colour - Red Rose.





The angels appear in the form of young child dressed in satin; crown of red gilly flowers; face reddish


Chiefs of the 3rd Altitudes

Colour - Green mixed with White and Silver.






These angel take the form of little children or little women; dressed in green or silver color, wit!. crown of bay leaves; leaves a sweet perfume behind them


Chiefs of the 4th Altitudes

Colour - Black mixed with a little Green.






These angels take the form of little men or boys, dressed in black, mixed with dark green; and in their hands they hold a bird "which is naked"


The Golden Dawn also invented the game of Enochian chess, so that aspects of the Enochian Tablets can be used for divination. The four chessboards do not have any symbols on them, just sets of squares colored in certain ways. Each board is associated with one of the four elements of magick. Pat Zalewski's book (1994) on the subject is definitive.[8]


The Great Table of Earth: The Elemental Watchtowers and their subdivisions[edit]

The angels of the four quarters are symbolized by the Elemental "Watchtowers" — four large magickal word-square Tables (collectively called the "Great Table of the Earth"). Most of the well-known Enochian angels are drawn from the Watchtowers of the Great Table.


Each of the four Watchtowers (representing the Elements of Earth, Air, Fire and Water), is collectively "governed" by a hierarchy of spiritual entities which runs (as explained in Crowley's Liber Chanokh) as the Three Holy Names, the Great Elemental King, the Six Seniors (aka Elders) (these make a total of 24 Elders as seen in the Revelation of St. John), the Two Divine Names of the Calvary Cross, the Kerubim, and the Sixteen Lesser Angels. Each Watchtower is further divided into four sub-quadrants (sometimes referred to as 'sub-angles') where we find the names of various Archangels and Angels who govern the quarters of the world. In this way, the entire universe, visible and invisible, is depicted as teeming with living intelligences. Each of the Elemental tablets is also divided into four sections by a figure known as the Great Central Cross. The Great Central cross consists of the two central vertical columns of the Elemental Tablet (the Linea Patris and Linea Filii) and the central horizontal line (known as the Linea Spiritus Sancti).


In addition to the four Elemental Watchtowers, a twenty-square cell known as the Tablet of Union (aka The Black Cross, representing Spirit) completes the representation of the five traditional elemental attributes used in magic - Earth, Air, Water, Fire and Spirit. The Tablet of Union is derived from within the Great Central Cross of the Great Table.


The squares of the Elemental Watchtowers and those of the Tablet of Union are not simply squares, but in fact truncated pyramids, or pyramids with flat tops - thus, pyramids which have four sides and top, for a total of five 'sides'. Again, these represent the traditional five magical elements (Earth, Air, Water, Fire and Spirit) though in varying combinations. There are 20 Pyramids in the Tablet of Union and 156 in each of the four Elemental Tablets. Each pyramid houses an 'angel' with a one-letter name. The angel's attributes (that is, its powers and its nature) are 'read off' according to its position within the Tablet and proportions of the different Elements (whether Earth, Air, Fire, Water or Spirit) represented on its sides. When two Pyramids are combined they form an 'angel' with a two-letter name whose attributes are somewhat more complex. This gives rise to ever-more complex 'angels' depending on the number of pyramids under examination. The attribution of various Elements to the various pyramids is best depicted on a labelled and coloured version of the various Tablets; an Enochian texbook (e.g.[4] or [15]) is most useful for this purpose.


This book describes a system of holy magic through an eighteen-month purification, then after the conversation of the Holy Guardian Angel, one would summon the four Great Kings of Hell (Lucifer, Leviathan, Satan, Belial), and make them sign an oath. This Oath (after gaining the power of the supernal realm), would grant the Adept power over the Infernal Realm and aid the Adept in discovering the "True and Sacred Wisdom" in the form of magic squares.


Asmodeus is a historical figure in the High School DxD series, one of the four original rulers of the Underworld, with at least two other figures bearing their name: one being their descendant, the other having taken their position in the hierarchy of the Underworld. There is also a clan Asmodai in the seventy-two clans (based on the 72 demons of Solomon,) hinting that Asmodeus and Asmodai are treated as two separate entities.

The "72 Pillar Families" from High School DxD come from here.

Many trading card games include members of the 72 demons into their cards (usually in high rarity). Examples of these games are: Devil Maker:Tokyo (Smilegate), Valkyrie Crusade (Nubee Tokyo), Ayakashi Ghost Guild (Zynga), Rage of Bahamut and HellFire: The Summoning (DeNA), Puzzle & Dragons (GungHo), etc.


Three Books of Occult Philosophy (De Occulta Philosophia libri III) is Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa's study of occult philosophy, acknowledged as a significant contribution to the Renaissance philosophical discussion concerning the powers of ritual magic, and its relationship with religion. The first book was printed in 1531 in Paris, Cologne, and Antwerp, while the full three volumes first appeared in Cologne in 1533.[1]


The idea of demonology had remained strong in the Renaissance, and several demonological grimoires were published, including The Fourth Book of Occult Philosophy, which falsely claimed to having been authored by Agrippa

Salvador Dalí worked on his painting Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercubus) for four years – this photo was taken in 1951 (Credit: Francesc Catala-Roca)


latter. A psychopompic genius, he conducted the souls of the dead to Hades and brought them back, an office attributed to Jesus, after his death and resurrection. The symbols of Hermes-Mercury (Dii Termini) were placed along and at the turning points of highways (as crosses are now placed in Italy) and they were cruciform.* Every seventh day the priests anointed these termini with oil, and once a year hung them with garlands, hence they were the anointed. Mercury, when speaking through his oracles said, “I am he whom you call the Son of the Father (Jupiter) and Maia. Leaving the King of Heaven (the Sun) I come to help you, mortals.” Mercury heals the blind and restores sight, mental and physical.† He was often represented as three-headed and called “Tricephalos,” “Triplex,” as one with the Sun and Venus. Finally, Mercury, as Cornutus‡ shows, was sometimes figured under a cubic form, without arms, because “the power of speech and eloquence can prevail without the assistance of arms or feet.” It is this cubic form which connects the termini directly with the cross, and the eloquence or the power of speech of Mercury, which made the crafty Eusebius say “Hermes is the emblem of the Word which creates and interprets all,” for it is the creative word; and he shows Porphyry teaching that the speech of Hermes, (now interpreted “Word of God” (!) in Pymander) a creative speech (Verbum), is the seminal principle scattered throughout the Universe.§ In Alchemy “Mercury” is the radical Moyst, primitive or elementary water, containing the seed of the Universe, fecundated by the solar fires. To express this fecundating principle, a phallus was often added to the cross (the male and female, or the vertical and the horizontal united) by the Egyptians (Vide Egyptian Museums). The cruciform termini also represented this dual idea, which was found in Egypt in the cubic Hermes. The author of “Source of Measures” tells us why. (But see the last page of § XVI., about the Gnostic Priapus).


As shown by him, the cube unfolded becomes in display a cross of the tau, or the Egyptian, form; or again, “the circle attached to the tau gives the ansated cross” of the old Pharaohs. They had known this from their priests and their “Kings Initiates” for ages, and also what was meant by “the attachment of a man to the cross,” which idea “was made to co-ordinate with that of the origin of human life, and hence the phallic form.” Only the latter came into action aeons and ages after the idea of the carpenter and artificer of the Gods,

Visvakarma, crucifying the “Sun-Initiate” on the cruciform lathe. As the same author writes: “the attachment of a man to the cross . . . was made use of in this very form of display by the Hindus”; but, made “to co-ordinate” with the idea of the new rebirth of man by spiritual, not physical regeneration. The candidate for initiation was attached to the tau or astronomical cross with a far grander and nobler idea than that of the origin of mere terrestrial life.

On the other hand, the Semites seem to have had no other or higher purpose in life than that of procreating their species. Thus, geometrically, and according to the reading of the Bible by means of the numerical method, the author of the “Hebrew-Egyptian Mystery” is quite correct. Their (the Jewish) entire system —

“Seems to have been anciently regarded as one resting in nature, and one which was adopted by nature, or God, as the basis of law of the exertion practically of creative power — i.e., it was the creative design, of which creation was practically the application. This seems to be established by the fact that, under the system set forth, measures of planetary times serve co-ordinately as measures of the size of planets, and of the peculiarity of their shapes — i.e., in the extension of their equatorial and polar diameters” . . . etc., etc. (p. 3). . . . “This system seems to underlie the whole Biblical structure (that of creative design), as a foundation for its ritualism and for its display of the works of the Deity in the way of architecture, by use of the sacred unit of measure in the Garden of Eden, the Ark of Noah, the Tabernacle, and the Temple of Solomon.”
Thus, on the very showing of the defenders of this system the Jewish Deity is proved to be, at best, only the manifested duad, never the One absolute All. Geometrically demonstrated, he is a number; symbolically, an euhemerized Priapus; and this can hardly satisfy a mankind thirsting after the demonstration of real spiritual truths, and the possession of a god with a divine, not anthropomorphic, nature. It is strange that the most learned of modern Kabalists can see in the cross and circle nothing but a symbol of the manifested creative and androgyne deity in its relation to, and interference with, this phenomenal world.* One author believes that “man (read the Jew and Rabbi) obtained knowledge of the practical measure . . . . by which nature was thought to adjust the planets in size to harmonize with the notation of their movements” . . . . and adds: “it seems he did obtain it, and esteemed its possession as the means of his realization of the Deity — that is, he approached so nearly to a conception of a Being having a mind like his own, only infinitely more powerful, as to be able to realize a law of creation

(See “Book of the Dead,” Ritual XVII., 45-47), was often represented in the Egyptian monuments seated, and holding a cross, symbol of the four quarters, or the Elements, attached to a Circle.

In that very learned work, “The Natural Genesis,” by Mr. Gerald Massey, on pp. 408-455 (Vol. I.), under the heading, “Typology of the Cross,” there is more information to be had on the cross and circle than in any other work we know of. He who would fain have proofs of the antiquity of the Cross is referred to these two volumes. The author shows that “the circle and the cross are inseparable. . . . The crux ansata unites the circle and cross of the four corners. From this origin they came to be interchangeable at times. For example, the Chakra, or Disk of Vishnu, is a circle. The names denote the circling, wheeling round, periodicity, the wheel of time. This the god uses as a weapon to hurl at the enemy. In like manner, Thor throws his weapon, the Fylfot, a form of the four-footed cross (Swastica) and a type of the four quarters. Thus the cross is equivalent to the circle of the year. . . . The wheel emblem unites the cross and circle in one, as does the hieroglyphic cake and the Ankh-te image_il.”

Nor was the double glyph sacred with the profane, but only with the Initiates. For Raoul-Rochette shows (ibid) “the sign image_il, occurring as the reverse of a Phoenician coin, with a Ram as the obverse. . . . . The same sign, sometimes called Venus’ Looking-Glass, because it typified reproduction, was employed to mark the hind-quarters of valuable brood mares of Corinthian and other beautiful breeds of horses” (Raoul-Rochette, loc. cit. De La Croix Ansee, Mem. de l’Academie des Sciences, pl. 2, Nos. 8, 9, also 16, 2, p. 320, quoted in “Nat. Gen.”), which proves that so far back as those early days the cross had already become the symbol of human procreation, and that oblivion of the divine origin of Cross and Circle had been forgotten.

Another form of the cross is given from the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (vol. xviii., p. 393, pl. 4): —

“At each of the four corners is placed a quarter arc of an oviform curve, and when the four are put together they form an oval; thus the figure combines the cross with the circle round in four parts, corresponding to the four corners of the cross. The four segments answer to the four feet of the Swastica cross and the Fylfot of Thor. The four-leaved lotus flower of Buddha, is likewise figured at the centre of this cross, the lotus being an Egyptian and Hindu type of the four quarters. The four quarter arcs, if joined together, would form an ellipse, and the ellipse is also figured on each arm of the cross. This ellipse therefore denotes the path of the earth . . . . Sir J. Y. Simpson copied the following specimen image_il, which is here presented, as the cross of the two equinoxes and the two solstices placed within the figure of the earth’s path.



The same ovoid or boat-shaped figure appears at times in the Hindu drawings with seven steps at each end as a form or a mode of Meru.”

This is the astronomical aspect of the double glyph. There are six more aspects, however, and an attempt may be made to interpret a few of these. The subject is so vast that it would require in itself alone many volumes.


But the most curious of these Egyptian symbols of Cross and Circle, spoken of in the above cited work, is one which receives its full explanation and final colour from Aryan symbols of the same nature. Says the author: —


“The four-armed Cross is simply the cross of the four quarters, but the cross sign is not always simple.* This is a type that was developed from an identifiable beginning, which was adapted to the expression of various ideas afterwards. The most sacred cross of Egypt that was carried in the hands of the gods, the Pharaohs, and the mummied dead, is the Ankh image_il the sign of life, the living, an oath, the covenant . . . The top of this is the hieroglyphic Ru image_il set upright on the Tau-Cross. The Ru is the door, gate, mouth, the place of outlet. This denotes the birth-place in the northern quarter of the heavens, from which the Sun is reborn. Hence the Ru of the Ankh sign is the feminine type of the birth-place, representing the north. It was in the Northern Quarter that the Goddess of the Seven Stars, called the “Mother of the Revolutions,” gave birth to time in the earliest cycle of the year. The first sign of this primordial circle and cycle made in heaven is the earliest shape of the Ankh-cross image_il, a mere loop which contains both a circle and the cross in one image. This loop or noose is carried in front of the oldest genitrix, Typhon of the great Bear, as her Ark, the ideograph of a period, an ending, a time, shown to mean one revolution.

“This then represents the circle made in the northern heaven by the Great Bear, which constituted the earliest year of time, from which we infer that the loop or Ru of the North represents that quarter, the birth-place of time when figured as the Ru of the Ankh symbol. Indeed this can be proved. The noose is an Ark or Rak type of reckoning. The Ru of the Ankh-cross was continued in the Cypriote image_il and the Coptic Ro, P.† The Ro was carried into the Greek cross image_il, which is formed of the Ro and Chi or R-K. . . . The Rak, or Ank, was the sign of all beginning (Arche) on this account, and the Ank-tie is the cross of the North, the hind part of Heaven. . . .”

Now this, again, is entirely astronomical and phallic. The Puranic version in India gives the whole another colour; and without, however,


destroying the above interpretation it is made to reveal a portion of its mysteries with the help of the astronomical key, and thus offers a more metaphysical rendering. The “Ankh-tie” image_il does not belong to Egypt alone. It exists under the name of pasa, a cord which Siva holds in the hand of his right back arm* (Siva having four arms). The Mahadeva is represented in the posture of an ascetic, as Maha-Yogi, with his third eye image_il, which is “the Ru, image_il, set upright on the Tau-Cross” in another form. The pasa is held in the hand in such a way that it is the first finger and hand near the thumb which make the cross, or loop and crossing. image_il Our Orientalists would have it to represent a cord to bind refractory offenders with, because, forsooth, Kali, Siva’s consort, has the same as an attribute!


The pasa has here a double significance, as also has Siva’s trisula and every other divine attribute. This significance lies in Siva, as Rudra has certainly the same meaning as the Egyptian ansated cross in its cosmic and mystic meaning. In the hand of Siva it becomes linghayic and yonic. That which is meant is this: Siva, as said before, is unknown by that name in the Vedas; and it is in the white Yajur Veda that he appears for the first time as the great god — Mahadeva — whose symbol is the lingham. In Rig Veda he is called Rudra, the “howler,” the beneficent and the maleficent Deity at the same time, the Healer and the Destroyer. In the Vishnu Purana, he is the god who springs from the forehead of Brahma, who separates into male and female, and he is the parent of the Rudras or Maruts, half of whom are brilliant and gentle, others, black and ferocious. In the Vedas, he is the divine Ego aspiring to return to its pure, deific state, and at the same time that divine ego imprisoned in earthly form, whose fierce passions make of him the “roarer,” the “terrible.” This is well shown in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, wherein the Rudras, the progeny of Rudra, god of fire, are called the “ten vital breaths” (prana, life) with manas, as eleventh, whereas as Siva, he is the Destroyer of that life. Brahma calls him Rudra, and gives him, besides, seven other names, which names are his seven forms of manifestation, also the seven powers of nature which destroy but to recreate or regenerate.


Hence the cruciform noose (pasa) in his hand, when he is represented as an ascetic, the Mahayogin, has no phallic signification, and it, indeed, requires a strong imagination bent in this direction to find such even in


Vol. 2, Page 549 “GUHA,” THE MYSTERIOUS.

an astronomical symbol. As an emblem of “door, gate, mouth, the place of outlet” it signifies the “strait gate” that leads to the kingdom of heaven, far more than the “birth-place” in a physiological sense.


It is a Cross in a Circle and Crux Ansata, truly; but it is a Cross on which all the human passions have to be crucified before the Yogi passes through the “strait gate,” the narrow circle that widens into an infinite one, as soon as the inner man has passed the threshold.


As to the mysterious constellation of the Seven Rishis in the great Bear, if Egypt made them sacred to “the oldest genitrix, Typhon” — India has connected all these symbols ages ago with time or Yuga revolutions, and the Saptarishis are intimately connected with our present age — the Dark Kali Yug.* The great Circle of Time, on the face of which fancy in India has represented the Tortoise (Kurma, or Sisumara, one of the Avatars of Vishnu), has the Cross placed on it by nature in its division and localisation of stars, planets and constellations. Thus in Bhagavata Purana V., xxx., it is said that “at the extremity of the tail of that animal, whose head is directed toward the South and whose body is in the shape of a ring (Circle), Dhruva (the ex-pole star) is placed; and along that tail are the Prajapati, Agni, Indra, Dharma, etc.; and across its loins the Seven Rishis.” This is then the first and earliest Cross and Circle, into the formation of which enters the Deity (symbolized by Vishnu), the Eternal Circle of Boundless Time, Kala, on whose plane lie crossways all the gods, creatures, and creations born in Space and Time; — who, as the philosophy has it, all die at the Mahapralaya.


Meanwhile it is they, the Seven Rishis, who mark the time and the duration of events in our septenary life cycle. They are as mysterious as their supposed wives, the Pleiades, of whom only one — she who hides — has proven virtuous. The Pleiades (Krittika) are the nurses of Karttikeya, the God of War (Mars of the Western Pagans), who is called the Commander of the celestial armies — or rather of the Siddhas (translated Yogis in heaven, and holy sages on the earth) — “Siddha-sena,” which would make Karttikeya identical with Michael, the “leader of the celestial hosts” and, like himself, a virgin Kumara.† Verily he is the “Guha,” the mysterious one, as much so as are the Saptarshis and the Krittika (seven Rishis and the Pleiades), for the interpretation of all these combined, reveal to the adept the greatest mysteries of occult nature. One point is worth mention in this question of cross and



they did it — by their one divine Incarnation. Exoterically — both are wrong; esoterically both of them are very near the truth. Alone, among the Apostles of the Western religion, Paul seems to have fathomed — if not actually revealed — the archaic mystery of the Cross. As for the rest of those who, by unifying and individualizing the Universal Presence, have thus synthesized it into one symbol — the central Point in the Crucifix — they have shown thereby that they have never seized the true Spirit of the teaching of Christ, and by their interpretations they have degraded it in more than one way. They have forgotten the Spirit of that universal symbol and have selfishly monopolized it — as though the Boundless and the Infinite can ever be limited and conditioned to one manifestation individualized in one man, or even in a nation!


The four arms of the “image_il,” the decussated cross, and of the “Hermetic,” pointing to the four cardinal points — were well understood by the mystical minds of the Hindus, Brahmins and Buddhists, thousands of years before it was heard of in Europe; and that symbol was and is found all over the world. They bent the ends of that cross and made of it their Swastica image_il now the Wan of the Buddhist Mongolian.* It implies that the “Central point” is not limited to one individual, however perfect. That the Principle (God) is in Humanity, and Humanity, as all the rest, is in it, like drops of water are in the Ocean, the four ends being toward the four cardinal points, hence losing themselves in infinity.


Isarim, an Initiate, is said to have found at Hebron, on the dead body of Hermes, the well known Smaragdine tablet, which, it is said, contained the essence of Hermetic wisdom . . . . “Separate the earth from the fire, the subtile from the gross . . . . Ascend from the earth to heaven and then descend again to earth” was traced on it. The riddle of the cross is contained in these words, and its double mystery is solved — to the Occultist.


“The philosophical cross, the two lines running in opposite directions, the horizontal and the perpendicular, the height and breadth, which the geometrizing Deity divides at the intersecting point, and which forms the magical as well as the scientific quaternary, when it is inscribed within the perfect square, is the basis of the occultist. Within its mystical precinct lies the master-key which opens the door of every science, physical as well as spiritual. It symbolizes our human existence, for the circle of life circum-


scribes the four points of the cross, which represent in succession birth, life, death, and immortality.

“ ‘Attach thyself,’ say the alchemists, ‘to the four letters of the tetragram disposed in the following manner: The letters of the ineffable name are there, although thou mayest not discern them at first. The incommunicable axiom is kabalistically contained therein, and this is what is called the magic arcanum by the masters.’ ” (“Isis Unveiled.”)

Again: — The image_il (Tau), and the astronomical cross of Egypt image_il are conspicuous in several apertures of the remains of Palenque. In one of the basso-relievos of the Palace of Palenque, on the west side, sculptured as a hieroglyphic right under the seated figure, is a Tau. The standing figure, which leans over the first one, is in the act of covering its head with the left hand with the veil of initiation; while it extends its right with the index and middle finger pointing to heaven. The position is precisely that of a Christian bishop giving his blessing, or the one in which Jesus is often represented while at the Last Supper. . . . The Egyptian Hierophant had a square head-dress which he had to wear always during his functions. . . . The perfect Tau, formed of the perpendicular (descending male ray), and a horizontal line (matter, female principle), and the mundane circle was an attribute of Isis, and it is but at death that the Egyptian cross was laid on the breast of the mummy.” These square hats are worn unto this day by the Armenian priests. The claim that the cross is purely a Christian symbol introduced after our era, is strange indeed, when we find Ezekiel stamping the foreheads of the men of Judah, who feared the Lord (Ezekiel ix. 4), with the signum Thau, as it is translated in the Vulgate. In the ancient Hebrew this sign was formed thus image_il, but in the original Egyptian hieroglyphics as a perfect Christian cross image_il (Tat, the emblem of stability). In the Revelation, also, the “Alpha and Omega” (spirit and matter), the first and the last, stamps the name of his Father in the foreheads of the elect, (p. 323, Vol. II.) Moses, in Exodus xii. 22, orders his people to mark their door-posts and lintels with blood, lest the “Lord God” should make a mistake and smite some of his chosen people, instead of the doomed Egyptians. And this mark is a tau! The identical Egyptian handled cross, with the half of which talisman Horus raised the dead, as is shown on a sculptured ruin at Philoe.


