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Four Level Interchange

Bill Keene Memorial Interchange

Four Level Interchange.jpg

Four Level Interchange of Arroyo Seco Parkway, Harbor Freeway, Santa Ana Freeway and Hollywood Freeway, looking northeast in January 1999


Downtown Los Angeles, California

Coordinates: 34.0625°N 118.2486°WCoordinates: 34.0625°N 118.2486°W

Roads at

junction: US 101

SR 110


Maintained by: Caltrans



The Four Level Interchange (officially the Bill Keene Memorial Interchange) was the first stack interchange in the world.[1] Completed in 1949 and fully opened in 1953 at the northern edge of Downtown Los Angeles, California, United States, it connects U.S. Route 101 (Hollywood Freeway and Santa Ana Freeway) to State Route 110 (Harbor Freeway and Arroyo Seco Parkway).


Contents [hide]

1 Description

2 History

3 See also

4 References

5 External links


The highway is a stack interchange that connects U.S. Route 101 to State Route 110. All movements are possible in this interchange between US 101, which crosses over SR 110, but not necessarily with surrounding roads, like Sunset Boulevard, which crosses SR 110 just northeast of the interchange. The interchange is located at Exit 3 of US 101 and Exit 24A of SR 110.


The four freeway segments ("paths" of travel) from the Four Level Interchange are:


US 101 north (Hollywood Freeway) – Ventura

US 101 south (Santa Ana Freeway) to I-5 south / I-10 east / SR 60 east

SR 110 north (Arroyo Seco Parkway) – Pasadena

SR 110 south (Harbor Freeway) to I-110 south – San Pedro


While the highway oriented east–west at this intersection has consistently been numbered US 101, the numerical designation of road oriented north–south at this interchange has changed over the years. Originally designated U.S. Route 66 and U.S. Route 6 and later signed as State Route 11, all of these designations were eventually removed from the intersection and replaced with the current designation of Route 110.


In July 2006, the freeway interchange was officially named in honor of Bill Keene, former KNX and KNXT traffic and weather reporter, although the new name is rarely used. Keene referred to the interchange as "The Stacks" and the "4-H Interchange". During the 1960s, Dick Whittinghill on radio station KMPC sometimes called it the Four Letter Interchange.[2]


The interchange was constructed as a stack interchange because surrounding buildings and terrain made construction of a cloverleaf interchange impractical. The construction of the interchange displaced over 4000 people from their homes and cost $5.5 million - making it the most expensive half-mile of highway ever built at the time.[3] The mainline traffic of US 101 is at the top of the interchange, above the ramps, a rarity in stack interchanges (although a similar configuration would later be used on the M25 to the south of London, with the M23 passing above the ramps).


Its distinctive architecture has