Enough was said in the text about the Swastica and the Tau. Verily may the Cross be traced back into the very depths of the unfathomable Archaic Ages! Its Mystery deepens rather than clears, as we find it on the statues of Easter Island — in old Egypt, in Central Asia, engraved on rocks as Tau and Swastica, in pre-Christian Scandinavia,


everywhere! The author of the “Hebrew Egyptian Mystery” stands perplexed before the endless shadow it throws back into antiquity, and is unable to trace it to any particular nation or man. He shows the Targums handed down by the Hebrews, obscured by translation. In Joshua (viii. 29) read in Arabic, and in the Targum of Jonathan, it is said: “The king of Ai he crucified upon a tree.” The Septuagint rendering is of suspension from a double word (Wordsworth on Joshua.) . . . The strangest expression of this kind is in Numbers xxv. 4, where, by Onkalos (?) it is read: “Crucify them before the Lord (Jehovah) against the Sun.” “The word here image_il, to nail to, is rendered properly (Fuerst) by the Vulgate to crucify. The very construction of this sentence is mystic.”


So it is, but the spirit of it has been ever misunderstood. “To crucify before (not against) the sun” is a phrase used of initiation. It comes from Egypt, and primarily from India. The enigma can be unriddled only by searching for its key in the Mysteries of Initiation. The initiated adept, who had successfully passed through all the trials, was attached, not nailed, but simply tied on a couch in the form of a tau image_il (in Egypt) of a Svastika without the four additional prolongations (thus: image_il, not image_il) plunged in a deep sleep (the “Sleep of Siloam” it is called to this day among the Initiates in Asia Minor, in Syria, and even higher Egypt). He was allowed to remain in this state for three days and three nights, during which time his Spiritual Ego was said to confabulate with the “gods,” descend into Hades, Amenti, or Patala, (according to the country), and do works of charity to the invisible beings, whether souls of men or Elemental Spirits; his body remaining all the time in a temple crypt or subterranean cave. In Egypt it was placed in the Sarcophagus in the King’s Chamber of the Pyramid of Cheops, and carried during the night of the approaching third day to the entrance of a gallery, where at a certain hour the beams of the rising Sun struck full on the face of the entranced candidate, who awoke to be initiated by Osiris, and Thoth the God of Wisdom.


Let the reader who doubts the statement consult the Hebrew originals before he denies. Let him turn to some most suggestive Egyptian bas reliefs. One especially from the temple of Philoe, represents a scene of initiation. Two Gods-Hierophants, one with the head of a hawk (the Sun), the other ibis-headed (Mercury, Thoth, the god of Wisdom and secret learning, the assessor of Osiris-Sun), are standing over the body of a candidate just initiated. They are in the act of pouring on his head a double stream of water (the water of life and new birth), which stream is interlaced in the shape of a cross and full of small ansated crosses. This is allegorical of the awakening of the candidate



(now an Initiate), when the beams of the morning sun (Osiris) strike the crown of his head (his entranced body being placed on its wooden tau so as to receive the rays). Then appeared the Hierophants-Initiators, and the sacramental words were pronounced, ostensibly, to the Sun-Osiris, addressed in reality to the Spirit Sun within, enlightening the newly-born man. Let the reader meditate on the connection of the Sun with the Cross in both its generative and spiritually regenerative capacities — from the highest antiquity. Let him examine the tomb of Bait-Oxly, in the reign of Ramses II., where he will find the crosses in every shape and position. So again, on the throne of that sovereign, and finally on a fragment from the Hall of the ancestors of Totmes III., preserved in the National Library of Paris, which represents the adoration of Bakhan-Aleare.


In this extraordinary sculpture and painting one sees the disc of the Sun beaming upon an ansated cross placed upon a cross of which those of the Calvary were perfect copies. The ancient MSS. mention these as the “hard couches of those who were in (spiritual) travail, the act of giving birth to themselves.” A quantity of such cruciform “couches,” on which the candidate, thrown into a dead trance at the end of his supreme initiation, was placed and secured, were found in the underground halls of the Egyptian temples after their destruction. The worthy and holy Fathers of the Cyril and Theophilus types used them freely, believing they had been brought and concealed there by some new converts. Alone Origen, and after him Clemens Alexandrinus and other ex-initiates, knew better. But they preferred to keep silent.


Again, let the reader read the Hindu “fables,” as the Orientalists call them, and remember the allegory of Visvakarma, the creative power, the great architect of the world, called in the Veda “the all-seeing god,” who “sacrifices himself to himself” (the Spiritual Egos of mortals are his own essence, one with him, therefore). Remember that he is called Deva Vardhika “the builder of the gods” and that it is he who ties (the Sun) Surya, his son-in-law, on his lathe, in the exoteric allegory; on the Swastika, in esoteric tradition, as on earth he is the Hierophant Initiator, and cuts away a portion of his brightness. Visvakarma, remember again, is the Son of Yoga-Siddha, i.e., the holy power of Yoga, and the fabricator of the “fiery weapon,” the magic Agneyastra. The narrative is given more fully elsewhere. The author of the Kabalistic work so often quoted from, asks: —


“The theoretical use of crucifixion must have been somehow connected with the personification of this symbol (the structure of the garden of Paradise symbolized by a crucified man). But how? And as showing what? The symbol was of the origin of measures, shadowing forth creative law or design. What practically, as regards humanity,



could actual crucifixion betoken? Yet, that it was held as the effigy of some mysterious working of the same system, is shown from the very fact of the use. There seems to be deep below deep as to the mysterious workings of these number values — (the symbolization of the connection of 113 : 355, with 20612 : 6561, by a crucified man). Not only are they shown to work in the Kosmos . . . . but by sympathy, they seem to work out conditions relating to an unseen and spiritual world, and the prophets seem to have held knowledge of the connecting link. . . . Reflection becomes more involved when it is considered that the power of expression of the law, exactly, by numbers, clearly defining a system, was not the accident of the language, but was its very essence, and of its primary organic construction; therefore, neither the language, nor the mathematical system attaching to it, could be of man’s invention, unless both were founded upon a prior language, which afterwards became obsolete . . . ” (p. 205).


The author proves these points by further elucidation, and reveals the secret meaning of more than one dead-letter narrative, by showing that probably image_il man was the primordial word — “the very first word possessed by the Hebrews, whoever they were, to carry the idea by sound of a man. The essential of this word was 113 (the numerical value of that word) from the beginning, and carried with it the elements of the cosmical system displayed.”


This is demonstrated by the Hindu Wittoba — a form of Vishnu — as said already. The figure of Wittoba, even to the nail-marks on the feet,* is that of Jesus crucified, in all its details save the Cross; and that man was meant is proved to us further by the fact of the Initiate being reborn after his crucifixion on the tree of life. This “tree” has now become exoterically, through its use by the Romans as an instrument of torture, and the ignorance of the early Christian schemers, the tree of death!


Thus, one of the seven esoteric meanings implied in this mystery of Crucifixion by the mystic inventors of the system — the original elaboration and adoption of which dates back to the very establishment of the mysteries — is discovered in the geometrical symbols containing the history of the evolution of man. The Hebrews, whose prophet Moses was so learned in the esoteric Wisdom of Egypt, and who adopted their numerical system from the Phoenicians, and later from the Gentiles, from whom they borrowed most of their Kabalistic Mysticism, adapted, most ingeniously, the Cosmic and anthropological symbols of the “heathen” nations to their peculiar secret records. If Christian


Footnote(s) ———————————————

* See Moor’s Hindu Pantheon, where Wittoba’s left foot bears the mark of the nail — on the figure of his idol.



In his masterwork Introduction to Christianity, Joseph Ratzinger reminds us of the connection, once readily apparent to our Greek-speaking Church Fathers, between Plato’s fate of the just man and the fate of Jesus of Nazareth.

The Cross is revelation. It reveals, not any particular thing, but God and man. It reveals who God is and in what way man is. There is a curious presentiment of this situation in Greek philosophy: Plato’s image of the crucified ‘just man.’ In Republic the great philosopher asks what is likely to be the position of a completely just man in this world. He comes to the conclusion that a man’s righteousness is only complete and guaranteed when he takes on the appearance of unrighteousness, for only then is it clear that he does not follow the opinion of men but pursues justice only for its own sake. So according to Plato the truly just man must be misunderstood and persecuted in this world; indeed Plato goes so far as to write: “They will say that our just man will be scourged, racked, fettered, will have his eyes burned out, and at last, after all manner of suffering, will be crucified.” This passage, written four hundred years before Christ, is always bound to move a Christian deeply. (Ratzinger, Introdruction to Christianity p. 292; cf. Plato, Republic, II.362a)

Certainly, the translation Ratzinger uses lends itself to an obvious Christian connection, although the original Greek is not so explicit. The Greek term we find in Plato’s text, ἀνασκολοπίζω (anaskolopizo), is not so much “crucify” as “impale” or “pierce”. And yet, even Greek has several other words for the same idea. In John 19, for “pierce” we find both the verb νύσσω in verse 34 (ἀλλ’ εἷς τῶν στρατιωτῶν λόγχῃ αὐτοῦ τὴν πλευρὰν ἔνυξεν; “but the soldiers took a spear and pierced his side”) and, when referring to the prophecy of Zechariah, we find the verb ἐκκεντέω (ekkenteo) in verse 37 (καὶ πάλιν ἑτέρα γραφὴ λέγει, Ὄψονται εἰς ὃν ἐξεκέντησαν; “and another that says, “they will look upon him whom they have pierced.'”) When we examine the Old Testament, the verb κρεμαννυμι (kremmannumi) comes up most often for “impale”. By contrast, the Gospels quite singularly uses the verb σταυρόω (stauroo) to denote the act of crucifixion.


Is all this enough to prove the idea, so often raised by detractors of Christianity, that Ratzinger, like the Fathers before him, did violence to Plato’s text in order to prove a Christian point? Perhaps an investigation into the nature of the two punishments (ἀνασκολοπίζω and σταυρόω) will help shed some light.


To impale a man is to impose a particularly gruesome punishment on him. The point is not to kill him immediately, but to wound him in such a manner that he dies a slow, painful death. The stake, if it does not puncture the chest cavity (thus leaving the heart and lungs intact), allows the victim to breathe only with the greatest pain while denying him the mercy of a quick suffocation. Furthermore, impalement is often a public punishment, used as an effective deterrent to would be-criminals, for the skewered body remains in plain sight for all to see. Often, such executions occurred not upon freestanding stakes, but upon poles placed perpendicularly into city walls, such that the body, often still alive and screaming, remains pinned high on the parapets, visible to passers-by and visitors to the city, open to the wiles of wild animals and birds of prey.


When we compare this kind of impalement to crucifixion, we realize that the differences are not so great after all. Crucifixion is nothing but the most sinister form of impalement. It is, in fact, a relatively late development in the history of executions, a development wrought as a way to extend the tortures of impalement. No wonder, therefore, that the word or even the idea of stauros did not exist in Plato’s time.


Instead of a large pike piercing the torso, smaller nails pierce the limbs, which are too weak to effectively hold the body’s weight for prolonged periods. The bloodletting is too minimal to offer a swift demise. As strength leaves the arms, the victim must painfully stand up upon his nailed feet to relieve the pressure on his chest cavity in order to breathe. This painful alternation of hanging from one’s arms and standing on one’s nailed feet repeats viciously until the victim loses consciousness. Often, crucifixion prolonged the already-fierce suffering of impalement not by hours but by days or even weeks. And like its ancient parent punishment, crucifixion is by nature a public sentence meant to strike the fear of the State into the heart of each witness. For example, after Spartacus’ slave rebellion was finally crushed, the surviving rebels, numbering in the thousands, were hoisted upon crosses along the Via Appia, the “queen of Roman highways”, stretching from Rome to Capua– the Republic’s unequivocal admonition against those who would dare defy the Senatus Popolusque Romanus.


Back to Plato: his text affirms that the just man is a meek and humble one, who bears his burdens patiently (NB: Latin patiens means “suffering”!), and who endures even the humiliating, public spectacle of death by impalement, all because of his unshakable commitment to truth and justice. Plato’s man is reviled and rejected by society and accordingly executed, for his ways are “not of this world”.


Do we not, therefore, find echoes of the Suffering Servant of Isaiah 52-53? Is not Plato’s man “spurned and avoided by men,” with “no stately bearing or appearance to make us look at him”? Is he not also “crushed” and “pierced”, “a man of suffering, accustomed to infirmity”?


Of course, since New Testament times, Christians have universally read this passage from Isaiah as a prophecy of the Passion and Cross. Is it therefore any wonder that our Greek-speaking Church Fathers, steeped in the Graeco-Jewish cultural and intellectual cross-fertilization epitomized by the Septuagint, seized upon the similarities between Plato’s just man and the servant foretold by Isaiah’s oracle?


Against this backdrop, the apparent linguistic gulf between ἀνασκολοπίζω and σταυρόω diminishes greatly. For if crucifixion is indeed impalement taken to its most extreme incarnation, then Christ too, enemy of the SPQR, was executed by impalement, and in his Passion, he too was “scourged, fettered, and racked”. In all, the similarities are too great for a man of faith to ignore, and indeed the Fathers and Ratzinger did not make a merely facile comparison, but were right to say that our passage from the Republic, “written four hundred years before Christ, is always bound to move a Christian deeply.”

Chapter LX.—Plato’s doctrine of the cross.

And the physiological discussion1889 concerning the Son of God in the Timæus of Plato, where he says, “He placed him crosswise1890 in the universe,” he borrowed in like manner from Moses; for in the writings of Moses it is related how at that time, when the Israelites went out of Egypt and were in the wilderness, they fell in with poisonous beasts, both vipers and asps, and every kind of serpent, which slew the people; and that Moses, by the inspiration and influence of God, took brass, and made it into the figure of a cross, and set it in the holy tabernacle, and said to the people, “If ye look to this figure, and believe, ye shall be saved thereby.”1891 And when this was done, it is recorded that the serpents died, and it is handed down that the people thus escaped death. Which things Plato reading, and not accurately understanding, and not apprehending that it was the figure of the cross, but taking it to be a placing crosswise, he said that the power next to the first God was placed crosswise in the universe. And as to his speaking of a third, he did this because he read, as we said above, that which was spoken by Moses, “that the Spirit of God moved over the waters.” For he gives the second place to the Logos which is with God, who he said was placed crosswise in the universe; and the third place to the Spirit who was said to be borne upon the water, saying, “And the third around the third.”1892 And hear how the Spirit of prophecy signified through Moses that there should be a conflagration. He spoke thus: “Everlasting fire shall descend, and shall devour to the pit beneath.”1893 It is not, then, that we hold the same opinions as others, but that all speak in imitation of ours. Among us these things can be heard and learned from persons who do not even know the forms of the letters, who are uneducated and barbarous in speech, though wise and believing in mind; some, indeed, even maimed and deprived of eyesight; so that you may understand that these things are not the effect of human wisdom, but are uttered by the power of God.


The Cross is the Cube unfolded. When the Cube is unfolded it forms a seven part Cross. The Cube (Yahweh concealed) is the Cross (Yahweh revealed).




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Joseph Smith and the Jupiter Talisman


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Question: Did Joseph Smith have a Jupiter talisman on his person at the time of his death?


The only source of evidence that claims Joseph Smith had the Jupiter Talisman on his person is Charles Bidamon, made long after the death of Joseph and Emma

Did Joseph have this Talisman on him when he was murdered? What would it mean if he did?

This well circulated claim finds its origins in a 1974 talk by Dr. Reed Durham. Durham said that Joseph "evidently [had a Talisman] on his person when he was martyred. The talisman, originally purchased from the Emma Smith Bidamon family, fully notarized by that family to be authentic and to have belonged to Joseph Smith, can now be identified as a Jupiter talisman."[1]

There is only one source of evidence that claims Joseph Smith had the Jupiter Talisman on his person, and that source is Charles Bidamon. Bidamon's statement was made long after the death of Joseph and Emma, relied on memories from his youth, and was undergirded by financial motives.

The idea that Joseph Smith might have had a Jupiter Talisman in his possession is used by critics of the Church as proof of his fascination with the occult. As one work put it: "The fact that Smith owned a Jupiter talisman shows that his fascination with the occult was not just a childish fad. At the time of his death, Smith had on his person this talisman....[2]

By contrast, contemporary evidence demonstrates that Joseph did not have such a Talisman in his possession at his death.


Question: What is the source of the story about Joseph Smith possessing a Jupiter talisman?


The source of the Talisman story, upon which Dr. Durham based his remarks, was Wilford C. Wood, who was told it by Charles Bidamon, the son of Lewis Bidamon

Lewis was Emma Smith's non-Mormon second husband. Charles was born following an affair between Lewis Bidamon and Nancy Abercrombie, which occurred while Lewis was married to Emma. Charles was taken in by Emma when four years old, and raised by her until her death 11 years later.[3] (This action says much for Emma's charity.)

The talisman, or "silver pocket piece" as described in 1937, appeared on a list of items purportedly own by Joseph Smith which were to be sold by Charles Bidamon

Richard Lloyd Anderson wrote that the Talisman, or "silver pocket piece" as described in 1937, appeared on a list of items purportedly own by Joseph Smith which were to be sold by Charles Bidamon. One item listed was "a silver pocket piece which was in the Prophet's pocket at the time of his assassination."[4]:541 Wilford Wood, who collected Mormon memorabilia, purchased it in 1938 along with a document from Bidamon certifying that the Prophet possessed it when murdered. The affidavit sworn to by Charles Bidamon at the time of Wilford C. Wood's purchase was very specific:

This piece came to me through the relationship of my father, Major L. C. Bidamon, who married the Prophet Joseph Smith's widow, Emma Smith. I certify that I have many times heard her say, when being interviewed, and showing the piece, that it was in the Prophet's pocket when he was martyred at Carthage, Ill.[4]:558

Bidamon waited fifty-eight years after Emma’s death to make his certification, and notes that at the time of her death he was only fifteen years old.

Anderson noted that Bidamon waited fifty-eight years after Emma’s death to make his certification, and notes that at the time of her death he was only fifteen years old.

Durham based his comments on Wood's description for the item which was: "This piece [the Talisman] was in Joseph Smith's pocket when he was martyred at Carthage Jail."[4]:558[5] However, a list of the items in Joseph's possession at the time of his death was provided to Emma following the martyrdom. On this list there was no mention made of any Talisman-like item. If there had been such an article, it ought to have been listed.

The list of items in Joseph's possession at the time of his death did not list the talisman among them

In 1984, Anderson located and published the itemized list of the contents of Joseph Smith's pockets at his death. The list was originally published in 1885 in Iowa by James W. Woods, Smith's lawyer, who collected the prophet's personal effects after the Martyrdom. The contents from the published 1885 printing are as follows:

Received, Nauvoo, Illinois, July 2, 1844, of James W. Woods, one hundred and thirty- five dollars and fifty cents in gold and silver and receipt for shroud, one gold finger ring, one gold pen and pencil case, one penknife, one pair of tweezers, one silk and one leather purse, one small pocket wallet containing a note of John P. Green for $50, and a receipt of Heber C. Kimball for a note of hand on Ellen M. Saunders for one thousand dollars, as the property of Joseph Smith. - Emma Smith.[4]:558[6]

No Talisman or item like it is listed. It could not be mistaken for a coin or even a "Masonic Jewel" as Durham first thought. Anderson described the Talisman as being “an inch-and-a-half in diameter and covered with symbols and a prayer on one side and square of sixteen Hebrew characters on the other.”[4]:541 Significant is the fact that no associate of Joseph Smith has ever mentioned anything like this medallion. There are no interviews that ever record Emma mentioning any such item as attested to by Charles Bidamon, though he claimed she often spoke of it.


Question: Could the list of items on Joseph's person at the time of his death have been incomplete?


Bidamon's certification clearly states that the Talisman was "in the Prophet’s pocket when he was martyred"

More recent arguments contend that Wood’s list was exaggerated or was an all together different type of list. For example, some suggest that since neither Joseph's gun or hat were on the report, the list must not be complete. It should be obvious, however, that these items were not found on Joseph's person. The record clearly states that he dropped his gun and left it behind before being murdered. As for the hat, even if he had been wearing it indoors, it seems unlikely to have remained on his head after a gun-fight and fall from a second-story window.

Critics also argue that the Talisman was not accounted for was because it ought to have been worn around the neck, hidden from view and secret to all (including Emma no less). Thus, the argument runs, it was overlooked in the inventory. While it may be true that Talismans are worn around the neck, Bidamon's certification clearly states that the Talisman was "in the Prophet’s pocket when he was martyred." So which is it? In his pocket like a lucky charm or secretly worn around his neck as such an item should properly be used? In either case, the record is clear that he did not have a Talisman on his person at the time of his death. The rest is speculation.

The critics also resort to arguing that a prisoner could not possibly have had a penknife, so how accurate can the list of Joseph's possessions be? Obviously, the fact that he had a gun makes the possession of a knife a matter of no consequence.[7] Critics will dismiss contemporary evidence simply because it is inconvenient.

As a final note to the saga, when Durham was later asked how he felt about his speech regarding the Talisman, he replied:

I now wish I had presented some of my material differently.” “For instance, at the present time, after checking my data, I find no primary evidence that Joseph Smith ever possessed a Jupiter Talisman. The source for my comment was a second-hand, late source. It came from Wilford Wood, who was told it by Charlie Bidamon, who was told it by his father, Lewis Bidamon, who was Emma’s second husband and non-Mormon not too friendly to the LDS Church. So the idea that the Prophet had such a talisman is highly questionable.[8]


Stephen Robinson: "In the case of the Jupiter coin, this same extrapolation error is compounded with a very uncritical acceptance of the artifact in the first place"


Of the matter of the Jupiter talisman that is alleged to have been among Joseph Smith's possessions at the time of his death, Stephen Robinson wrote:

In the case of the Jupiter coin, this same extrapolation error is compounded with a very uncritical acceptance of the artifact in the first place. If the coin were Joseph's, that fact alone would tell us nothing about what it meant to him. But in fact there is insufficient evidence to prove that the artifact ever belonged to the Prophet. The coin was completely unknown until 1930 when an aging Charles Bidamon sold it to Wilford Wood. The only evidence that it was Joseph's is an affidavit of Bidamon, who stood to gain financially by so representing it. Quinn [and any other critic who embraces this theory] uncritically accepts Bidamon's affidavit as solid proof that the coin was Joseph's. Yet the coin was not mentioned in the 1844 list of Joseph's possessions returned to Emma. Quinn negotiates this difficulty by suggesting the coin must have been worn around Joseph's neck under his shirt. But in so doing Quinn impeaches his only witness for the coin's authenticity, for Bidamon's affidavit, the only evidence linking the coin to Joseph, specifically and solemnly swears that the coin was in Joseph's pocket at Carthage. The real empirical evidence here is just too weak to prove that the coin was really Joseph's, let alone to extrapolate a conclusion from mere possession of the artifact that Joseph must have believed in and practiced magic. The recent Hofmann affair should have taught us that an affidavit from the seller, especially a 1930 affidavit to third hand information contradicted by the 1844 evidence, just isn't enough 'proof' to hang your hat on.[9]


Question: What is the probability that Joseph Smith possessed items related to "magic"?


Probability problems

This claim rests upon a lengthy chain of supposition:[10]

Joseph himself owned the item (e.g., parchment, Mars dagger, or Jupiter talisman).

His possession dates to his early days of "treasure seeking."

He used them for magical purposes.

He made them himself or commissioned them.

He therefore must have used magic books to make them.

He therefore must have had an occult mentor to help him with the difficult process of understanding the magical books and making these items.

This occult mentor transmitted extensive arcane hermetic lore to Joseph beyond the knowledge necessary to make the artifacts.

Theses seven propositions are simply a tissue of assumptions, assertions, and speculations. There is no contemporary primary evidence that Joseph himself owned or used these items. We do not know when, how, or why these items became heirlooms of the Hyrum Smith family. Again, there is no contemporary primary evidence that mentions Joseph or anyone in his family using these artifacts—as Quinn himself noted, "possession alone may not be proof of use." There is no evidence that Joseph ever had any magic books. There is no evidence that Joseph ever had an occult mentor who helped him make or use these items.


The methodology used by the critics is a classic example of what one could call the miracle of the addition of the probabilities. The case relies on a rickety tower of unproven propositions that do not provide certainty, rather a geometrically increasing improbability. Probabilities are multiplied, not added. Combining two propositions, each of which has a 50% probability, does not create a 100% probability, it creates a 25% probability that both are true together:

chance of proposition #1 being true = 50% = 0.5

chance of proposition #2 being true = 50% = 0.5

chance of BOTH being true = .5 x .5 = .25 = 25%

Allowing each of these seven propositions a 50% probability—a very generous allowance—creates a .0078% probability that the combination of all seven propositions is true. And this is only one element of a very complex and convoluted argument, with literally dozens of similar unverified assertions. The result is a monumentally high improbability that the overall thesis is correct.

A non-response to this argument

D. Michael Quinn, a major proponent of the "magick" argument, responded to the above by claiming that "Only when cumulative evidence runs contrary to the FARMS agenda, do polemicists like Hamblin want readers to view each piece of evidence as though it existed in isolation."[11]

Replied Hamblin:

Quinn misunderstands and misrepresents my position on what I have called the "miracle of the addition of the probabilities"....

[Quinn's rebuttal discusses] the process of the verification of historical evidence. The issue was unproven propositions, not parallel evidence.

Quinn...proposed that a series of "magic" artifacts provide evidence that Joseph Smith practiced magic. My position is that, in order for us to accept any particular artifact as a single piece of evidence, we must first accept several unproven propositions, each of which may be true or false, but none of which is proven. The more unproven propositions one must accept to validate a piece of evidence, the greater the probability that the evidence is not, in fact, authentic. Thus, two historiographical processes are under discussion. One is the authentication of a particular piece of evidence: did Joseph own a magical talisman and use it to perform magical rites? The second is the cumulative significance of previously authenticated evidence in proving a particular thesis: does the authentication of the use of the talisman demonstrate that Joseph was a magician who adhered to a magical worldview? Quinn apparently cannot distinguish between these two phases of the historical endeavor, which goes far to account for some of the numerous failings in his book....

Of course the probative value of evidence is cumulative. The more evidence you have, the greater the probability that your overall thesis is true. Thus, if Quinn can demonstrate that the talisman and the parchment and the dagger all belonged to the Smith family and were used for magical purposes, it would be more probable that his overall thesis is true than if he could establish only that the Smiths owned and used just one of those three items. But my argument is that the authenticity of each of these pieces of evidence rests on half a dozen unproven propositions and assumptions.[12]


To see citations to the critical sources for these claims, click here


The city foursquare has 16 squares the article describesd the same as the taj majal. The Israelites also were placed in their camps in four sections in the form of a cross

Christian scientists begin every church session with the 16 part Lords Prayer

She takes us back in time to the scientific age of the Christ era where an inspired writer tells us in the closing pages of the Bible about a concept he had envisioned of a foursquare city descending from God to humanity that all the kings and nations would bring their honor into.

This is what Mary Baker Eddy has done. She built everything that she has created onto the platform of this fundamental foursquare 'city.' In a sense, she has brought all of her works into this city, which thereby became a city of profound concepts.

For this reason all of her works are created in 16 parts or multiples thereof, including the 16 verses of Christ and Christmas and their illustrations, which in some cases are divided into two halves where two verses are attached.

A foursquare matrix can be seen in different ways. It can be seen as a structure of rows that represent four specific points of perception, or levels of thinking.

A foursquare structure can also be seen in terms of four columns of vertically interrelated elements that represents streams of upwards oriented development of progressive concepts.

Mary Baker Eddy provided each of these concepts a fundamental definition in the last pages of her own book, her textbook for the science she has discovered. In these last pages, of the last chapter, she describes with some significant details the nature of that structure, a city foursquare, that would support the future development of humanity and civilization.

She describes the structure in terms of its main points, or levels of perception. She writes: "This spiritual, holy habitation has no boundary nor limit, but its four cardinal points are:

first, the Word of Life, Truth, and Love;

second, the Christ, the spiritual idea of God;

third, Christianity, which is the outcome of the divine Principle of the Christ-idea in Christian history;

fourth, Christian Science, which to-day and forever interprets this great example and the great Exemplar.

This city of our God has no need of sun or satellite, for Love is the light of it, and divine Mind is its own interpreter."

If one looks closely at this little scene from the 4th painting, one notes a tablet in the woman's lap, which is divided both horizontally and vertically. With this division taken into account it makes sense that Christian Science should be located at the lowest level. This is the level where all the great material problems are located, especially those that have remained unresolved throughout history, which only spiritual science, the Christ Science, can address.

Vertically I have labeled the two halves Temple and Church, with temple relating to our inner development, and church relating to our outer development as society'.

Mary Baker Eddy also defines the columns in a similarly extensive manner. In addition, she also gives the four columns the names of the four rivers mentioned in the early pages of the Bible. She further describes the four columns in terms of geographic orientation, sequenced in accord with the daily cycle of the Sun.

She writes.

"Northward, its gates open to the North Star, the Word, the polar magnet of Revelation;

eastward, to the star seen by the Wisemen of the Orient, who followed it to the manger of Jesus;

southward, to the genial tropics, with the Southern Cross in the skies, - the Cross of Calvary, which binds human society into solemn union;

westward, to the grand realization of the Golden Shore of Love and the Peaceful Sea of Harmony.

Her definitions for the foursquare structure are unequalled in the world, though the foursquare concept itself is not.

The foursquare concept is fully incorporated in the design of the garden of the Taj Mahal in India, which may have been built in the 11th and 12th Century. The difference is that Mary Baker Eddy's foursquare structure has no direct physical representation. It exists only as a city of interconnected spiritual concepts and ideas. When this is taken into account, there exists also a slight correlative for the center of the structure. In the garden of the Taj Mahal the center is a raised pool, called the pool of abundance. In Mary Baker Eddy's structure, it exists purely as an idea that is the composite of divine Truth, Soul and Love.

The Taj Malal's central pool is a big thing that dominates the entire garden. In comparison, the central concept of Mary Baker Eddy's structure is so kept out of sight that it is deemed not to exist, though it becomes monumental once it is discovered. This comparison is essentially true about Mary Baker Eddy's entire foursquare structure.

While the Taj Mahal is universally known around the world and has become a tourist attraction, Mary Baker Eddy spiritual structure, which is of far greater complexity and significance, is largely not even known to exist. And this should be so, because the most profound is spiritual, and not recognized until its significance can be understood. So, it will never be a tourist attraction.

While Mary Baker Eddy's external achievements are known, it remains largely unknown what they are built on and are a part of, and how they are related to it.

Mary Baker Eddy created her works as three types of structures. They are either development oriented structures, or platform structures, or a combination of both.

The developmental structures all begin at the lowest position in the first column and sequence upwards column by column, ending at the highest point in the last column.

The platform structures begin at the highest point and sequence backwards, and downward, level by level, across the lower concepts, ending at the lowest element in the first column.

However relating the Bible Lesson topics causes a bit of a problem, because a year has 52 weeks. Such a structure doesn't seem to fit. Or does it?

Mary Baker Eddy solved the puzzle by creating a set of 26 topics that are repeated semiannually. And since 26 elements are still impossible to relate to a 16 element structure, Mary Baker Eddy solved this additional puzzle by creating a third structure of 24 elements, two of which incorporate dual concepts. This structure is the textbook chapter, Recapitulation, which contains questions and answers, two of which are dual questions that bring the total up to 26.

Even Mary Baker Eddy's most extensive structure, her glossary structure of 144 elements, fits neatly into the city foursquare.

The type of interface for it is contained in the crown of the last painting. The crown incorporates a nine by sixteen dimension. In the frontal view the crown presents 9 jewels, but in the global view it contains 16 jewels.

There are two types of arrangements for the 9 glossary terms per element indicated in metaphor in the paintings for Christ and Christmas. One type is indicated in the crown in the form of triangular arrangements. Each triangle has three sides. In a triangle none of the sides are opposite to each other. This enables significant meanings to become illustrated.

The other type that is also indicated in metaphor is an arrangements of terms in two concentric circles. It contains four horizontal terms to represent the four rows in the small, and four vertical terms to represent the columns in the small, with one term left over standing in the middle as the primary term.

This type of arranging the sub-elements is indicated by the angel of science standing inside two concentric squares.

It should be noted that the glossary lists its terms alphabetically, so that the arrangement of the interrelationships becomes a reflection of one's developing understanding of the science of the concepts and their relationship to the whole of the body of science.

Nor does the glossary contain 144 listed terms. It contains fewer, but it also contains 5 different types of dual definitions that bring the total number up to 144. The factor of 5 is also indicated in the crown, both in Christ and Christmas, and later in her seal.

It is as if she was saying that if you don't recognize what the factor 5 represents, you do not recognize the glossary correctly, and so you cannot recognize its dynamic functioning.

When the glossary is developed as a structure of three triangles per element, a directionality becomes incorporated that adds still another dimension to the utility of the resulting structure, and the utility of the whole of Mary Baker Eddy's work. This is so, because nothing that she has created stands isolated by itself.

Everything that she has created has been brought by her into the city foursquare that now serves as a universal platform for scientific and spiritual development by which all parts, not just the glossary elements, become interrelated.

The scientific significance of Mary Baker Eddy bringing all of her works into the foursquare city, is that all of her works become thereby functionally connected into a single whole, element by element, since they are by design constituents of that single larger city.

This interlaced interrelationship dramatically expands the scientific dimension of the spiritual city. This means that every verse of Christ and Christmas and its associated scene, pertains to the corresponding element of everyone of her works in the foursquare city.

This vast interrelationship, of course, extends her work tremendously in significance, which is also reflected in her renowned healing accomplishments.

Because very little of Mary Baker Eddy's accomplishment is known to exist for reasons of the still underdeveloped scientific sense in society, one of her greatest healing contribution for civilization as a whole remains almost totally dormant. When it becomes developed some day it may become understood as the Manual for Civilization.

Two years before Mary Baker Eddy had created her poem Christ and Christmas, she had created a 16-element church manual, based squarely on the city foursquare. While this manual is specific in its details to the governing of her church, it incorporates a universal dimension that applies to the whole of civilization. After all, with Principle being singular, there can exist only one Principle of Civilization, not two, or half a dozen. And this single principle is of course universally applicable. It sets up a platform for a Manual for Civilization, for which the principles of her church manual can serve as a foundation. It provides a framework for healing and for endless development.

Another aspect that is also highly significant for the development of civilization is indicated in metaphor in the form of 9 birds surrounding the central cross in the last painting. The 9 birds are significant in that they represent the 9 names of the Children of Jacob, the man who later took on the name Israel.

Mary Baker Eddy selected 9 of the of the names of the sons of Jacob, which she defined in the glossary, to illustrate different types of responses to the divine idea, ranging from individual self-enslavement, all the way up to scientific freedom. With these, illustrated by their position, she unmasks the deadening nature of empire and the wide open nature of freedom in the truth.

It is rather amazing how vast a world of spiritual ideas and healing concepts is tied into this small illustrated poem, Christ and Christmas. Still, one shouldn't be surprised. Mary Baker Eddy was, and still stands today, as the unsurpassed leader in the field of scientific and spiritual development.

With this having been said, let's close the book and look at the cover once more, because the puzzle of the 56 rays of light can also have a more profound solution, than has been indicated at the beginning, since the foundation hadn't been built for that.

The number 56, when it is divided by 7, the composite spectrum of God, yields 8 fields to which the spectrum applies. These eight fields are located in the upper half of the foursquare city. These are the divine elements and the spiritual elements of Christ Science. Here is where humanity finds its power, its substance, and its freedom.

As Mary Baker Eddy had pointed out herself, farther we cannot go, higher we cannot look, and for more than this we cannot ask.


the textbook has 16 CHAPTERS

the lords prayer has 16 STANZAS

christ and christmas has 16 VERSES

the church manual has 16 SEGMENTS

Mary Baker Eddy draws a 16 square quadrant model matrix and calls it the foursquare


With this objective in mind, let's look at what a teacher for the Normal Class, who teaches the teachers, should know and understand about the Christian Science Platform and what it is a part of, and what it draws together into the type of wide-reaching summary platform that it is. Are you surprised at the vast scope of the associated elements that the platform represents?

Note: the Platform is made up of 32 parts. While this is not significant in itself, it becomes significant when one recognizes that the great summary platform that we are dealing with here summarizes everything that Mary Baker Eddy has created as a foundation for Christian Science, - a kind of foundation for stepping beyond the letter to the spirit.

For the building of this foundation Mary Baker Eddy begins at the point where the Bible ends.

The Bible ends with a visual construct by John the Revelator, who spoke of a city foursquare descending from God out of heaven, which all the kings of the earth and the nations would bring their honour and glory into. Mary Baker Eddy evidently heeded this call. In the last pages of her textbook she described this city foursquare in significant detail. She described its sides and its cardinal points, and so on. And she did far more than that. She made every part of her lifework a scientifically ordered constituent of that city.

As you can see, a foursquare structure has 16 elements. This is significant, because every major work that she has created is made up of 16 parts or multiples thereof.

Her great work, the Christian Science textbook, Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, for example, is made up of 16 chapters - one for each of the 16 elements of the city foursquare. But this is not all. The most critical elements in Christian Science that Mary Baker Eddy has developed, follow this same pattern.

Her rendering of the Lord's Prayer, as another example, is produced as a structure of 16 parts. Likewise, her illustrated poem, Christ and Christmas, is made up of 16 verses. In the same manner, her Church Manual is divided into 16 segments. The Christian Science Platform incorporates the same pattern. It is made up of 32 parts, or 16 groups of two. And this too, is small, in comparison with the Glossary structure of the textbook, which is made up of 144 definitions of critical terms, or 16 groups of 9 terms each. And still, Mary Baker Eddy takes us further than this.

The textbook chapter Recapitulation is also based on the city foursquare as a foundation for the journey from the letter to the spirit. The chapter Recapitulation is made up of 24 questions and answers. These, in turn, support the Bible lesson topics. Mary Baker Eddy provided 26 lesson topics according to the number of weeks contained in half a year. In order for the 26 topics to be brought into the foursquare city, Mary Baker Eddy provided two dual questions in Recapitulation, which enables the chapter of Recapitulation to interface the lesson topics to the city.

And still, Mary Baker Eddy didn't stop there. She created a counter platform for each of the summary platforms that she specified for teaching Christian Science. For the Christian Science Platform she created the 16-part counter platform, named, Mortal Mind. And for Recapitulation and the Bible Lesson topics, she created for us the 26-part counter platform that defines the name, Adam.

With this in mind, let's explore in more detail these numerous aspects that are all aspects critical for teaching Christian Science. Let's begin with the city foursquare structure that is at the heart of it all and defines all aspects, which John saw descending from God to humanity..

Introducing the City Foursquare

A city has many areas within it that are unique, and also zones within these areas that are unique again. Thus, before one can bring all of one's achievements into the city, it becomes necessary to define the various areas and zones. But how does one do this?

As a city of ideas one can look at the foursquare structure in three different ways.

One can see the city as horizontally defined areas that represent specific types of focus, or 'levels' of thought, which becomes uniquely expressed in the four specific zones that make up the rows.

One can also see the city as four columns of zones in which a specific concept is developed to ever-higher levels of expression, as is illustrated on the right.

Of course, ultimately, each of the 16 zones has its own story to tell.

Mary Baker Eddy has defined the city in all of these respects.

To define the four horizontal zones, Mary Baker Eddy provided four unique defining concepts. She speaks of four cardinal points, or main points for consideration, in her description of the city foursquare in the last pages of the Christian Science textbook.

Mary Baker Eddy describes the four cardinal points with the text shown here, which gives us the sequence: the Word, Christ, Christianity, and Christian Science.

The Word, here, obviously does not refer to a written word, but the spirit of the concept as a promise, like a person gives his or her word as a promise for fulfillment. Of course, the divine Word is more than a promise of Life, Truth, and Love. God is now and ever expressed. If one was to ask God for the most profound defining aspect of himself, God would answer: I AM. The word of God, evidently, is greater than a promise. It is: I AM.

Mary Baker Eddy also provides two additional groups of concepts that are designed by their nature to be brought into the city as supporting auxiliaries. The leftmost group is the most profound. It applies Mary Baker Eddy's scientific translation of Immortal Mind, and of Mortal Mind in the textbook on page 115. She presents two 3-part structures. The first part is a platform, the platform of God. She calls it the scientific translation of immortal Mind. In a platform everything is simultaneous, like light being manifest in different areas. A platform, therefore, is listed with the highest concept preceding everything. The light is primary to its expression.

Mary Baker Eddy calls the second 3-part structure, the scientific translation of mortal mind. She recognizes three progressive types of mental manifestation, with the lowest being the physical focus that Mary Baker Eddy associates with depravity. Depravity results from a false, deprived sense of the physical dimension. To mortal sense the universe is matter. As seen by God, it is the fully expressed, compound idea of infinite Spirit, or divine Spirit being manifest..

It is reported in the book, Collectanea, page 48, that Mary Baker Eddy put her finger on Adam Dickey's hand, asking, "what is this?" Adam Dickey, her secretary, replied, "Matter." She said, "It is not; it is Spirit." At another time she said to him, "You are Spirit." He replied, "No Mother, I am spiritual." She said to him in a "very emphatic" manner, "You are Spirit."

This little episode is critical. It illustrates why the green development path from the physical, to the moral, and on to the spiritual, cannot extend past the third row from the bottom up. The reason is that in the highest row, man sees what God sees, so that no further development is possible. In the third row the nature of man is regarded as spiritual. Here, everything is spiritual in nature. However, in Being, man is more than just spiritual. He is the compound manifest of divine Spirit. He is, what God sees him to be, God's image, the Son of God. Nothing can alter that. All that is real is Spirit and its manifest. This realization is profound, because Spirit, God, cannot be injured, become diseased, decay, become impotent and imperfect, and therefore, neither can we. Science affirms that we cannot experience what God does not see. What God sees IS reality. We can deprive ourselves by dwelling in a world of illusions and experience the illusions. But this is depravity, and this, of course, is a subject all by itself.

It is essentially for this reason that the divine reflection cannot extend past the third row from the top, to where human error rules. If God could dwell there, in depravity, or even be conscious of it, the universe would collapse in the chaos of contradiction and confusion and would disappear. It would never have existed then.

Christian Science is a science that is uniquely equipped to remove the false sense of mortal mind where error rules, lifting humanity out of its default sense of mortality when Spirit is blocked from view. By the scientific process of lifting humanity out off its hell where the divine manifest is blocked by illusions, healing results. Disease is not a material condition, but a type of mental depravity concerning the reflection of God. The scientific translation of mortal mind, as a progression out of itself, is a progressive developmental process that continues upwards until mortal mind disappears and gives way to the divine Mind unfolding.

If one looks at the detail text that Mary Baker Eddy provides for the two types of translation, one sees many aspects defined that are mental traps resulting in depravity. These are all aspects that are mentally recursive against oneself, whereas the qualities listed under 'spiritual' are oriented away from the limited selfhood towards the reality of man's universal oneness with God, expressing God.

The stage in-between, Mary Baker Eddy defined as transitional. Christianity is not so much a social identifier in this context, but a stage of willingness to clear the recursive from the mental scene whereby the human begins to yield to the divine.

It is interesting that in earlier texts, until after 1901, Mary Baker Eddy, had used the term "definition" instead of "translation." With this change she raised the bar, giving it the sense of a dynamic process, both in the developmental human context, and in the simultaneous divine context.

The second set of auxiliary terms that apply to the four horizontal areas, are profound expressions of the dynamic nature of Spirit, uplifting the scene of humanity. The terms on the right are aspects of Mary Baker Eddy's definition for the term, Good, bringing to light the dynamics of 'God; Spirit' - the kind of dynamics that orient us away from the letter towards infinite Spirit.

Note, in this context the quality of omni-action is associated with Christian Science. This is why Christian Science has never failed, because the healing impetus is not in the science itself, but is in the divine Principle and Spirit that is forever powerfully active, today as in ages past, whenever scientific consciousness opens the door to it.

With the horizontal areas defined, let us look at the definitions that Mary Baker Eddy has provided that are characteristic for the columns in which development is going on, zone by zone, upwards.

In defining the city foursquare in the textbook, she speaks of four sides, saying, 'The four sides of our city are the Word, Christ, Christianity, and divine Science.' Note, she no longer uses the term Christian Science, but speaks of divine Science instead. While she often uses the terms interchangeably, in this context she appears to be specific, as the fourth column represents a specific type of progressive development.

Also the four specific development streams appear to have a specific purpose. It may be that the four objectives that Mary Baker Eddy inscribed in a circle around her seal, may define the specific objective for each of the development columns.

What is being developed in thought, in the columns, is evidently our understanding of the four qualities of God as being 'incorporeal, divine, supreme, infinite' which Mary Baker Eddy presents in Recapitulation in her answer to "What is God."

She also defines the city in terms of four geographic orientations. The geographic sequence is significant. It is the sequence of the sun progressing each day, from the dawn in the north, to the sunrise in the east, on to the noon-sun in the south, and then to the sunset in the west. She tells us with the natural solar sequence that the for columns are designed to be sequentially progressive, column by column.

The full text of the geographic orientation is itself spiritually progressive. It begins with revelation, then goes to the unfolding of Jesus' mission, to the trials and challenges that impel us onward, and then on to the full realization of grand achievements. The text shown here is from the chapter, The Apocalypse, referring to the biblical book, Revelation, that presents the end of all evil, culminating in the city foursquare coming down from heaven.

The next reference, which is somewhat an auxiliary reference, is that of Mary Baker Eddy's definition of the four rivers in Genesis 2. Pison, Gihon, Hiddekel, and Euphrates.

Her definition of the rivers bears little reference to the biblical narrative that they are a part of, but is profoundly significant for defining the 4 columns of the biblical city. She tells us with these rivers that the love of the good and beautiful and their immortality is a powerful starting point in the human development towards the divine. With the definition for the River Euphrates she tells us that the final challenge that stands before us in divine Science as we reach for what is scientifically inevitable, is to overcome the nagging human sense of finity and limitation.

With the numerous definitions that now profoundly and scientifically define the foursquare city, everything that is brought into this city is subsequently coloured by these definitions.

The city-foursquare's shape, its functioning, and its defining aspects, functionally shapes everything that is attached to it, and defines its characteristics. This includes even the Lord's Prayer, the Church Manual, and the textbook itself, as structures of 16 parts, and so on, and also the Glossary structure.

So, let us look at these attached structures in detail, which gain their color and outline from the city foursquare, and let us do this by type. For this we begin with the simple type, the four pink-coloured structures that are made up of 16 elements. They are all development oriented structures.

Development oriented structure.

According to the basic nature of the foursquare matrix, all development flows begin at the bottom of a column oriented upwards. The process is repeated thereafter, column by column, across the entire foursquare matrix.

For the Lord's prayer, this process unfolds step by step in the progression shown here. Each brown element, which is provided by Christ Jesus, is followed by a corresponding element provided by Mary Baker Eddy.

It is interesting to note in this context that Christ Jesus provided the Lord's Prayer in four groups of 2 parts, as if he had been working with the foursquare matrix structure already in his time. The structure that he used suggests this. It may well have been that he had worked with a higher-level version of the Lord's Prayer that covered the entire ground. Too much has been lost during the years of persecution to preclude this possibility.

When John the Revelator spoke about a city foursquare descending from God to humanity, he may have been referring to the level of thinking that Christ Jesus had pursued, whom he had been associated with for a long time. Mary Baker Eddy, who has been a keen Bible scholar may have recognized something along this line, and may have reasoned that in order to follow Jesus' example, she would have to follow his pioneering footsteps that are evident in the design of the Lord's Prayer and in what John had laid out in Revelation as the ultimate path for the end of all evil. This means that when Mary Baker Eddy extended the Lord's Prayer, she may have done what Christ Jesus would logically have done before her, which may have become lost over time.

Mary Baker Eddy's effort to put all of her works into the city foursquare, may have been rooted in this development. This means that it is wise for us to pay attention to it.

I have produced a video that further explores the connection of the Lord's Prayer with the city foursquare structure. The title is: Science of the Lord's Prayer.

The Christian Science textbook is another development oriented structure that Mary Baker Eddy brought fully into the city foursquare by its design.

It needs to be noted here that the sequencing of the chapters had been different in earlier versions, prior to 1902, though the titles were the same, as if she was saying to society that the spirit of the ordering would have to be determined by the individual searcher for the truth, rather than it being provided by her. It could also mean that she was still developing her own perception, and saw it not wise to move on this front until she was certain. The modern sequencing, evidently reflects the requirement of the city foursquare fully. The modern sequencing also reflects the metaphor found in Christ and Christmas that has been created years earlier. The point is that the end product that she passed on to us is the result of painstaking scientific work spanning more then 40 years. It wasn't drawn out of a hat, as some suggest. A work of this far-reaching scope and interrelationships has a tremendous amount of development work standing behind it.

The same can be said about the Church Manual created by Mary Baker Eddy. It too, is of a design that perfectly adheres to the characteristics of the city foursquare. While the Manual is specific in its by-laws to the self-government of the Mother Church of Christ Scientist, its topical aspects have such a wider universal significance that it may some day be seen as a blueprint for a universal manual of civilization. Its 16 aspects hang together both vertically, column by column, and also horizontally, with each being coloured by the defining characteristic of the city foursquare. The interrelationships are too complex to be explored further in this overview context, except to say that over the span of 15 years, 98 editions of the Church Manual have been produced by Mary Baker Eddy towards the grand achievement that it has become.

Another development-type structure that Mary Baker Eddy has created in 16 parts is her illustrated poem, Christ and Christma. The poem is made up of sixteen verses and 16 corresponding illustrative scenes. In some cases two verses share a single painting. In these cases the painting has two related scenes incorporated, or two different contexts. The title of the paintings is presented here, beginning with, Star of Bethlehem.

Christ and Christmas, by being placed into the city foursquare, stands as a visual and poetic metaphor for every structure that is likewise designed to stand in this context. For example, whenever a citation from a textbook chapter is focused on, the visual image corresponding to the chapter's position, and its verse for it, stands in the background as a supportive metaphor.

The final verse in Christ and Christmas is a compilation of texts from Revelation 2:26 and 28 attributed to Christ Jesus to whom she gives the final word and acknowledges his promise of the Morning Star, saying, "And he that overcometh, and keepeth my works unto the end, to him will I give power over the nations: And I will give him the morning star."

The Morning Star is evidently the great seven-pointed star that Mary Baker Eddy placed on the cover of her book of the poem.

It may be assumed that the 7-ponted star is the star of creation by the eternal creative divine impetus or God that Mary Baker Eddy defined with the seven synonymous terms: Principle; Mind; Soul; Spirit; Life; Truth; Love. These are the divine impetuous and power of creation that is reflected in the creation story in Genesis 1.

In the divine All, the infinite has no beginning. Creation has no beginning. It comes to light as the spontaneous unfolding of all good on all fronts, which to limited perception is deemed creation. Human development often follows this course of step by step progression. In the divine universe of reflection, the progressive unfoldment is universal and instantaneous, not sequential. The Morning Star promises a New World where God is All, reflected in all.

The images in Christ and Christmas also provide some critical metaphors for the 144-part Glossary structure, the largest and most complex structure that Mary Baker Eddy placed into the context of the city foursquare.

The 144-part Glossary structure

The Glossary of Mary Baker Eddy's textbook on Christian Science presents a complex challenge. Is is a large structure that by its inherent relationship with the city foursquare should accord with the biblical dimension for it, described in Revelation 21:17 as 144 cubits. If the metaphor holds true, the Glossary should contain 144 definitions, which provides 9 definitions for each of the 16 elements of its foursquare structure.

It took a long time of searching before it became apparent that precisely 144 definitions have been provided. With this a second challenge arose. How does one place nine terms for 9 definitions onto a single zone of the foursquare city?

The answer is provided in metaphor in Christ and Christmas. The angel that stands with a scroll in hand, knocking at the mansion of humanity, in the painting, Truth versus Error, stands in the middle of two concentric squares woven into the carpet. If the pattern of the concentric squares is adapted, the 8 sides of the two squares can accommodate 8 terms altogether that represent in the small the horizontal nature of the four levels of the city foursquare, and the vertical nature of the four columns, with the 9th term standing as a significant central term in the middle.

While other representations of the 9 Glossary terms for each of the elements are possible, the concentric representation is the only one presented in metaphor in Christ and Christmas.

The complexity of the Glossary Structure is further increased by its inclusion of five different types of dual definitions that are built into the Glossary by Mary Baker Eddy, which, when properly recognized yield 144 individual definitions in total. Dual definitions are used when a term is defined with two different meanings. There are 5 different types of duality incorporated into the Glossary.

The most common type is the contrasting dual definition shown here in greater detail where the same term signifies a divine quality, and its opposite as depravity when the divine signification is not discerned. It is useful to have this duality indicated to highlight the contrast between what should be divinely reflected in humanity, and what results if the reflection is blocked.

In such a case a term needs to be split and be represented twice, to properly reflect its higher and lower meaning. When the contrast is extreme, the duality is spread across an entire column. When the contrast is soft, the duality is split between two adjacent elements. Mary Baker Eddy included 8 of each type in the Glossary, potentially 2 for each column.

The 16 contrasting terms are listed here, with an example for each type. The duality is presented by Mary Baker Eddy in the form of two separate sentences, each defining the same term.

In the case when two distinct definitions are provided for a term that have a different meaning in a different column, a horizontal duality exists, which likewise needs to be considered twice according to the differing contexts. Mary Baker Eddy presents this type of duality in separate paragraphs. There are only 3 of these types used in the Glossary.

An example is shown here for her definition of the name Adam. The first paragraph contains a 26-part lie against the nature of man, of the Adamic concept. The second paragraph presents the Adamic lie against God, provided in 4 parts. Both types of lies deal with different issues of the Adamic denial in different contexts that need to be considered as different issues.

Another type of dual definition is the type where a duality has a common reference superimposed, that 'colors' the defined term with a special meaning. Only one example has been provided by Mary Baker Eddy. The definition is for the term, Son. The reference is "Son of a year." Is some usage a month is called the son of a year. By applying this concept to humanity, she asks us to consider our sonship with God, not as an appendage, but as a part of it, which also has a similar ramification in considering ourselves as the sons of the flesh.

The fourth type of duality that Mary Baker Eddy has included in her Glossary, is of a type where a duality is technically indicated by its presentation as two separate sentences, but which is of a type where each part attributes a special meaning to the other, which therefore cannot be separated, or else the entire concept is lost. The use of this unique duality has a special significance for spiritual concepts, and is used in only three cases in the Glossary.

The fifth type also has a special spiritual significance. In this case a contrasting duality is indicated within a single sentence, but which is of a type that depends on one's mental orientation. The concept takes us into two different directions depending on our mental orientation.

The directional duality appears to have a unique application in the context of the city foursquare where it enables the lower three rows to be split into two halves. With the lower three rows seen to correspond with Mary Baker Eddy scientific translation of the concept of mortal mind, for which the middle row is defined as moral and transitional, a fine line is indicated with a potential upwards orientation, or downwards orientation.

Mary Baker Eddy seems to indicate that the mental orientation is critical. She presented the great star on the cover of her book Christ and Christmas as being surrounded by 56 rays of light. If the three lower rows of the Glossary representation of the city foursquare is divided into an upper and lower half, with the central term in the middle shared between the two halves, each half contains 56 definitions.

While the number 56 has a natural representation in high-power plasma physics where electric currents in plasma become magnetically separated into a ring of 56 filaments, which may have been seen in ancient times in the sky, which we may see reflected in the Stone Henge monument as a ring of 56 pits that once may have contained wooden poles, it is highly unlikely however that Mary Baker Eddy's use the 56 rays of light surrounding the great star refers to these natural phenomena and their representations. It is far more likely that the 56 rays of light are indicative of the division of a set of three rows within the Glossary structure, into two halves. This division has a special significance for the Bible Lesson topics and the textbook chapter Recapitulation.


Why does the textbook have sixteen chapters? Why are there sixteen steps in her rendering of the Lord's prayer? (S&H 16)

Mary Baker Eddys Christian Science books are full of sixteens intentionally- everything is centered around sixteen (the quadrant pattern)

A saltire is a heraldic symbol in the form of a diagonal cross, like the shape of the letter X in Roman type. Saint Andrew is said to have been martyred on such a cross.


from a website I found

Is a Celtic Cross a scientific instrument as well as a sacred symbol?

Is it possible there is more to the cross than we previously understood?

Resurrected by Crichton E M Miller in 1997 the ancient working cross

has been awarded two Patents. The cross was demonstrated twice at

Cambridge University by invitation in 2006 and 2007.

Is it possible there is more to the cross than we previously understood?

What did the ancients try to convey with its image ?

Did the cross design ancient buildings, shape philosophy and invent geometry?

Was the cross the secret instrument of the geometer and the power of rulers?

Does this ancient spherical computer reveal the true nature of Time itself?

What could this revelation mean to you?

Why is there a wheel on a Celtic cross?

The Wheel on the Cross was obviously designed to spin, Why?

Did the wheel measure the spin of the earth ?

Do the interweaving serpentine sine waves represent the cycles of order and chaos?

Do the four arms represent the four seasons ?

Did Neolithic and even Palaeolithic sea faring hunter gatherers invent zodiacs (Signs)

so that they could navigate by the stars?

Did ancient people use natures astro-logical mathematics to design sacred buildings ?

Does the cross represent "As above so below"?


The Golden Thread of Time

This book by Crichton E M Miller reveals that the Celtic Cross is a machine to measure the wheels and cycles of Nature and the Heavens with which our ancestors once kept Time and invented the zodiacs. Time keeping and prediction resulted from its use and a deep understanding of spiritual values forgotten in our modern world. Misinterpretation and sometimes deliberate obscurity and ignorance by religious and scientific authorities has led to a distorted view in the historical perspective of our ancient past.

To measure is to Rule just like the instrument you used at School, learn what the Rulers kept secret for 2 millennia and how they understood and measured Time Temple means place of Time, understand in the Last Times at the end of The Age of Pisces the enormous implications behind the meaning of the cross and its true capabilities



According to legend, Constantine I adopted this Greek phrase, “εν τούτῳ νίκα”, (in this, win) as a motto after his vision of a chi rho on the sky just before the Battle of Milvian Bridge against Maxentiuson 28 October 312. The early Christian symbol consists of a monogram composed of the Greek letters chi (X) and rho (P), the first two letters in the name Christ (Greek: Χριστός). In later periods thechristogram “IHS” both stood for the first three letters of “Jesus” in Latinized Greek (Ιησούς, LatinizedIHSOVS) and “in hoc signo” from the legend.

In hoc signo vinces (Latin pronunciation: [ɪn hoːk ˈsɪŋnoː ˈwɪnkeːs]) is a Latin rendering of the Greek phrase "ἐν τούτῳ νίκα" en touto nika, (Ancient Greek: [en tǒːtɔːi̯ níkaː]) and means "in this sign you will conquer".

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.


Regulus is known as the Ruler or the Lawgiver. In the dictionary, regulate means "to make regular; put in good order; adjust by rule. As the brightest star in the constellation of Leo, Regulus has been almost universally associated in ancient cultures with the concept of royalty and kingly power - the name Regulus comes from the Latin rex meaning king.


The star was known in the older cultures of the Akkadians, Hindus, Arabians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks and Romans as the King of the Heavens or the Heart of the Lion. Regulus is one of the four royal stars of the heavens, the other three being Aldebaran in the constellation of Taurus - the Eastern Royal Star, Antares in the constellation of Scorpio - the Western Royal Star, Fomalhaut, in the constellation of Pisces – the Southern Royal Star and Regulus, in the constellation of Leo - the northern Royal Star.


These four royal stars are considered to be sentinels watching over other stars and form a fixed cross configuration in the heavens, to which a hidden has been attributed.


Characteristics of the One who was crucified on a fixed cross


This is outstandingly the Cross of the Soul. The person who is upon the Fixed Cross is becoming increasingly aware of its direction and influences, and does not respond as blindly as others who have not yet mounted this Cross. One does not mount this Cross of Right Direction until they have attained some measure of soul contact and have had some touch of illumination and of spiritual intuition—no matter how fleeting that touch may have been.


It is the Cross of "fixed vision and of that immovable intent which draws one from points of light to blazing solar radiance." The person upon the Fixed Cross says, “I am the soul and here I stand. Naught shall remove my feet from off the narrow place whereon I stand. I face the light. I am the Light and in that light shall I see Light.


It is the Cross whose four energies blend with and transmit the energies of the solar system itself. This it can do because the person upon the Fixed Cross is becoming increasingly conscious of issues which are larger than their own self, more engrossing than their previous interests, and those which concern humanity in its relation to solar forces and not just planetary forces. One is becoming sensitive to the larger whole. The energies of this Cross continue to evoke response until the time of the third initiation, the Tranfiguration.


It is called the Fixed Cross because one is stretched upon it by the directed choice and immovable intent of one's Soul. From that decision there is no turning back. [1]



Regulus lies at the base of the sickle of Leo, resembling a reversed question mark (esoterically, a sickle is used to cut out or cut down that which hinders the application of spiritual law and so hinders the flowering forth of the Soul). To modern sky watchers this sickle outlines the majestic head and mane of the great westward-facing lion, crouched in the regal pose of the king of the forest.


Regulus is only half a degree from the ecliptic and it happens that either the moon or one of the other bright planets pass close to Regulus, infrequently occulting it. Regulus lies in the heart of the Lion, which in esoteric language refers to the heart or the Christ consciousness, which is the Soul and therefore synonymous with love.


Prophecy from the Ageless Wisdom teachings: A certain relationship or configuration of stars ~ of which one is the star Regulus, in Leo ~ will bring about a situation where the reorientation of the attitude of the legal profession will take place; its functions and duties will be centralized for the purpose of world usefulness, and in this process legislation for children will assume great importance and be the motivating power. [2]


Astronomical Signs Heralding the Birth of a King


Spectacular astronomical signs happened in the 18 months from May 3 B.C.E. to December 2 B.C.E. that would have caused wonderful interpretations by astrologers on behalf of Augustus and the Roman Empire, as well as the Magi of biblical fame focused on Judaea and not Rome, at this crucial time in history.


The New Testament says the Magi saw the star ‘rising’ in the east and therefore, it would most naturally have been called a morning star, referring to a celestial body that was well known and recognized in the 1st Century.


During this time the world was engrossed with symbolic concepts such as the rising of a star or planet just before sunrise, which would particularly have been seen as something significant in interpreting events relating to important people. With this in mind allow me to refer to an event that happened on the morning of August 12, 3 B.C.E. about an hour and twenty minutes before sunrise: Jupiter rose as a morning star in conjunction with Venus, who was then in the constellation of Leo.


How would astrologers or Magi have interpreted this union? Since Jupiter was called the King planet because it was often associated with the birth of kings, it was also astrologically known as the Father of the Gods.


So, as the planet Jupiter left its vicinity near the Sun and conjoined with Venus on this day, this could have been an indication of something important, for to the Chaldean and Persian Magi, Venus was Ishtar, the goddess of fertility. Thus, Jupiter the Father in conjunction with Venus the Mother and goddess of fertility, could have signified to astrologers that something of great portent was imminent.


Twenty days later Mercury, the Messenger of the gods, left its position with the Sun and stationed itself in close conjunction with Venus also in the constellation of Leo. These primary planets clustering in Leo while Jupiter and Venus were now in close union, might very well reflect prophetic significance.

According to that Great Book of Jewish and New Testament history, “The Lion was the symbol of the Tribe of Judah and the constellation of Leo also appears in the Hebrew zodiac. The association of Leo with Judah arose from the fact that Leo was Judah’s natal sign. In the Bible there are frequent allusions to this connection between Leo and the tribe of Judah, i.e. we read, ‘Judah is the Lion’s whelp,’ and ‘….the Lion of the tribe of Judah.’” [Olcott]

It would not be wrong to conclude that these interesting astral relationships that occurred on this early August day could well have signified to astrologers that some important royal event was soon to happen in the Jewish nation. As it was written by the prophets of old, ‘Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee.’


Following these initial planetary conjunctions, Jupiter then moved on to unite with the star Regulus on September 14, 3 BCE and two more times over the following 8 month period in that same year. This makes for an interesting relationship that developed between Jupiter, the King planet and Regulus the King star. It was as if Jupiter were homing in on Regulus and directing earthly attention to it.


Of all the stars in the heavens, the ancient astrologers universally associated Regulus with attributes of greatness and power. It is located practically on the ecliptic and it was thought that this position made it of special importance to the Sun. According to astrologers the Sun ruled the heavens and thus the major star closest to the ecliptic of the ruling Sun, was Regulus. This close relationship made of Regulus a royal star - the one most associated with the conception or birth of kings; the star denoting rulership.


In this regard it will be good to recall the words of one of the older prophets, Balaam:

“A star shall come out of Jacob and a scepter shall rise out of Israel…. Out of Jacob shall come he that shall have dominion… Judah is a lion’s whelp ... he couched as a lion ... the scepter shall not depart from Judah until Shiloh come.”

The only star in the heavens that fits this combination of factors mentioned above, is the star Regulus, the King star. Regulus is located directly between the feet of the Lion in the constellation of Leo. The great Jewish leader, Moses, even prophesied that Judah (the Lion) would have a “…lawgiver from between his feet until Shiloh comes.” (Shiloh is a reference to the future Messiah) and so according to the Jewish expectation of a coming Messiah, the star Regulus fits the bill perfectly.


After it’s three separate conjunctions with Regulus, Jupiter then continued westward and on June 17, 2 B.C.E. it had a spectacular reunion with Venus – this planetary conjunction was visible on Earth west of Babylon.


The Magi, who would have been in Mesopotamia, would have witnessed this planetary union appearing on the western horizon precisely in the direction of Judaea. This celestial occurrence prompted Isaac Asimov to ask the question, “Is the fact that the unusual ‘star’ was seen in the direction of Judaea enough to make them think of a Messiah?”


This heavenly scene could well have prompted the Magi to look toward Jerusalem, and not to the celebrations in Rome, for the arrival of the messianic king of the world. It could have been interpreted that these two planets, which introduced the prophesied king in their symbolic way when they were both morning stars some ten months before, were now completing their introduction with an impressively rare evening star union.


There had not been anything like this brilliant conjunction for centuries nor would there be again for many generations. It could well have symbolized to the Magi the closing of one era, and the beginning of another.


One thing is certain: since it was written in the book of Genesis 1:14 that the heavenly bodies were accounted for signs, these unusual movements of the stars could not but be interpreted by the Magi as indicating the birth of the Jewish Messiah into the world.


Jupiter the King Planet


Let us observe some factors concerning the star of Bethlehem: the account in the New Testament said the magi/astrologers saw the star rising above the eastern horizon and on August 12, 3 BCE, Jupiter rose as a morning star that soon came into conjunction with Venus. This conjunction started Jupiter off on a journey in which six conjunctions with other planets and the star Regulus took place.


At the end of 2 BCE, the planet soon left its ‘massing’ with the other three planets and continued in an apparent westward motion each morning as viewed by the Magi at their regular pre-dawn observations. Now if the Magi began their own journey toward Jerusalem near this time, this apparent westward motion of Jupiter each day could have indicated to them to proceed in the same westward direction toward Jerusalem. They could have been ‘following’ Jupiter in the example it was setting. The Bible relates that “the star went ahead of them”, which could well mean that the Magi were led by Jupiter in this symbolic fashion. Upon reaching Jerusalem the Magi were ‘told’ to look toward Bethlehem for the newborn king, which happened when the star came to a definite halt in the heavens; it stopped its motion of leading the Magi and ‘stood over where the young child was’.


The star stood still? Who have ever heard of a star becoming stationary in the heavens?


The account is not as ridiculous as it may seem because it was describing a celestial phenomenon that all astronomers are aware of when a planet is in either retrogression or progression. The ‘stopping’ therefore happened thus: the planet was in its normal movement, called its proper motion, eastward through the fixed stars, but since the Earth moves faster than Jupiter in its orbit around the sun, an observer would see Jupiter nearly along the same line as the Earth’s own orbital movement.


So when the Earth is traveling more or less in a direct line toward Jupiter, the planet will continue to show proper motion but when Earth reaches a position beyond or past Jupiter (point A and just past point A in the diagram below) it is no longer heading toward Jupiter. The faster velocity of the Earth, as it makes its curve to point B, causes the apparent motion of Jupiter to slow down.


This continues until the Earth reaches point C and it is here that the speed of the Earth in relation to Jupiter is the same as Jupiter’s. This is when Jupiter appears to become stationary within the background of the fixed stars. As the Earth progresses from C to D, it has greater relative speed than Jupiter and this causes Jupiter to retrogress.


The planet reverses its motion and travels westward through the stars. At point D, however, the speed of the Earth and Jupiter are again relative to each other and Jupiter stops its reverse motion. When D is passed, Jupiter returns to proper motion. This is also what happened when Jupiter came in contact with the star Regulus on three different occasions as described above.


At the end of 2 BCE, Jupiter arrived at its ordinary time for retrogression but, as viewed from Jerusalem on Earth, Jupiter came to its normal stationary position directly over Bethlehem on December 25, presumably because it is not certain exactly when the child was born and what age he was when the magi visited him.


We are told in the New Testament that the man called Jesus was born of a ‘virgin’ and precisely on December 25, 2 BCE, Jupiter stopped in a position of the constellation of Virgo, right where a woman carries a child in pregnancy, i.e. in the middle of the constellation.


On that day the King planet stopped its lateral motion through the stars and remained stationary for about six days. To an observer on Earth this would have been very significant since the astrologers looked on the winter solstice period as the beginning or birth of the Sun.


The star led the Magi westward to Jerusalem, they saw it come to a stop while they were in Jerusalem and on December 25, 2 BCE, Jupiter would have been seen in a meridian position directly over Bethlehem at an elevation of 68 degrees above the southern horizon. This precise position would show the planet shining directly down on Bethlehem while it was stationary among the stars.


The star hanging over Bethlehem pointed out the exact geographical location where he, who would be a future king, was born. Although this period or date had nothing to do with the actual birth of Jesus it probably was the time when the Magi presented their gifts to him as the newly born king of the Jews.


Interestingly, while Jupiter was in its stationary position over Bethlehem, the Sun was also standing still: The word solstice means the sun stands still - an event that was celebrated by most of the peoples of the East.


General observance required that on the 25th of December the birth of the ‘new Sun’ should be celebrated, when after the winter solstice the days began to lengthen and the invincible light triumphed again over darkness. The magi from the East would no doubt have wanted to give gifts to the newborn Sun; and in the words of the prophet Malachi, the God of Israel is called the Sun of Righteousness.


Professor Eliade, whom many consider to have been the foremost authority on the past and present religious customs of peoples, has shown that the ancients looked on the dawning of each New Year - the solstice period - as symbolic of the inauguration of a new age.


The Magi would have been aware of these well-known beliefs and therefore could have supposed that the child in their midst was the one destined to usher in the new Golden Age that most people were expecting. [3]


Constellation of the Crux


At the time discussed above, the Constellation of Crux was visible in the latitude of Jerusalem, situated beneath the feet of the Centaur in the constellation of Sagittarius. A king was born into this world that later, according to the perfect will of Creator, declined this position, humbled himself unto an excruciating suffering by allowing himself to be crucified on a cross.


In this regard then, we can say that a crossing-over occurred from the king star Regulus in the constellation of Leo to the brightest star Acrux in the constellation of Crux, which at that time was seen over Jerusalem.


This suffering, pain and the blood of the man, who hung on that cross near Jerusalem, dripping into Earth redeemed her from full destruction and saved the world, consisting of all who dwell upon and within her, from utter destruction and death at the end of time. This salvation was meant to bring the humans in their Earth-incarnation to a remembrance of who they really are and from where did they come (the ‘they’ referring to their souls or consciousness).


In ancient times around the districts of Egypt and Babylonia, the stars of the Crux were visible low on the horizon, but by the effect of precession due to an oscillating motion of the Earth’s axis over the centuries, the Cross gradually got shifted out of view well to the south – this, in itself, can be seen as a prophecy directing the attention of modern-day man to the end of time.


Over time then the stars of Crux became invisible to northern hemisphere astrologers and are currently no longer visible in latitudes higher than the tropic of Cancer. The stars were 'rediscovered' by European navigators who explored the southern territories in the early 16th century, lying along the Milky Way and surrounded by Centaurus (Sagittarius) on three sides.


For these explorers Crux’s vertical bar pointed them southward since, unlike the north celestial pole, the south celestial pole is not marked by any bright star and is called by some aviators and navigators, the "south polar pit". [4]


Crux exists of four main stars that form a typical cross, not an x.


In the foot of Crux we find the star Acrux (an abbreviation of Alpha Crucis), the brightest star of this constellation. Ptolemy in his Tetrabiblos, recognised the stars of the Crux as part of the constellation Centaurus where they marked the bottom of the hind legs and were thus denoted as akin to Venus and Jupiter in influence.


Ancient identification with the bestial part of Centaurus (half man/half horse), gives the bright stars of Crux similar associations to those of Bungula, on the hoof of the Centaur's right foreleg. Linked to the mythological figure of Cheiron, the star Bungula has, as early as the 2nd century BC, been used by Eratosthenes to signify sacrifice, healing and the need to be healed.


In the Crux the theme of sacrifice and stoic resilience has been emphasized with heightened ecclesiastical connections. More recent texts denote the influence of Acrux as purely Jupiterean and thereby reinforcing its identification with the sacred.


However, as we shall see in more detail in Part 2 of this article, shadows of the Centaur's tale lurk there portraying a need to let go of the base (reptilian) ego-driven instincts in exchange for pursuit of fortitude and pure spiritual advancement.


J. E. Cirlot in his Dictionary of Symbols, explores the cross as an ancient symbol of opposing forces that cut across each other, so that it signifies conflict in the antagonisms and cross-roads of possibilities and impossibilities, of construction and destruction". [5]


The 12th brightest star in the heavens, Alpha Crucis has taken the place of the king star Regulus and on earth we could say that the king that was born in Bethlehem, instead of taking up his crown, took up his cross; instead of taking up his scepter he used it to point to Earth where, he knew even then, that much deception will sway and confuse the minds of men as who would be the true king not only among the stars of heaven but of Earth and the Universe. The word to remember here is ‘crossing-over’.

The standard, four-pointed Latin crucifix consists of an upright post or stipes and a single crosspiece to which the sufferer's arms were nailed.

In the beginning of the prophet’s description of his vision we notice the fourfold statement, “The heavens were opened, I saw visions of God, the word of Jehovah came expressly (or forcibly), the hand of Jehovah was there upon him.” The first two suggest external presentations of the divine glory. The opening heavens indicate the source of all divine revelations, and visions are one method of communicating divine thoughts. The third statement conveys the idea of a moving revelation and message brought di­rectly to the prophet’s mind, and commissioning him for his ministry, while the fourth indicates the bestowal of a supernatural divine energy, by means of which all things became intensely vivid to his soul. As Ezekiel, in his thirtieth year, by the river Chebar saw heaven opened, received the word, and felt the hand of Jehovah, so Jesus, at the age of thirty, received by the river Jordan the wondrous anointing from on high; but in his case the Spirit, instead of presenting symbols of power and judgment, took rather the sem­blance of a dove.

3. Chapters 8-11. These prophecies are dated “in the sixth year.” Ezekiel is carried “in the visions of God to Jerusalem,” and there beholds a fourfold picture of the abominations which constituted Judah’s guilt and shame: (1) “the image of jealousy,” (8:5, 6), (2) the seventy elders burning incense in the secret chambers of abominable imagery (verses 7-12), (3) “the women weeping for Tammuz” (13, 14), and (4) the worship of the sun “at the door of the temple of Jehovah, between the porch and the altar” (15-18). This vision is followed by that of the seven angels, six of whom were commanded to go through the city and smite all who had not the mark of God upon their foreheads (comp. Rev. 7:3; 9:4, and the seven trumpet angels of Rev. 8:2). Again the cherubim appear, and from between the wheels under them a man clothed in linen takes a double handful of coals of fire and scatters them over the doomed city (comp. Rev. 8:5). After a word of hope has been spoken to the prophet (chap. 11:16-20) the cherubim and the glory of Jehovah go up from the midst of the city, and stand upon the Mount of Olives on the east of the city (comp. Zech. 14:4), and the prophet is brought back again “in the vision by the Spirit of God into Chaldea, to them of the captivity.”

2. Chapters 38 and 39. Here is a remarkable apocalyptic. picture of the final overthrow of the hostile nations in their conflict with Jehovah. The highly wrought description is presented as fourfold: (1) Prophetic declaration against the army of Gog and its march against Israel (38:1-13); (2) his fearful overthrow by the power of God (verses 14-23); (3) another prophetic declara­tion of the utter destruction of all the hostile multitude (39:1-10); (4) the seven months’ burial in Hamon-gog, and the great feast of sacrifice upon the mountains of Israel (verses 11-29). This entire picture is manifestly ideal, and demands our more particular examination.

The English Bible has four sections.

That is to say, the four major divisions – Pentateuch, Historical Books, Poetical Books and Prophetical Books – are structured by genre. That is, the books that appear in those four main sections are determined primarily by genre.



3. The Questioning of Haggai’s Authorship

After examining points of agreement between orthodox and unorthodox commentators on this issue, we will focus on two issues that critics use in questioning Haggai’s authorship.

a. Orthodox and unorthodox commentators agree on two basic points:

1) The series of four brief messages as represented in Haggai came from the prophet Haggai.

2) They also agree that the essence of Haggai’s four messages have been recorded in the book bearing his name.

3. Structure

A date and the messenger formula are used to introduce each of the four messages. Bullock has laid out the following structural arrangement (p. 304):

Message 1 Date + messenger formula (1:1) Messenger formula + oracle (1:2–11)

Narrative material (1:12) Messenger formula + oracle (1:13) Narrative material + date (1:14–15)

Message 2 Date + message formula (2:1) Oracle (2:2–9)

Message 3 Date + messenger formula (2:10) Messenger formula + oracle (2:11–19)

First question to priests and answer (2:12) Second question to priests and answer (2:13) Oracle of application (2:14–19)

Message 4 Messenger formula + date (2:20) Oracle (2:21–23)

When these four messages are considered as a whole, a parallel arrangement should be noted. Messages I and III focus on agricultural failure. The first message explains that this is a result of Israel’s disobedience to God and the third sets forth that Israel’s work on the temple had reversed the results of the drought. In messages II and IV God was going to shake the heavens and the earth. This reflects the pattern of the book:

Message 1 (1:1–15) Message 2 (2:1–9) Message 3 (2:10–19) Message 4 (2:20–23)


4. Genre

When I am discussing form, I am using the term to discuss the various types of literature used in a book; however, when I use the term genre, I am using it to describe the type of literature a book is as a whole.

Is the book written in poetry as is the case with many other prophetic works? Or is it in prose? The book is made up of four abbreviated messages that were written in the third person. Paul F. Bloomhardt (“The Poems of Haggai,” HUCA 5 [1928]: 153–95) suggested that the actual words of Haggai reflected a poetic meter, but those sections written in a narrative style (1:1, 12, 14; 1:15 and 2:20; 2:1, 2, 10, 11) came from the hand of a subsequent redactor. This redactor attempted to restore the original poetic sections. Ackroyd, following Bloomhardt, called this poetic prose. It is unacceptable to look for a poetic original behind the prose. The best way to understand the parallelism that occurs in the Hebrew text was the style of writing as intended by Haggai. This could be called poetic prose (see Bullock, p. 303) or even rhythmic prose (Verhoef, p. 17).

In general, the narrative frames are prose and the brief sermons or oracles are the rhythmic prose. The narrative discourses joining Haggai’s sermons contain a date and messenger formula (see above), as well as other pertinent editorial remarks. This also provides a distinctive chronological movement for the book, which sets this work apart from other short prophetic works such as Zephaniah, Nahum, Micah, and Amos. Haggai’s four oracles are introduced by his editorial remarks in 1:1–3; 2:1–2, 10, and 20. Haggai has other editorial information in prosaic form in 1:12–15 apparently as a postscript to his first sermon demonstrating when the people actually began the work on the temple.

These chronological editorial remarks appear to demonstrate that Haggai wanted to show progression in his work. Also, a cause and effect relationship is reflected in the book as it unfolds in chapter 1 through the conclusion in chapter 2. In this regard, his work is more like a chronicle than a prophetic work such as Zephaniah, Nahum, Micah, and Amos. However, it does contain prophetic oracles. By combining an editorial framework reflecting chronological development with prophetic oracles, this short work is comparable to Jeremiah 26 and 36, the account of Jehoiakim’s attempt to destroy the word of Yahweh, and Jeremiah 37–41, the account of the illegitimate departure of some Israelites to Egypt. N. Lohfink has compared these chapters in Jeremiah to 2 Kings 22– 23 where the account of Josiah’s covenant ratification is recorded. Petersen notes a number of similarities shared between these accounts such as relatively short prosaic narratives which focus on a key person or persons, the prose accounts denote a sequence of activities, dates are used to mark boundaries between units, the actual accounts are made up of several different scenes which vary in length, and the accounts appear to have an apologetic function (Petersen, Haggai, pp. 34–35).

The one basic distinction seems to be that in Haggai we are dealing with four prophetic oracles; however, this difference is minimal when we consider that the sermons are not purely poetic as what we have in other prophetic works such as Nahum, Zephaniah, Micah, and Amos. Haggai is written in what we could consider a rhythmic prose. Lohfink categorized the form of 2 Kings 22–23, Jeremiah 26 and 36, 37–41 as historische Kurzgeschichte or a short historical account. However, this seems to miss the apologetic thrust of each of these units. In 2 Kings the thrust is positive, while in


Jeremiah, each thrust is negative. In Haggai there appears to be, a positive apologetic thrust. Petersen classifies this as a “brief apologetic historical narrative.” We could classify the genre of Haggai as an apologetic historical account of prophetic sermons. As Petersen has said, “The book is, in sum, a short apologia, comprising Haggai’s words placed within a historical narrative. The book of Haggai is not a typical prophetic collection, but is rather an apologetic history that uses prophetic oracles as its essential source” (Haggai, p. 36).

E. Destination 1. First oracle

1:1–2—these verses are directly addressed to Zerubbabel, the governor of Judah, and Joshua, the high priest. Indirectly it was addressed to the people as a whole, see 1:12, 14.

2. Second oracle

2:2—it was addressed to Zerubbabel, Joshua, and the remnant of the people.

3. Third oracle

2:11—it was addressed to the priests.

4. Fourth oracle

2:21—this was intended exclusively for Zerubbabel.


Now this is different to what you are normally used to seeing in the Old Testament. In our Old Testaments in our English Bibles, we do not see three sections: Law, Prophets and Writings. We see four sections. We see the Law, or what is called the Pentateuch, which means five books. Those are the first five books of Moses. Then we have a large list of historical books. Then we have a few poets. And then we have all of our prophets. So in our English Bibles we have four sections. In our Hebrew Bibles we have three sections. In a moment we are going to compare and contrast the Hebrew Bible arrangement and the English Bible arrangement. Then we are going to have to think which one should we adopt in terms of our own thinking. Is the arrangement important or is it not? We are going to have to talk about that: a three-fold structure or a four-fold structure.


The Last Words of David

W. G. Blaikie, D. D.

2 Samuel 23:1-5

Now these be the last words of David. David the son of Jesse said, and the man who was raised up on high…

The song falls into four parts.

1. In the introduction, we cannot but be struck with the formality and solemnity of the affirmation respecting the singer and the inspiration under which he sang. The first four clauses represent David as the speaker; the second four represent God's Spirit as inspiring his words. The introduction to Balaam's prophecies is the only passage where we find a similar structure, nor is this the only point of resemblance between the two songs. In both prophecies, the word translated "saith" is peculiar. While occurring between two and three hundred times in the formula, "Thus saith the Lord:" it is used by a human speaker only in these two places and in Proverbs 30:1. The second part of the introduction stamps the prophecy with a fourfold mark of inspiration.

1. "The Spirit of the Lord spake by me."

2. "His word was in my tongue."

3. "The God of Israel said."

4. "The Rock of Israel spake to me."So remarkable an introduction must be followed by no ordinary prophecy.

2. We come, then, to the great subject of the prophecy — a Ruler over men. It is a vision of a remarkable Ruler, not a Ruler over the kingdom of Israel merely, but a Ruler "over men." The Ruler seen is One whose government knows no earthly limits, but prevails wherever there are men. It is worthy of very special remark that the first characteristic of this Ruler is "righteousness." There is no grander or more majestic word in the language of men. Not even love or mercy can be preferred to righteousness. And this is no casual expression, happening in David's vision, for it is common to the whole class of prophecies .that predict the Messiah. It is the grand characteristic of Christ's salvation in theory that it is through righteousness; it is not less its effect in practice to promote righteousness. To any who would dream, under colour of free grace, of breaking down the law of righteousness, the words of "the Holy One and the Just" stand out as an eternal rebuke, "Think not that I am come to destroy the law and the prophets; I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil." And as Christ's work was founded on righteousness, so it was constantly done "in the fear of God" — with the highest possible regard for His will, and reverence for His law. Having shown the character of the Ruler, the vision next pictures the effects of His rule. No imagery could be more delightful, or more fitly applied to Christ. The image of the morning sun presents Christ in His gladdening influences, bringing pardon to the guilty, health to the diseased, hope to the despairing. The chief idea under the other emblem, the grass shining clearly after rain, is that of renewed beauty and growth. The heavy rain batters the grass, as heavy trials batter the soul; but when the morning shines out clearly, the grass recovers, it sparkles with a fresher lustre, and grows with intenser activity. So when Christ shines on the heart after trial, a new beauty and a new growth and prosperity come to it.

3. Next comes David's allusion to his own house. In our translation, and in the text of the Revised Version, this comes in to indicate a sad contrast between the bright vision just described and the Psalmist's own family. The key to the passage will be found, if we mistake not, in the expression "my house." We are liable to think of this as the domestic circle, whereas it ought to be thought of as the reigning dynasty. What is denoted by the house of Hapsburg, the house of Hanover, the house of Savoy, is quite different from the personal family of any of the kings. So when David speaks of his house, he means his dynasty. In this sense his "house" had been made the subject of the most gracious promise. But take the marginal reading — "Is not my house so with God?" Is not my dynasty embraced in the scope of this promise? Hath He not made with me an everlasting covenant, ordered in all things and sure? And will He not make this promise, which is all my salvation and all my desire, to grow, to fructify? It is infinitely more natural to represent David on this joyous occasion congratulating himself on the promise of long continuance and prosperity made to his dynasty, than dwelling on the unhappy condition of the members of his family circle. And the facts of the future correspond to this explanation. Was not the government of David's house or dynasty in the main righteous, at least for many a reign, conducted in the fear of God, and followed by great prosperity and blessing? David himself, Solomon, Asa, Jehoshaphat, Hezekiah, Josiah — what other nation had ever so many Christlike kings?

4. The last part of the prophecy, in the way of contrast to the leading vision, is a prediction of the doom of the ungodly. While some would fain think of Christ's sceptre as one of mercy only, the uniform representation of the Bible is different. In this, as in most predictions of Christ's kingly office, there is an instructive combination of mercy and judgment. Nor could it be otherwise. The union of mercy and judgment is the inevitable result of the righteousness which is the foundation of His government. Sin is the abominable thing which He hates. To separate men from sin is the grand purpose of His government. Oh, let us not be satisfied with admiring beautiful images of Christi Let us not deem it enough to think with pleasure of Him as the light of the morning, a morning without clouds, brightening the earth, and making it sparkle with the lustre of the sunshine on the grass after rain!

(W. G. Blaikie, D. D.)…/van-pelt-blomberg-schrei…

The English Bible has four sections.

That is to say, the four major divisions – Pentateuch, Historical Books, Poetical Books and Prophetical Books – are structured by genre. That is, the books that appear in those four main sections are determined primarily by genre.


Wonders Divine: The Development of Blake's Kabbalistic Myth

Sheila A. Spector - 2001 - ‎Body, Mind & Spirit

6 In the major prophecies, the various kabbalistic motifs Blake had been All aspects of kabbalistic thought can be represented in terms of some kind of fourfold structure, including the souls, the ...



On 14 February 1919 Ellen Oliver had a revelation that Barltrop was that female messiah, Shiloh. With ratification from other followers, Mabel Bartltrop declared herself Shiloh—the daughter of God. Rachel Fox gave her the name Octavia because she was seen as the eighth prophet in the Southcottian line. The Trinitarian God of orthodox Christianity was now reconfigured to become ‘foursquare’: God the Father, God the Mother (the Holy Spirit), Jesus the Son, and Octavia the Daughter.

Octavia appointed twelve female apostles—one from each of the signs of the zodiac—and washed their feet in imitation of Jesus. She first celebrated the eucharist on Whit Monday 1919 in the ‘upper room’—a room in her house which served as the place of worship before a chapel was built. Ellen Oliver wrote that Octavia was ‘wonderfully calm and collected as if born to it’ (letter to other members, 17 June 1919). Octavia believed that she received daily messages from God by the means of automatic writing. She sat down every afternoon at 5.30 p.m. to receive that message and then took it straight to the chapel, where it was read as one of the lessons in evening prayer, a service that was otherwise largely taken from the 1662 Book of Common Prayer. These scripts were gathered together and published in sixteen volumes as The Writings of the Holy Ghost.

Aramaic—Only four isolated portions of the Old Testament come to us in Aramaic: Jeremiah 10:11, Daniel 2:4—7:28, Ezra 4:8—6:18, and Ezra—7:12-26.

Interestingly, each of these four portions relates to the Aramaic people, that is, the Babylonians. In addition to these, there are only a few New Testament passages spoken by the Lord Jesus that were recorded in Aramaic: “Talitha koum,” and “Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani.”

The Fourfold Blessings

Verse 2:18 begins with “Then,” just like 2 Chronicles 7:14 above. If the people, the people of God, will turn to Him in true repentance, “Then the Lord will be jealous for his land and take pity on his people” (2:18). The prophet describes fourfold blessing as a result of their genuine repentance.

1. God will heal their land for their material abundance (2:18-27). The blessings are described in the same agricultural terms as the devastation because of the locusts described earlier. “I am sending you grain, new wine and oil, enough to satisfy you fully” (2:19). And, “The threshing floors will be filled with grain; the vats will overflow with new wine and oil … . You will have plenty to eat, until you are full … ” (2:24-26).

However, the emphasis is not on the material blessing; it is on the Lord Who provides the material blessings, on the relationship with and the knowledge of God, that provides the full satisfaction. It is the Lord Who is sending the grain and new wine (2:19): “Surely the Lord has done great things” (2:21). “Be glad, O people of Zion, rejoice in the Lord your God for he has given you autumn rains in righteousness” (2:23), and “You will praise the name of the Lord your God who has worked wonders for you; never again will my people be ashamed” (2:26).

The ultimate purpose of God for blessing His people is that they would want to know Him and grow in their relationships with Him. God says, I will bless you: “Then you will know that I am in Israel, that I am the Lord your God, and that there is no other; never again will my people be shamed” (2:27). The purpose of blessing and meeting all our needs overabundantly is not that we get into enjoying the gifts and forget the Giver, but that we would find our joy, our fulfillment, our satisfaction in Him alone, because, as David said, “You will fill me with joy in your presence, with eternal pleasures at your right hand” (Psalm 16:11).

Repentance, as defined in the English dictionary, usually means “to feel sorry or self-reproachful for what one has done or failed to do,” or “to feel sorry, contrite, or self-reproachful over an error, sin, etc.”282 However, when the prophets preached repentance, it was not always repentance of a particular sin in a person or community’s life. Repentance in the Old Testament does not always mean being sorry for a particular sin, because that word is used for God Himself (e.g., Genesis 6:6; Exodus 32:14; Psalm 106:45; Jeremiah 18:8, 10; etc.). The basic idea in repentance is to turn about, changing the course, making a U-turn, changing life goals and priorities. This is what the people of God, people who call themselves Christians, need to do today. Instead of running after the material things, they need to seek after the kingdom of God and His righteousness. Instead of finding happiness in the things of the world, they need to seek the true joy, fulfillment, and contentment in relationship with the Lord. The ultimate purpose of God for blessing us is that we seek Him and desire to know Him more and more and love and serve Him more and more.

2. God will pour out His Spirit for their universal spiritual restoration (2:28-32). After speaking about their material blessing because of their turning back to God, Joel speaks of their spiritual blessing. In the New Testament, Peter applied this to the outpouring of the Spirit at the beginning of the church (Acts 2:16-21). Paul applied 2:32 for the salvation available to all,

For there is no difference between Jew and Gentile – the same Lord is Lord of all and richly blesses all who call on him, for, Everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved (Romans 10:12).

Although the ultimate fulfillment of this will be at the Second Coming of Christ, it already has been partially fulfilled, as all believers have the indwelling Spirit and can experience the fullness of the Spirit as they are filled with the Spirit in the sense that Paul speaks (Ephesians 5:17-20).

3. God will judge the wicked and establish His eternal Kingdom (3:1-21). Joel speaks of God’s wrath and ultimate punishment of all the nations that oppressed God’s people. They will be judged and ultimately destroyed, e.g., Edom. The wrath of God on the unbelieving nations is described as God’s trampling of the grapes in the winepress (3:13). As the Apostle John describes in the Book of Revelation,

The angel swung his sickle on the earth, gathered its grapes and threw them into the great winepress of God’s wrath. They were trampled in the winepress outside the city, and blood flowed out of the press, rising as high as the horses’ bridles for a distance of 1,600 stadia (180 miles) (Revelation 14: 19-20).

Then, the Kingdom of God will be established, and God’s unlimited blessings will flow to His people,

In that day the mountains will drip new wine, and the hills will flow with milk; all the ravines of Judah will run with water. A fountain will flow out of the Lord's house and will water the valley of acacias (3:18).

4. The ultimate blessing. The book ends with a note of the ultimate blessing, “The Lord dwells in Zion,” the Lord’s eternal presence with His people as described in Revelation:

And I heard a loud voice from the throne saying, “Now the dwelling of God is with his people, and God himself will be with them and be their God. He will wipe every tear from their eyes. There will be no more death or mourning or crying or pain, for the old order of things has passed away” (Revelation 21:3-4).

However, for a Christian, a partial fulfillment of this blessing has already taken place, because “The Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us” (John 1:14). We can enjoy the presence of the Lord in our life right now. We can experience His guidance, His provision, His abundant blessing in the sense that David talks in Psalm 23 right now. “Surely goodness and love will follow me all the days of my life, and I will dwell in the house of the Lord forever” (Psalm 23:6).

So, Joel begins with the devastation of the locusts and ends with the eternal blessing of the presence of the Lord with His people forever. Those who have trusted the Lord and committed their lives for His glory, and those who long to fellowship with Him and seek to know Him more and more, enjoy all these blessings right now.

Two of the oldest writing prophets, Obadiah and Joel, speak about the Second Coming and the millennial Kingdom without speaking about the first coming. Why? One of the reasons is that they did not have the full revelation, and they did not have the clear picture and the distinction between the two comings.

However, the more important reason is that, as Peter tells us, “It was revealed to them that they were not serving themselves but you” (1 Peter 1:12). And, as Paul writes, “These things happened to them as examples and were written down as warnings for us, on whom the fulfillment of the ages has come” (1 Corinthians 10:11). With the Cross and more than the Cross behind us, the Christian now needs the exhortation of the Second Coming of Christ and to be prepared to meet Him, which the Old Testament prophets provide more than anything else.

We look back to the cross with gratefulness for what God has done for us, and live a life that expresses that gratefulness, and look forward with boldness and great expectation to His Second Coming. Like Paul, every believer should be able to say near the end of his life,

Fourfold officers[edit]

The offices of Overseer(Shepherd and Teacher), Evangelist and Prophet are collectively known as the Fourfold Office and is equal in status and rank. An Overseership is led by a troika of an Overseer, Evangelist, and Prophet. An Overseership is divided into several Elderships.

Philip the Evangelist (Acts 8:26) Note: His four daughters also prophesied (Acts 21:8, 9)


The corresponding word in Greek is tριάς, meaning "a set of three" or "the number three".[18] The first recorded use of this Greek word in Christian theology was by Theophilus of Antioch in about 170. He wrote:[19][20]


In like manner also the three days which were before the luminaries, are types of the Trinity [Τριάδος], of God, and His Word, and His wisdom. And the fourth is the type of man, who needs light, that so there may be God, the Word, wisdom, man.[21]


Merk Diezle shared a link.

Sep 03, 2016 11:48pm

How Challenging/Inviting is Your Preaching? |

QMRShould preaching be pastoral or prophetic? Should preaching comfort the afflicted or afflict the comfortable? How do preachers decide what kind of balance to maintain between grace-filled sermons and messages that call for action or transformation?

Mike Breen and Steve Cockram (Building a Discipling Culture) provide a matrix which helps answer these questions. Though the matrix is used in their broad discussion of disciple-making, it has obvious implications for preaching.

Breen and Cockram argue that ministry (and thus preaching) takes place within the tension between invitation and challenge. Applied to preaching, we could say the following:

Sermons low on challenge and low on invitation (grace) are basically useless (boring quadrant). They are neither hot nor cold.

Sermons low on challenge and high on invitation result in a kind of “cozy culture” in which listeners are comforted and feel good but are never called to action or change.

Sermons high on challenge but low on invitation result in a “discouraged culture” in which listeners are constantly challenged but never comforted.

Sermons high on challenge and high on invitation result in an “empowered culture” where true discipleship happens.

They write, “A gifted discipler is someone who invites people into a covenantal relationship with him or her, but challenges that person to live into his or her true identity in very direct yet graceful ways.” We might say a gifted preacher is someone who invites people into covenental relationship with Jesus and challenges that person to live into his/her true identity in very direct yet graceful ways. The best preaching will be high invitation/ high challenge.

How do you make these types of decisions in your preaching? Do you lean toward one naturally–challenge or invitation? What does challenge look like/ sound like for you when you preach? How about invitation?


16 Stones is a 2014 American film that takes place in 1830s Missouri. It concerns the 16 stones of the Jaredites in the tradition of the Church Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.[1]


The film was directed by Brian Brough.[2] It stars Brad Johnson as Joseph Smith, Mason D. Davis as blacksmith James, Ilene Wood as James's mother, Ben Isaacs as missionary Thomas,[3] and Nathan Norman as the villain Mobber.[4] Norman says the film had a profound effect on his spirituality.[5]


16 Stones is a 2014 American film that takes place in 1830s Missouri. It concerns the 16 stones of the Jaredites in the tradition of the Church Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.[1]


The film was directed by Brian Brough.[2] It stars Brad Johnson as Joseph Smith, Mason D. Davis as blacksmith James, Ilene Wood as James's mother, Ben Isaacs as missionary Thomas,[3] and Nathan Norman as the villain Mobber.[4] Norman says the film had a profound effect on his spirituality.[5]


The religious traditions of Latter-day Saint movement speak of the Jaredites (/ˈdʒɛərdaɪts/[1]) as one of four groups (along with the Nephites, Lamanites, and Mulekites) which Mormons believe settled in the ancient Americas.


Two by Twos is one of the names used to denote an international, home-based church that has its origins in Ireland at the end of the 19th century


C. elegans is unsegmented, vermiform, and bilaterally symmetrical. It has a cuticle (a tough outer covering), four main epidermal cords, and a fluid-filled pseudocoelom (body cavity). It also has some of the same organ systems as larger animals. About one in a thousand individuals is male and the rest are hermaphrodites.[17] The basic anatomy of C. elegans includes a mouth, pharynx, intestine, gonad, and collagenous cuticle. Like all nematodes, they have neither a circulatory nor a respiratory system. The four bands of muscles that run the length of the body are connected to a neural system that allows the muscles to move the animal's body only as dorsal bending or ventral bending, but not left or right, except for the head, where the four muscle quadrants are wired independently from one another.

Pauline Letters to Persons[edit]

The last four Pauline letters in the New Testament are addressed to individual persons. They include the following:


First Epistle to Timothy*

Second Epistle to Timothy*

Epistle to Titus*

Epistle to Philemon


The main challenge to the letter's authenticity came from a group of German scholars in the nineteenth century known as the Tübingen School.[6] Their leader, Ferdinand Christian Baur, only accepted four New Testament epistles as genuinely written by Paul: Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians and Galatians.


Although the New Testament contains only two letters to the Corinthian church, the evidence from the letters themselves is that he wrote at least four and the church replied at least once:


1 Cor 5:9 ("I have written you in my letter not to associate with sexually immoral people", NIV) refers to an early letter, sometimes called the "warning letter" or the "pre-canonical letter".[2]

1 Corinthians

The Severe Letter: Paul refers to an earlier "letter of tears" in 2 Corinthians 2:3–4 and 7:8. 1 Corinthians does not match that description, so this "letter of tears" may have been written between 1 Corinthians and 2 Corinthians.

2 Corinthians

The oldest clear endorsement of Mark, Matthew, Luke, and John being the only legitimate gospels was written circa 180 AD. A four gospel canon (the Tetramorph) was asserted by Irenaeus, who refers to it directly[113][114] in his polemic Against the Heresies, "It is not possible that the gospels can be either more or fewer in number than they are. For, since there are four zones of the world in which we live, and four principal winds, while the church is scattered throughout all the world, and the “pillar and ground” of the church is the gospel and the spirit of life; it is fitting that she should have four pillars, breathing out immortality on every side, and vivifying men afresh."[114] The books considered to be authoritative by Irenaeus included the four gospels and many of the letters of Paul, although, based on the arguments Irenaeus made in support of only four authentic gospels, some interpreters deduce that the fourfold Gospel must have still been a novelty in Irenaeus's time.[115]



The New Testament consists of FOUR PARTS


Four narratives of the life, teaching, death and resurrection of Jesus, called "gospels" (or "good news" accounts);

A narrative of the Apostles' ministries in the early church, called the "Acts of the Apostles", and probably written by the same writer as the Gospel of Luke, which it continues;

Twenty-one letters, often called "epistles" from Greek "epistole", written by various authors, and consisting of Christian doctrine, counsel, instruction, and conflict resolution; and

An Apocalypse, the Book of Revelation, which is a book of prophecy, containing some instructions to seven local congregations of Asia Minor, but mostly containing prophetical symbology, about the end times.

Many modern Protestants point to four "Criteria for Canonicity" to justify the books that have been included in the Old and New Testament, which are judged to have satisfied the following:


Apostolic Origin — attributed to and based on the preaching/teaching of the first-generation apostles (or their close companions).

Universal Acceptance — acknowledged by all major Christian communities in the ancient world (by the end of the 4th century).

Liturgical Use — read publicly when early Christian communities gathered for the Lord's Supper (their weekly worship services).

Consistent Message — containing a theological outlook similar or complementary to other accepted Christian writings.

Martin Luther was troubled by four books, referred to as Luther's Antilegomena: Jude, James, Hebrews, and Revelation; and though he placed them in a secondary position relative to the rest, he did not exclude them. He did propose removing them from the canon,[105][106] echoing the consensus of several Catholics such as Cardinal Cajetan and Erasmus, and partially because they were perceived to go against certain Protestant doctrines such as sola gratia and sola fide, but this was not generally accepted among his followers. However, these books are ordered last in the German-language Luther Bible to this day.[107][108]


Eusebius in his Church History (c. 325) used the term for those Christian scriptures that were "disputed," literally "spoken against," in Early Christianity before the closure of the New Testament canon. It is a matter of categorical discussion whether Eusebius divides his books into three groups of homologoumena ("accepted"), antilegomena, and 'heretical'; or four, by adding a notha ("spurious") group.

Gospel of the Four Heavenly Realms

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Gospel of the Four Heavenly Realms is a lost text from the New Testament apocrypha.


The content has been surmised from various descriptions of it in ancient works by church fathers. It is thought to be a gnostic text, in which aspects of their esoteric cosmology were expounded, probably framed in the form of a dialogue between Jesus and the Apostles.

The biblical book of Job fits the quadrant model pattern. Job has four comforters who come to help him in his distress following his loss of everything. The comforters are
*Square one: Eliphaz
*Square two: Bildad
*Square three: Zophar
*Square four: Elihu. Elihu is qualitatively different from the previous three. The first three persistently try to convince Job that his punishment is just, but Job will not listen. Elihu comes in once the first three have given up, elaborating on what the first three have said, but goes beyond them. The fourth is always different from the previous three, yet engulfs them. Finally the transcendent God enters to finish the story.
The biblical story of the three men in the “fiery furnace” expresses the quadrant model pattern. Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego are warned that if they do not worship the idol they will be thrown into a fire. In spite of being thrown into the fire they survive. Babylonian guards looking in see a fourth figure that they say looks like "a son of the Gods."
In the biblical book of Daniel is an account of a dream that fits the quadrant model pattern. In the dream Daniel sees four winds, and then four beasts.
*Square 1: "The first was like a lion, and it had the wings of an eagle. I watched until its wings were torn off and it was lifted from the ground so that it stood on two feet like a human being, and the mind of a human was given to it." The first square is related to the mind. This beast, an empire, is described as being like a lion. The shutting of the lion's mouth represents the destruction of the empire and the neutralization of the enemy of the Israelites. This lion is described as having a mind of a human. In Wilbur's model the first square is mind. The first square is the light. Idealists are very mental. Seventh day adventists think this beast is the Babylonian Empire.
*Square two: “And there before me was a second beast, which looked like a bear. It was raised up on one of its sides, and had three ribs in its mouth. 

between its teeth. It was told, ‘Get up and eat your fill of flesh!’” The second square is the culture square; eating is a cultural, social activity that people do together. The second square is the word. The second square is social. People often eat with family and friends. Without social interaction people go crazy. Astronauts need social interaction; if they cannot have them they at least need some sort of life to connect with--like a plant. Guardians are very into belonging and culture. Seventh day adventists think this beast is the Persian Empire.
Square three: “After that, I looked, and there before me was another beast, one that looked like a leopard. And on its back were four wings like those of a bird. This beast had four heads, and it was given authority to rule.” The third square is the doer square--the body. The leopard is the doer, with authority to rule. The Quadrant 3 personality, the Artisan, likes authority and respect. Seventh Day adventists think this beast is the Greek Empire.
*Square four: "After that, in my vision at night I looked, and there before me was a fourth beast—terrifying and frightening and very powerful. It had large iron teeth; it crushed and devoured its victims and trampled underfoot whatever was left. It was different from all the former beasts, and it had ten horns." The fourth beast is different from the previous three, which is characteristic the fourth square. The fourth best is described as terrifying and powerful. The emotion associated with the fourth quadrant is fear, which helps to facilitate flow. Knowledge is power. The beast has iron teeth, which parallels Daniel’s other dream where the fourth part of the statue is the iron legs. This beast is different from the other beasts, having 10 horns, almost a transcendent quality. The fourth always transcends the previous three, which are always more similar. This pattern is also reflected in thinking, emotion, doing, and dreaming. Thinking and emotion and doing are very connected, while dreaming seems separate, but encompasses them. In revelations, in the new testament, the beast with the ten horns is described to be like a lion, bear, and leopard. In other words it encompasses the previous three beasts. The fourth is always different, but encompasses the previous three. In other words, the quadrant model code is packed into the bible. Seventh Day adventists think this beast is the Roman Empire, which contains elements of the Babylonian, Persian, and Greek Empires.


In the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim, Daniel and his friends Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah were among the young Jewish nobility carried off to Babylon following the capture of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon.[9] The four are chosen for their intellect and beauty to be trained in the Babylonian court, and are given new names. Daniel is given the Babylonian name Belteshazzar, while his companions are given the Babylonian names Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego. Daniel and his friends refuse the food and wine provided by the king of Babylon to avoid becoming defiled. They receive wisdom from God and surpass "all the magicians and enchanters of the kingdom."

Nebuchadnezzar dreams of a giant statue made of four metals with feet of mingled iron and clay, smashed by a stone from heaven. Only Daniel is able to interpret it: the dream signifies four kingdoms, of which Babylon is the first, but God will destroy them and replace them with his own kingdom.


In the third year of Darius, Daniel has a series of visions. In the first, four beasts come out of the sea, the last with ten horns, and an eleventh horn grows and achieves dominion over the Earth and the "Ancient of Days" (God) gives dominion to "one like a son of man". An angel interprets the vision. In the second, a ram with two horns is attacked by a goat with one horn; the one horn breaks and is replaced by four.

The Four Horsemen is a cocktail containing four hard liquors and named after the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse.[1] The name of the drink is derived from the fact that the most common brand names of each ingredient are also male given names and the drinks have a high alcohol content (and therefore tend to have a very strong effect on human physiology). Additionally, the four brand names usually all begin with the letter "J" (see sidebar), giving further unity to the concept of the "Four Horsemen".



The ram, the he-goat, the great horn and the four new horns[edit]

The ram and he-goat are interpreted explicitly as the kings of Persia and Greece. It is generally agreed that they are drawn from the constellations that preside over Persia and Syria in Hellenistic astrology.[7] Scholars are also agreed that the goat's first horn (the horn which is broken) is Alexander the Great, and the four horns which then arise are the four generals who divided his empire.[19] The detail that the goat does not touch the ground as he attacks the ram may reflect the speed of Alexander's conquest.[20]


The Book of Daniel, and along with Revelation, formed one of the foundations of Christian eschatology.[29][Notes 1] The authors of the Gospels identified Jesus with Daniel 7's "one like a son of man", and by the 3rd century CE the stone of Daniel 2 and the fourth figure in the furnace in Daniel 3 were interpreted as Christ, the fourth kingdom of Daniel 7 was Rome, and the "little horn" was the Antichrist (his identification as Antiochus was denied by Saint Jerome in a famous exchange with the pagan philosopher Porphyry).[30] Daniel's timetable was reinterpreted to fit Christian expectations: the prophecy of 70 weeks in Daniel 9:20-27, for example, was commonly held to end either with the life and death of Christ or with the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE.[31]


In the Middle Ages dissident Catholics identified the pope as the Antichrist, and for Martin Luther the Fourth Empire was Rome, living on as the German Empire, while the "little horn" included Mohammed, Antiochus, and the papacy, depending on which chapter of Daniel involved.[31] In the 17th century the English Puritans interpreted their struggle in terms of God's army (themselves) battling the Antichrist (the pope) and his ally (the king), and the Fifth Monarchy Men took their name and ideal of government from Daniel 7.[32]


Jung considers the Book of Job a landmark development in the "divine drama", for the first time contemplating criticism of God (Gotteskritik). Jung described Answer to Job as "pure poison", referring to the controversial nature of the book (Storr, 1973). He did, however, feel an urge to write the book. The basic thesis of the book is that as well as having a good side, God also has a fourth side - the evil face of God. This view is inevitably controversial, but Jung claimed it is backed up by references to the Hebrew Bible. Jung saw this evil side of God as the missing fourth element of the Trinity, which he believed should be supplanted by a Quaternity. However, he also discusses in the book whether the true missing fourth element is the feminine side of God. Indeed, he saw the dogmatic definition of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary by Pope Pius XII in 1950 as being the most significant religious event since the Reformation. Another theme in the book is the inversion of the myth that God sent his son Christ to die for the sins of humanity. Jung maintains that upon realizing his mistreatment of Job, God sends his son to humankind to be sacrificed in repentance for God's sins. Jung sees this as a sign of God's ongoing psychological development.


Elihu differs from the others in that his monologues discuss divine providence, which he insists are full of wisdom and mercy.


He does not say anything that is not said more succinctly by the three original friends or by God, and his speech contains more Aramaisms than the rest of the book.


Elihu's preface in chapter 32 indicates that he has been listening intently to the conversation between Job and the other three men. He also admits his status as one who is not an elder (32:6-7.) As Elihu's monologue reveals, his anger against the three older men was so strong he could not contain himself (32:2-4.)

The pattern of the quadrant model is manifest in the naming, ordering, and structuring of the story of the sons of Jacob.
In the biblical story of the prophet, Elijah, the prophet runs to the mountain top where his experience is expressed in the quadrant model pattern. The account is of four incidents,

the fourth being a transcendent encounter with the voice of God.
*Square one: "A great and powerful wind tore the mountains apart and shattered the rocks before the Lord, but the Lord was not in the wind." The first square is always the most ephemeral and the least solid.
*Square two: "After the wind there was an earthquake, but the Lord was not in the earthquake". The second always builds on the first. The second is not yet the third. The third is always the most related to doing.
*Square three: "After the earthquake came a fire, but the Lord was not in the fire." The fire is related to doing. Fires seem solid, and produce action. Fire builds upon the first two.
*Square four: "And after the fire came a gentle whisper". The fourth is different from the previous three, and builds upon them. The fourth is the most related to God. Elijah recognizes the voice of God in this gentle whisper. The fourth never seems to belong.

Elijah now orders that the altar of Yahweh be drenched with water from "four large jars"


One Theory of Textual analysis[edit]

According to Susanne Otto, the Elijah stories were added to the Deuteronomistic History in four stages. The first stage dates from the final edition of the History, about 560 BC, when the three stories of Naboth’s vineyard, the death of Ahaziah, and the story of Jehu’s coup were included to embody the themes of the reliability of God's word and the cycle of Baal worship and religious reform in the history of the Northern Kingdom. The narratives about the Omride wars were added shortly afterwards to illustrate a newly introduced theme, that the attitude of the king towards the word of the prophets determines the fate of Israel. 1 Kings 17–18 was added in early post-Exilic times (after 538 BC) to demonstrate the possibility of a new life in community with God after the time of judgment. In the fifth century BC, 1 Kings 19:1–18 and the remaining Elisha stories were inserted to give prophecy a legitimate foundation in the history of Israel. The Otto analysis is disputed.[40]


The vision in which God revealed Himself to Elijah gave him at the same time a picture of the destinies of man, who has to pass through "four worlds." This world was shown to the prophet in the form of the wind, since it disappears as the wind; storm () is the day of death, before which man trembles (); fire is the judgment in Gehenna, and the stillness is the last day.[48] FOUR STEPS

Guigo named the four steps of this "ladder" of Lectio Divina prayer, a practice which continues daily in contemporary Benedictine ritual meditation,[3] with the Latin terms lectio, meditatio, oratio, and contemplatio. In Guigo's four stages one first reads, which leads to think about (i.e. meditate on) the significance of the text; that process in turn leads the person to respond in prayer as the third stage. The fourth stage is when the prayer, in turn, points to the gift of quiet stillness in the presence of God, called contemplation.[4][5]


In Christianity, Lectio Divina (Latin for "Divine Reading") is a traditional Benedictine practice of scriptural reading, meditation and prayer intended to promote communion with God and to increase the knowledge of God's Word.[1] It does not treat Scripture as texts to be studied, but as the Living Word.[2]


Traditionally, Lectio Divina has four separate steps: read; meditate; pray; contemplate. First a passage of Scripture is read, then its meaning is reflected upon. This is followed by prayer and contemplation on the Word of God.[3]

The monastic practice of Lectio Divina was first established in the 6th century by Saint Benedict and was then formalized as a four-step process by the Carthusian monk Guigo II during the 12th century.[3] In the 20th century, the constitution Dei verbum of the Second Vatican Council recommended Lectio Divina to the general public and its importance was affirmed by Pope Benedict XVI at the start of the 21st century.[9]


The attentive reading begins the process through which a higher level of understanding can be achieved.[16] In the traditional Benedictine approach the passage is slowly read four times, each time with a slightly different focus.[2]


An example is another four-step approach, that by Saint Clare of Assisi shown in the table opposite, which is used by the Franciscan order.[37] Saint Clare's method is more visual than Guigo II's which seems more intellectual in comparison.[37]


Santa Maria Nuova, built by Giorgio Vasari in 1554, is a domed church with a centralized Greek cross layout. Inside are four large columns which supports the lantern of the cupola. At the sides the four arms of the cross branch out covered with barrel-vaults, while four small cupolas arise in the spaces of the angles. The interir contains paintings depicting a Nativity by Alessandro Allori, San Carlo Borromeo administers communion to those afflicted by Plague by Baccio Ciarpi, and an Annunciation by Empoli. The church is in poor condition, and the interior is not open for visitors.


As with 1 Esdras, there is some confusion about the numbering of this book. The Vulgate of Jerome includes 1, 2, 3 and 4 Esdras. Protestant writers, after the Geneva Bible, called 1 and 2 Esdras of the Vulgate Ezra and Nehemiah, and called 3 and 4 Esdras of the Vulgate 1 and 2 Esdras which became common in English Bibles.[6]


Fourth Baruch is a pseudepigraphical text of the Old Testament. Paralipomena of Jeremiah appears as the title in several Ancient Greek manuscripts of the work, meaning "things left out of (the Book of) Jeremiah."[1] It is part of the Ethiopian Orthodox Bible.


The "four-position foundation" is "another important and interpretive concept",[110] and explains in part the emphasis on the family


The Divine Principle lists the Muslim world as one of the world’s four major divisions (the others being East Asia, Hindu, and Christendom)

The Real Four Position Foundation as Discovered in Theoretical Particle Physics April 3, 2017

By James M. Powell


After escaping concentration camp in Heungnam, North Korea in 1950, Dr. Sun Myung Moon wrote the book, Ideal of the Circular Garden of Harmony. This text, lost during the Korean War (1950-53), was re-written as Original Text of the Divine Principle and eventually translated into English as Exposition of the Divine Principle (EDP) in 1996.


As you will see, the “Circular Garden of Harmony” refers to the underlying harmonious circular structure of the cosmos, the “garden,” at the elementary level.


In my previous AU Blog article in November 2016, “The Science of Spiritual Life and Death,” I stated there exist in the Principle theory unsubstantiated, or at least unverified, claims. In this article, I state this in relation to the Four Position Foundation specifically as the so-called foundation of the life of all beings.


What is the foundation of the life of all beings? What proof do we have that the Four Position Foundation is the fundamental foundation of all physical beings, all spiritual beings, and even God?


For example, theoretical and experimental particle physicists might ask to show how the Four Position Foundation applies to the plentiful assortment of elementary particles that make up the cosmos at the smallest scales. But do we have a model for that? We do. It’s the Four Position Foundation.


I’m not referring to a vague model into which we roughly fit some broad concepts like only plus and minus, but discovered forces and particles and their interactions in a mathematical structure that works. It must be a mathematical structure because, according to the Principle, one aspect of God’s nature, the Logos, the blueprint of the cosmos according to the theory of the Principle, is mathematical.



The Four Position Foundation


In Exposition of the Divine Principle, the fundamental structure of the cosmos, or garden, is called the Four Position Foundation (4PF).


Diagrammatically, the 4PF is usually expressed two-dimensionally as in the image below. Although — and as can be understood by descriptions of it in the Principle textbook as well as in numerous online presentations such as this lecture by Kevin McCarthy and video by Michael Callaghan — the Four Position Foundation is highly multi-dimensional.




The Four Position Foundation is so named because it is “the fundamental foundation for the life of all beings” and composed of four unique positions: the origin, subject and object partners, and their union.


As such, we should find the 4PF manifest at the elementary level of the cosmos. The areas of science that deal with this are called theoretical and experimental particle physics. Also, according to the model in the Principle theory, if the 4PF exists it must have four unique and inter-related positions.


As in the previous linked videos and in the following quotes, if the Four Position Foundation exists, it must exhibit circular and spherical motion both in the interactions between its constituents and as a whole.


“Although there are moments when the two levels of circular motion [around each constituent’s own axis and around other constituents within the 4PF] may happen to have orbits on the same plane, in general, because the angle of revolution [of the object partner] around the subject partner is constantly changing, this circular movement becomes a spherical movement.” (EDP)


“The universe exists in three dimensions as, governed by the same principle, its elements engage in spherical movements.” (EDP)


Furthermore, the 4PF, while being an object of incredible mathematical precision and logic, is perhaps most intriguingly an object of deep and profound beauty.


“When the circular movement of the subject partner and the object partner on a single plane becomes a spherical movement in a three-dimensional orbit, the dynamism and creativity of the universe unfolds. Variations in each orbit’s distance, shape, state, direction, angle, force and velocity are manifest as the beauty of creation in its infinite variety.”


If the 4PF exists as described in the Principle theory, it must be inherently beautiful beyond description.


I have laid out only a few of the conditions available which we can use to help identify if the 4PF is a model in theoretical particle physics. It must:


be operational at the fundamental, elementary level of the cosmos;

have four unique and inter-related positions;

exhibit circular and spherical motion between its constituents and as a whole; and,

be an object of ultimate mathematical logic and pure beauty.

There are probably more points we could consider, but I’ve included a few I’m aware of which I consider to be most important for the purpose of identifying a candidate among models in theoretical particle physics that fits the model and structure of the 4PF as the fundamental blueprint of the cosmos and of the life of all beings.


The E8 Lie Group as the Four Position Foundation


In his physics paper, An Exceptionally Simple Theory of Everything, published online in November 2007, theoretical particle physicist Garrett Lisi introduces a mathematical construct known as E8 as the potential unifying structure of all known forces and elementary particles in the cosmos. As such, E8 purportedly is:


operational at the fundamental, elementary level of the cosmos

E8, in its complete form cannot be seen or even drawn. It is the largest and most complex of the five exceptional Lie groups (pronounced “Lee”), containing four subgroups related to the four fundamental forces of nature: the electromagnetic force (mediated by photons); the strong force (which binds quarks); the weak force (which controls radioactive decay); and the gravitational force (enabling attraction between large-scale objects). E8 has:


four unique and inter-related positions



A Lie group, including E8, is a mathematical shape that is a collection of circles that twist around each other in a specific pattern. In Lisi’s E8 theoretical particle physics model, each circle represents the orbit of a unique elementary particle. Each elementary particle revolves on its own axis while rotating in its orbit and also interacting with those of other elementary particles that are represented in E8 by circles. E8:


exhibits circular and spherical motion between its constituents and as a whole

The largest and most complex exceptional Lie group, E8 is considered by many to be the most beautiful structure in mathematics. New Scientist refers to the universally appreciated beauty of E8, in reporting its first discovery in natural physical systems, crystals, in 2010. In his first TED Talk in February 2008, Lisi describes the beauty of particle physics relating to E8 but without using the math, which makes it much easier to understand; I recommend his video, An 8-Dimensional Model of the Universe. E8 is:


an object of ultimate mathematical logic and pure beauty

I find it compelling that first Lisi was independently building an algebraic structure based on known interactions of elementary particles and then later discovered that this same structure already exists in mathematics and their values match.


It is also compelling that the characteristics of the four positions in the 4PF in relation to a family are similar in nature to the characteristics of the four fundamental forces when applied to the 4PF in relation to a family.


Electromagnetism, in the origin position, is God’s position. In the Principle theory, human beings are described as image manifestations of truth (logos) who are composed of the dual characteristics of mind and body. It also describes that this logos is the fundamental blueprint of God’s own structure and function. According to this speech by Dr. Moon, the relationship between a person’s mind and body is one of 90 degree angles.


God, whose image is the model for our own, likewise is composed of dual characteristics that interact with each other at 90 degree angles, at least as a pre-existent prototype, since God’s realm is prior to and independent of time and space. Electromagnetism is a composite body of the dual characteristics of reciprocal electrical and magnetic energy that move together at 90 degree angles to each other. God is often referred to as a being of light and light is electromagnetism.


The strong and weak nuclear forces, in the subject and object partner positions, are also comparable. In fact, strong and weak are explicitly mentioned in Exposition of the Divine Principle as subject and object partners. In relation to the family, these subject and object partner positions correspond to husband and wife, though this is not to say the wife is inherently weak, which we clearly understand from our studies of the Principle.


Lastly, gravity is the force that enables objects with mass to attract one another. The pattern is that objects with less mass tend to be attracted to objects with more mass. If we were to imaginatively compare mass with love, we could say that the union position is the child’s position which is attracted to and reciprocates with the parents’ positions (subject and object partners) and God’s position (origin), which are positions with greater mass or love.


While the above diagram is a broad illustration of how the fundamental forces fit into the 4PF, each position indeed involves a lot of math. For more detail, I encourage you to read Lisi’s paper.


Further compelling for me is that Lisi’s model correctly predicted the constituents of the Higgs boson particle which, at the time of publication of his original paper, was yet undiscovered.


My purpose is solely to introduce readers to what, in my opinion, is the real Four Position Foundation as discovered in theoretical particle physics. I have other points to introduce regarding the E8-4PF model, including how it intrinsically, mathematically implies the existence and function of spiritual particles, forming the spirit world.


E8 is not only a diagram. Rather, it is an actual phenomenon. For example, E8 has been observed being produced by physical systems, crystals, as stated earlier in this article.


E8 has also been digitally mapped, an incredible feat. To understand the magnitude and complexity of E8, the human genome, containing all genetic information of a cell, is less than a single gigabyte in size. The result of the E8 calculation, however, is sixty gigabytes in size.


I have included numerous links in this article because this is a topic that requires a lot of study in order to begin to understand it. Unificationists, however, in my opinion, through our education of the Four Position Foundation in the Principle theory, are in a better position to more readily understand E8. What do you think of E8?


Lisi has an interactive elementary particle explorer on his website, with which you can explore all known and some unknown elementary particles and their interactions as aspects of the geometry of E8.


In a subsequent article, I hope to introduce my theory on how quantum information, the Logos, gets from the so-called singularity (God?) into the cosmos, and directs energy to form all the diverse elementary particles observed in experimental particle physics. Indeed, this is a major missing piece of both cosmology as well as religious theory: how does God actually create the cosmos through the Logos? I believe I have discovered answers and appreciate reader feedback.♦


James M. Powell, from the UK, is co-founder of the research organization S.T.A.R.S. (Sincerity and Truth for the Advancement of Revolutionary Science), which aims to prove through science: that God exists; that the spirit world is real, and; that True Parents’ Blessing changes the physical lineage. He has been blessed with Elona (from Albania) since 2009. Read more about James’ projects on his website and contact him via his Facebook page.


Graphic at top: An E8 Petrie projection.


The Urantia Book is approximately 2,000 pages long and consists of an introductory foreword followed by 196 "papers," divided into four parts:


Part I, titled "The Central and Superuniverses", addresses what the authors consider the highest levels of creation, including the eternal and infinite "Universal Father", his Trinity associates, and the "Isle of Paradise".

Part II, "The Local Universe", describes the origin, administration, and personalities of the local universe of "Nebadon", the part of the cosmos where Earth resides. It presents narratives on the inhabitants of local universes and their work as it is coordinated with a scheme of spiritual ascension and progression of different orders of beings, including humans, angels, and others.

Part III, "The History of Urantia", compiles a broad history of the Earth, presenting a purported explanation of the origin, evolution, and destiny of the world and its inhabitants. Topics include Adam and Eve, Melchizedek, essays on the concept of the Thought Adjuster, "Religion in Human Experience", and "Personality Survival".

Part IV, "The Life and Teachings of Jesus", is the largest part at 775 pages, and is often noted as the most accessible[34] and most impressive,[35] narrating a detailed biography of Jesus that includes his childhood, teenage years, family life, and public ministry, as well as the events that led to his crucifixion, death, and resurrection. Its papers continue about appearances after he rose, Pentecost and, finally, "The Faith of Jesus".




When Elisha asked to receive a "double portion" of Elijah's spirit in 2 Kings 2:9, he was not seeking a ministry twice as great as his master's. Instead, he was using cultural terms derived from inheritance law to express his desire to carry on Elijah's ministry. Inheritance law assigned a double portion of a father's possessions to the firstborn son (see Dt 21:17). Elijah's response that "If you see will be yours" (2 Kng 2:10) left the gift Elisha requested in God's hands. Elisha sees Elijah being taken up by the chariots of God at the Jordan River, and God fulfills the request: Elisha received the "double portion" = the power and authority of his master. It is ironic that Elijah performed 8 works of God while Elisha is given 16! Elisha went on to accomplish greater works than his master Elijah by performing exactly double the miracles his master performed in the name of God.

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America's Four Gods: What We Say about God-- & what that Says about Us is a book published in 2010 by Baylor University professors Paul Froese and Christopher Bader.[1] The book was based on a 2005 survey of religious views and reports that Americans conception of God fall into four different classes.[2] Further, they report, American's views on political, moral and scientific issues are usually tied to their conception of God.[3]

The four different conceptions of God described in the book are the authoritative God, the benevolent God, the critical God and the distant God.[4]

Individuals who conceive of an authoritative God and a benevolent God both see God as taking an interventionist role in believers lives. They differ, however, in how they see God intervening.[4] Those who conceive of an authoritative God imagine God intervenes to punish those who lapse from his rules, and are likely to be white males. Those who conceive of a benevolent God imagine God intervenes to rescue and present alternatives, and are likely to be female.

Individuals who conceive of a critical God imagine he does not intervene in individuals lives, but will judge them in an afterlife. Statistically black Americans are more likely to hold this conception.[4]

Those who believe in a distant God imagine that God set the entire Universe in motion, but has no engagement with humanity at all.[4] Americans who hold this conception are statistically likely to have completed more years of education than those in the other three groups.

Father Patrick J. Howell, a Jesuit writing in The Seattle Times, noted that the four conceptions of God where represented by followers of Judaism, Buddhism, Catholicism, Protestantism and Islam.[1] Howell wrote:

Some would have us believe, Froese and Bader argue, that American society is engaged in a titanic struggle between "true believers" and the "godless." But the two authors note that only 5 percent are atheists, and they identify four, mostly contradictory, views of God as the source for the intractable social and political divisions among Americans.


Elisha the Prophet

Even before Elisha was designated to take over for Elijah, Elisha was destined to be a prophet of God as God tells Elijah, “And Jehu the son of Nimshi you shall anoint to be king over Israel, and Elisha the son of Shaphat of Abel-meholah you shall anoint to be prophet in your place” (1st Kings 19:16) although at first, Elisha went to be an assistant for Elijah and left everything behind for it (1st Kings 19:21). Before Elijah left this earth, Elisha asked “Please let there be a double portion of your spirit on me” (2nd Kings 2:9) and shortly after this “Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven” (2nd Kings 2:11b) and Elisha succeeded Elijah. Elisha asked for a double portion and had sixteen miracles, double that of Elijah’s eight. Elisha divided the river Jordan (2nd Kings 2:14), healed the waters of a Jericho spring (2nd King 2:21), commanded bears out of the woods (2nd Kings 2:24), provided water for kings, oil for a widow; sixteen miracles in all.


Allegorical interpretation is an interpretive method (exegesis) which assumes that the Bible has various levels of meaning and tends to focus on the spiritual sense (which includes the allegorical sense, the moral (or tropological) sense, and the anagogical sense) as opposed to the literal sense. It is sometimes referred to as the Quadriga, a reference to the Roman chariot drawn by four horses.


Contents [hide]

1 History

2 The four types

3 In antiquity

4 In the New Testament

5 In the Middle Ages

6 See also

7 External links

8 References


Allegorical interpretation has its origins both in Greek thought and in rabbinical schools of Judaism. In the Middle Ages it was used by Bible commentators of the Christian era.[1]


The four types[edit]


Christian allegorical map of The Journey of Life, or an Accurate Map of the Roads, Counties, Towns &c. in the Ways to Happiness & Misery, 1775

Scriptural interpretation is sometimes referred to as the Quadriga, a reference to the Roman chariot pulled by four horses abreast. The four horses are symbolic of the four sub-methods of Scriptural interpretation. There are two main ways to interpret Scripture, further divided into three subgroups, hence the number four: Number 1: Literal/historical-critical: this is the most important and all other interpretations rely on it. Number 2a: Allegorical/Christological/Typological Number 2b: Tropological or moral Number 2c: Anagogical/Eschatological


Literal interpretation: explanation of the meaning of events for historical purposes from a neutral perspective, trying to understand the text in the culture and time it was written, and location and language it was composed in. This is, since the 19th century, usually ascertained using the higher critical methods like source criticism, form criticism, etc. In many modern seminaries and universities the literal meaning is usually focused on to a near complete abandonment of the spiritual methods. This is very obvious when comparing commentary from a Douay Rheims or Confraternity or Knox Bible with a New Jerusalem, New RSV or NABRE[2]

Anagogic interpretation: dealing with the future events of Christian history(eschatology), heaven, purgatory, hell, the last judgement, the general resurrection and second Advent of Christ, etc. (prophecies).[3]

Typological interpretation: connecting the events of the Old Testament with the New Testament, particularly drawing allegorical connections between the events of Christ’s life with the stories of the Old Testament. Also when a passage speaks directly to you such as when St Francis of Asisi heard the passage to sell all he has and it changed his life. It can also typologically point to the Blessed Virgin Mary - she is the ark which held the Word of God, Judith who slew a tyrant is a Marian type, the burning bush which contains the fire of God yet was not consumed as Mary held the Second Person of the Trinity in her Immaculate Virginal Womb and was not burnt up.[4]

Tropological (or moral) interpretation: "the moral of the story", how one should act in the present. Many of Jesus' parables and the book of Proverbs and other wisdom books are packed with tropological meaning[5]


Christian virtues are often divided into four cardinal virtues and three theological virtues. Christian ethics includes questions regarding how the rich should act toward the poor, how women are to be treated, and the morality of war. Christian ethicists, like other ethicists, approach ethics from different frameworks and perspectives. The approach of virtue ethics has also become popular in recent decades, largely due to the work of Alasdair MacIntyre and Stanley Hauerwas.[2]

Cardinal virtues

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The cardinal virtues comprise a quartet set of virtues recognized in the writings of Classical Antiquity and, along with the theological virtues, also in Christian tradition. They consist of the following qualities:


Prudence (φρόνησις, phronēsis; Latin: prudentia): also described as wisdom, the ability to judge between actions with regard to appropriate actions at a given time

Justice (δικαιοσύνη, dikaiosynē; Latin: iustitia): also considered as fairness, the most extensive and most important virtue;[1] the Greek word also having the meaning righteousness

Temperance (σωφροσύνη, sōphrosynē; Latin: temperantia): also known as restraint, the practice of self-control, abstention, discretion, and moderation tempering the appetition; especially sexually, hence the meaning chastity

Courage (ἀνδρεία, andreia; Latin: fortitudo): also termed fortitude, forbearance, strength, endurance, and the ability to confront fear, uncertainty, and intimidation

These virtues derive initially from Plato's scheme, discussed in Republic Book IV, 426-435 (and see Protagoras 330b, which also includes piety (hosiotes)). Cicero expanded on them, and Saint Ambrose, Augustine of Hippo, and Thomas Aquinas[2] adapted them.


The term "cardinal" comes from the Latin cardo (hinge);[3] the cardinal virtues are so called because they are regarded as the basic virtues required for a virtuous life. They also relate to the Quadrivium.


Contents [hide]

1 In Classical Antiquity

2 In Christian tradition

3 Relationship to the theological virtues

4 Replacement of the virtues

5 Depictions of the virtues

6 See also

7 Notes

8 References

9 External links

In Classical Antiquity[edit]

The four cardinal virtues appear as a group (sometimes included in larger lists) long before they are later given this title.


Plato identified the four cardinal virtues with the classes of the city described in The Republic, and with the faculties of man. Plato narrates a discussion of the character of a good city where the following is agreed upon. “Clearly, then, it will be wise, brave, temperate [literally: healthy-minded], and just.” (427e; see also 435b) Temperance was common to all classes, but primarily associated with the producing classes, the farmers and craftsmen, and with the animal appetites, to whom no special virtue was assigned; fortitude was assigned to the warrior class and to the spirited element in man; prudence to the rulers and to reason. Justice stands outside the class system and divisions of man, and rules the proper relationship among the three of them.


In Aristotle's Rhetoric we read: “The forms of Virtue are justice, courage, temperance, magnificence, magnanimity, liberality, gentleness, prudence, wisdom.” (Rhetoric 1366b1)


The Roman philosopher and statesman Cicero (106-43 BC), like Plato, limits the list to four virtues:


“Virtue may be defined as a habit of mind (animi) in harmony with reason and the order of nature. It has four parts: wisdom (prudentiam), justice, courage, temperance.” (De Inventione, II, LIII [4])


Cicero discusses these further in De Officiis (I, V and following).


The Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius discusses these in Book V:12 of Meditations and views them as the "goods" that a person should identify in one's own mind, as opposed to "wealth or things which conduce to luxury or prestige."[5]


The cardinal virtues are listed in the Bible. The deuterocanonical book Wisdom of Solomon 8:7 reads, "She [Wisdom] teaches temperance, and prudence, and justice, and fortitude, which are such things as men can have nothing more profitable in life."


They are also found in the Biblical apocrypha. 4 Maccabees 1:18-19 relates: “Now the kinds of wisdom are right judgment, justice, courage, and self-control. Right judgment is supreme over all of these since by means of it reason rules over the emotions.”


Catholic moral philosophy drew from all of these sources when developing its reflections on the virtues.


In Christian tradition[edit]

St. Ambrose (330s-397 AD) was the first to use the expression “cardinal virtues.” “And we know that there are four cardinal virtues temperance, justice, prudence, fortitude.” (Commentary on Luke, V, 62)


St. Augustine, discussing the morals of the church, described them:


"For these four virtues (would that all felt their influence in their minds as they have their names in their mouths!), I should have no hesitation in defining them: that temperance is love giving itself entirely to that which is loved; fortitude is love readily bearing all things for the sake of the loved object; justice is love serving only the loved object, and therefore ruling rightly; prudence is love distinguishing with sagacity between what hinders it and what helps it." (De moribus eccl., Chap. xv)


Relationship to the theological virtues[edit]

The "cardinal" virtues are not the same as the three theological virtues: faith, hope, and charity / love (see 1 Corinthians 13). Together, they comprise what is known as the seven virtues, also known as the theological virtues. While history suggests that the first four date back to Greek philosophers and were applicable to all people seeking to live moral lives, the theological virtues appear to be specific to Christians as written by Paul in The New Testament.


In the Book of Genesis (28:10-22) Jacob describes his vision of a ladder or stairway leading to heaven. In oral tradition, the three principal rungs on the ladder were denominated empathy, Hope and Love. (The King James Version of the Bible uses "charity," but "charity" was derived from caritas, or "love.") These three are mentioned in 1 Corinthians 13: And now these three remain: faith, hope and love. But the greatest of these is love. Because of this reference, the seven attributes are sometimes grouped as four cardinal virtues (prudence, temperance, fortitude, justice) and three heavenly graces (faith, hope, charity).


Efforts to relate the cardinal and theological virtues differ. St. Augustine sees faith as coming under justice. Beginning with a wry comment about the moral mischief of pagan deities, he writes:


"They [the pagans] have made Virtue also a goddess, which, indeed, if it could be a goddess, had been preferable to many. And now, because it is not a goddess, but a gift of God, let it be obtained by prayer from Him, by whom alone it can be given, and the whole crowd of false gods vanishes. For as much as they have thought proper to distribute virtue into four divisions--prudence, justice, fortitude, and temperance--and as each of these divisions has its own virtues, faith is among the parts of justice, and has the chief place with as many of us as know what that saying means, ‘The just shall live by faith.’" (City of God, IV, 20)


Replacement of the virtues[edit]

Jesuit scholars, Daniel Harrington and James Keenan, find the four cardinal virtues in need of replacement by new ones for the Church. The reasons they give are:


"contemporary writers repeatedly express dissatisfaction with the insufficiency of justice".

"the modern era insists that moral dilemmas are not based on the simple opposition of good and evil but, more frequently, on the clash of goods – thus a constellation of heuristic guides that already resolves the priority of one virtue over another by which a preconceived hierarchical structure preempts realism"

"the primary identity of being human is not as an individual with powers needing perfection, but as a relational rational being whose modes of relationality need to be made virtuous or to be rightly realized" [6]

In replacement, they suggest the three Bible virtues of: Faith, Hope, and Love. Additionally, they add: be humble, be hospitable, be merciful, be faithful, reconcile, be vigilant, and be reliable. This totals to 10 new virtues to replace the four cardinal virtues.[7]


Depictions of the virtues[edit]


The Tomb of Sir John Hotham, supported by figures of the cardinal virtues.


Four cardinal virtues; Louvre, Paris. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection

The Cardinal Virtues are often depicted as female allegorical figures and were a popular subject for funerary sculpture. The attributes and names of these figures may vary according to local tradition.


In many churches and artwork the Cardinal Virtues are depicted with symbolic items:


Justice – sword, balance and scales, and a crown

Temperance – wheel, bridle and reins, vegetables and fish, cup, water and wine in two jugs

Fortitude – armor, club, with a lion, palm, tower, yoke, broken column

Prudence – book, scroll, mirror (occasionally attacked by a serpent)

Notable depictions include sculptures on the tomb of Francis II, Duke of Brittany and the tomb of John Hotham. They were also depicted in the garden at Edzell Castle.


A humorous depiction of the four cardinal virtues appears in the children's book "Masterpiece" written by Elise Broach and illustrated by Kelly Murphy.


Moshe Chaim Luzzatto,[104] says that the tree of the tetragrammaton "unfolds" in accordance with the intrinsic nature of its letters, "in the same order in which they appear in the Name, in the mystery of ten and the mystery of four." Namely, the upper cusp of the Yod is Arich Anpin and the main body of Yod is and Abba; the first Hei is Imma; the Vav is Ze`ir Anpin and the second Hei is Nukvah. It unfolds in this aforementioned order and "in the mystery of the four expansions" that are constituted by the following various spellings of the letters:


ע"ב/`AV : יו"ד ה"י וי"ו ה"י, so called "`AV" according to its gematria value ע"ב=70+2=72.


ס"ג/SaG: יו"ד ה"י וא"ו ה"י, gematria 63.


מ"ה/MaH: יו"ד ה"א וא"ו ה"א, gematria 45.


ב"ן/BaN: יו"ד ה"ה ו"ו ה"ה, gematria 52.


Luzzatto summarises, "In sum, all that exists is founded on the mystery of this Name and upon the mystery of these letters of which it consists. This means that all the different orders and laws are all drawn after and come under the order of these four letters. This is not one particular pathway but rather the general path, which includes everything that exists in the Sefirot in all their details and which brings everything under its order."[104]


Another parallel is drawn[by whom?] between the four letters of the tetragrammaton and the Four Worlds: the י is associated with Atziluth, the first ה with Beri'ah, the ו with Yetzirah, and final ה with Assiah.



A tetractys of the letters of the Tetragrammaton adds up to 72 by gematria.

There are some[who?] who believe that the tetractys and its mysteries influenced the early kabbalists. A Hebrew tetractys in a similar way has the letters of the tetragrammaton (the four lettered name of God in Hebrew scripture) inscribed on the ten positions of the tetractys, from right to left. It has been argued that the Kabbalistic Tree of Life, with its ten spheres of emanation, is in some way connected to the tetractys, but its form is not that of a triangle. The occult writer Dion Fortune says:


"The point is assigned to Kether;

the line to Chokmah;

the two-dimensional plane to Binah;

consequently the three-dimensional solid naturally falls to Chesed."[105]

(The first three-dimensional solid is the tetrahedron.)


The relationship between geometrical shapes and the first four Sephirot is analogous to the geometrical correlations in tetractys, shown above under Pythagorean Symbol, and unveils the relevance of the Tree of Life with the tetractys.



The King James Version (1611) – Jehovah appears seven times, i.e. four times as "JEHOVAH", Exodus 6:3; Psalm 83:18; Isaiah 12:2; 26:4, and three times as a part of Hebrew place-names Genesis 22:14; Exodus 17:15; Judges 6:24.

Note: Elsewhere in the KJV, "LORD" is generally used. But in verses such as Genesis 15:2; 28:13; Psalm 71:5; Amos 1:8; 9:5, where this practice would result in "Lord LORD" (Hebrew: Adonay JHVH) or "LORD Lord" (JHVH Adonay) the KJV translates the Hebrew text as 'Lord GOD' or "LORD God". In the New Testament, when quoting Psalm 110:1, the all-caps LORD for the Tetragrammaton appears four times, where the ordinary word "Lord" also appears: Matthew 22:44, Mark 12:36, Luke 20:42 and Acts 2:34.


Lazarus of Bethany, also known as Saint Lazarus or Lazarus of the Four Days, is the subject of a prominent miracle of Jesus in the Gospel of John, in which Jesus restores him to life four days after his death. The Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic traditions offer varying accounts of the later events of his life.


Cherubim feature at some length in the Book of Ezekiel. While they first appear in chapter one, in which they are transporting the throne of Yahweh by the river Chebar, they are not called cherubim until chapter 10.[18] In Ezekiel 1:5-11 they are described as having the likeness of a man, and having four faces: that of a man, a lion (on the right side), and ox (on the left side), and an eagle. The four faces represent the four domains of God's rule: the man represents humanity; the lion, wild animals; the ox, domestic animals; and the eagle, birds.[19] These faces peer out from the center of an array of four wings; these wings are joined to each other, two of these are stretched upward, and the other two cover their bodies. Under their wings are human hands; their legs are described as straight, and their feet like those of a calf, and shone like polished brass. Between the creatures glowing coals that moved between them could be seen, their fire "went up and down", and lightning burst forth from it. The cherubs also moved like flashes of lightning.


In Ezekiel chapter ten, another full description of the cherubim appears with slight differences in details. Three of the four faces are the same – man, lion and eagle – but where chapter one has the face of an ox, Ezekiel 10:14 says "face of a cherub." Ezekiel equates the cherubim of chapter ten with the living creatures of chapter one: "They were the same creatures (חיה) I had seen by the river Chebar" (Ezekiel 10:15) and "These were the living creatures I had seen under the God of Israel on the banks of the river Chebar" (Ezekiel 10:20). In Ezekiel 41:18-20, they are portrayed as having two faces, although this is probably because they are depicted in profile.[5]

The Four Marks of the Church is a term describing four specific adjectives—one, holy, catholic and apostolic—indicating four major distinctive marks or distinguishing characteristics of the Christian Church. The belief that the Church is characterized by these four particular "marks" was first expressed by the First Council of Constantinople in the year 381 in its revision of the Nicene Creed, in which it included the statement: "[I believe] in one, holy, catholic, and apostolic Church." In Protestant theology these are sometimes called the attributes of the Church.[1] They are still professed today in the Nicene Creed, recited in the liturgy of Catholic, Orthodox, Anglican, and many Protestant churches' worship services.


While specific doctrines, based on both tradition and different interpretations of the Bible, distinguish one Church or denomination from another, largely explaining why there are so many different ones, the Four Marks, when defined the same way, represent a summary of what historically have been considered the most important affirmations of the Christian faith.



Christianity similarly uses forty to designate important time periods.[8]


Before his temptation, Jesus fasted "forty days and forty nights" in the Judean desert. (Matthew 4:2, Mark 1:13, Luke 4:2)

Forty days was the period from the resurrection of Jesus to the ascension of Jesus. (Acts 1:3)

Biblical verse Numbers 14:33-34 alludes to the same with ties to the prophecy in The Book of Daniel. "For forty years--one year for each of the forty days you explored the land--you will suffer for your sins and know what it is like to have me against you.'"

In modern Christian practice, Lent consists of the 40 days preceding Easter. In much of Western Christianity, Sundays are excluded from the count; in Eastern Christianity, Sundays are included.

The Forty Martyrs of Sebaste

Kirk Kilisse, "Forty Churches" (Σαράντα Εκκλησιές) in Eastern Thrace

Holy Field is an informal designation for the initiative taken by the parish of four churches located in Moscow region near the Holy Trinity Monastery. The initiative aims at spreading the Gospel, restoring the shrines, supporting the indigent.


The True Cross is the name for physical remnants which, by a Christian tradition, are believed to be from the cross upon which Jesus was crucified.[1]

According to post-Nicene historians such as Socrates Scholasticus, the Empress Helena, mother of Constantine, the first Christian Emperor of Rome, travelled to the Holy Land in 326–28, founding churches and establishing relief agencies for the poor. Historians Gelasius of Caesarea and Rufinus claimed that she discovered the hiding place of three crosses that were believed to be used at the crucifixion of Jesus and of two thieves, St. Dismas and Gestas, executed with him, and that a miracle revealed which of the three was the True Cross.

Many churches possess fragmentary remains that are by tradition alleged to be those of the True Cross. Their authenticity is not accepted universally by those of the Christian faith and the accuracy of the reports surrounding the discovery of the True Cross is questioned by some Christians.[2] The acceptance and belief of that part of the tradition that pertains to the Early Christian Church is generally restricted to the Catholic and Orthodox Churches. The medieval legends that developed concerning its provenance differ between Catholic and Orthodox tradition. These churches honour Helena as a saint, as does also the Anglican Communion.


A pectoral cross or pectorale (from the Latin pectoralis, "of the chest") is a cross that is worn on the chest, usually suspended from the neck by a cord or chain. In ancient and medieval times pectoral crosses were worn by both clergy and laity, but by the end of the Middle Ages the pectoral cross came to be a special indicator of position worn by bishops, and the wearing of a pectoral cross is now restricted to popes, cardinals, bishops and abbots.[1] The modern pectoral cross is relatively large, and is different from the small crosses worn on necklaces by many Christians. Most pectoral crosses are made of precious metals (platinum, gold or silver) and some contain precious or semi-precious gems. Some contain a corpus like a crucifix while others use stylized designs and religious symbols.

In many Christian denominations, it is a sign that the person wearing it is a member of the clergy and it may signify that the wearer is a member of the higher or senior clergy; however, in many Western churches there are an increasing number of laypeople who choose to wear some form of a cross around their neck.

While many Christians, both clergy and laity, wear crosses, the pectoral cross is distinguished by both its size (up to six inches across) and that it is worn in the center of the chest below the heart (as opposed to just below the collarbones).

Throughout the centuries, many pectoral crosses have been made in the form of reliquaries which contain alleged fragments of the True Cross or relics of saints. Some such reliquary pectorals are hinged so that they open to reveal the relic, or the relic may be visible from the front through glass.


In the 18th century, "heresy" was clarified to mean Judaism and Islam;[citation needed][3] along with paganism, this created a fourfold classification which spawned such works as John Toland's Nazarenus, or Jewish, Gentile, and Mahometan Christianity,[4] which represented the three Abrahamic religions as different "nations" or sects within religion itself, the "true monotheism."


In 1838, the four-way division of Christianity, Judaism, Mahommedanism (archaic terminology for Islam) and Paganism was multiplied considerably by Josiah Conder's Analytical and Comparative View of All Religions Now Extant among Mankind. Conder's work still adhered to the four-way classification, but in his eye for detail he puts together much historical work to create something resembling our modern Western image: he includes Druze, Yezidis, Mandeans, and Elamites[clarification needed] [8] under a list of possibly monotheistic groups, and under the final category, of "polytheism and pantheism," he listed Zoroastrianism, "Vedas, Puranas, Tantras, Reformed sects" of India as well as "Brahminical idolatry," Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, Lamaism, "religion of China and Japan," and "illiterate superstitions" as others.[9][10]

According to historian Paula Fredriksen (1988: 5), critical scholars rely on four basic criteria for extrapolating an "authentic" historical account of Jesus out of the New Testament sources:


Dissimilarity: "if the earliest form of a saying or story differs in emphasis from a characteristic teaching or concern both of contemporary Judaism and of the early church, then it may be authentic."

Coherence: "if material from the earlier strata of tradition is consonant with other material already established as probably authentic, then it too is probably authentic."

Multiple attestation: "if material appears in a number of different sources and literary contexts, then it may be authentic."

Linguistic suitability: "material with a claim to authenticity should be susceptible of Aramaic rendering, since Jesus did not teach in Greek, the language of the documents."


Fourth servant song[edit]

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The fourth servant song, or Isaiah 52:13-53:12, taken from the Book of Isaiah, is the last of the four Songs of the Suffering Servant, and tells the story of a "Man of Sorrows" or "God's Suffering Servant".


The Gospel of John can be divided into four sections: a prologue (1:1–18), a Book of Signs (1:19–12:50), a Book of Glory (13:1–20:31), and an epilogue (21).[10] The structure is highly schematic: there are seven "signs" culminating in the raising of Lazarus (foreshadowing the resurrection of Jesus), and seven "I am" sayings and discourses, culminating in Thomas's proclamation of Jesus as "my lord and my God"—the same title (dominus et deus) claimed by Roman Emperor Domitian.[11]


The honeycomb, which the angel marks with a cross, causes a swarm of bees to surround her, and some return to heaven though others die. The meaning and significance of this episode of the bees is uncertain, and appears to have some sort of connection to initiation rites of mystery religions. There may also be a connection with the otherwise mysterious name of the prophetess Deborah, literally bee, from one of the oldest parts of the Book of Judges. It is uncertain whether the involvement of a cross indicates a Christian influence or not.


On the first day occurred the creation of four kinds of angels and of the 47 clouds.

Jost was the first to point out that in the 30th chapter, in which at the end the author distinctly alludes to the three stages of the Muslim conquest, that of Arabia (משא בערב), of Spain (איי הים), and of Rome (830 C.E.; כרך גדול רומי), the names of Fatima and Ayesha occur beside that of Ishmael, leading to the conclusion that the book originated in a time when Islam was predominant in Asia Minor[citation needed]. As in ch. xxxvi. two brothers reigning simultaneously are mentioned, after whose reign the Messiah shall come, the work might be ascribed to the beginning of the 9th century, for about that time the two sons of Harun al-Rashid, El-Amin and El-Mamun, were ruling over the Islamic realm[citation needed]. If a statement in ch. xxviii. did not point to an even earlier date, approximately the same date might be inferred from the enumeration of the four powerful kingdoms and the substitution of Ishmael for one of the four which are enumerated in the Talmud and the Mekilta[citation needed]. However, the interpolation may have no effect upon the contested connection between this text and the Qur'an (The lowing bovine idol - chapter XXI, Surah Taha 80-98), which receives two separate 1st century attributions within the text, within a 100 word span.[2]



16 About this house was a goodly garden, closed round with a very strong wall, and entered by four iron gates.


7 Now Joseph was seated in Pharaoh's own chariot of beaten gold, and it was drawn by four horses, white as snow, with bridles and harness of gold.


7 But looking towards the east she saw, as it were, a chariot drawn by four horses ascending towards Heaven.


19 Again he stretched forth his hand, and with his finger signed the cross thereon, and theere where his finger touched came forth blood.


Four Daughters of God

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


A page from the Macro Manuscript showing a staging plan for The Castle of Perseverance. The text at the bottom explains the position and costume of the Four Daughters of God

The Four Daughters of God are a personification of the virtues of Truth, Righteousness/Justice, Mercy, and Peace in medieval Catholic religious writing.


Contents [hide]

1 History and development of the motif

2 Examples

3 Further reading

4 References

History and development of the motif[edit]

The most important contributors to the development and circulation of the motif were the twelfth-century monks Hugh of St Victor and Bernard of Clairvaux,[1] followed by the Meditations on the Life of Christ, which Bernard's text inspired.[2]


The motif is rooted in Psalm 85:10, 'Mercy and Truth are met together; righteousness and peace have kissed each other'. The use in Christian thought seems to have been inspired an eleventh-century Jewish Midrash, in which Truth, Justice, Mercy and Peace were the four standards of the Throne of God.[3]


The motif changed and developed in later medieval literature, but the usual form was a debate between the daughters (sometimes in the presence of God)


about the wisdom of creating humanity and about the propriety of strict justice or mercy for the fallen human race. Justice and Truth appear for the prosecution, representing the old Law, while Mercy speaks for the defense, and Peace presides over their reconciliation when Mercy prevails.[4]


However, some versions, notably Robert Grosseteste's Chasteu d'amour, the Cursor Mundi, the English Gesta Romanorum, and The Court of Sapience


develop it along the lines of a medieval romance. They place the story in a feudal setting and give to a great king four daughters, a son, and a faithless servant. Because of a misdemeanor the servant has been thrown into prison. The daughters beg for his release. The son offers to take upon himself the clothing of the servant and to suffer in his stead. Except for the element of the dispute and the method of reconciliation, the two main traditions in the development of the allegory are vastly different.[5]


The motif fell out of fashion in the seventeenth century.[6] It may nonetheless have influenced the work of William Blake.[7]



In English and Scottish literature, the Four Daughters appear quite widely, for example in:[8]


Robert Grosseteste's Chasteu d'amour (thirteenth century), translated into Middle English as The King and his Four Daughters.[9]

the Cursor Mundi (c. 1300) lines 9517-52

the English Gesta Romanorum (thirteenth- or fourteenth-century), number 55

The Court of Sapience, book 1

Piers Plowman (later fourteenth century), where they appear just after Christ's death (passus 18 in the B-text, passus 21 in the C-text). This seems to be based on Grosseteste's text.[10]

Nicholas Love's The Mirror of the Blessed Life of Jesus Christ (translated from the Medit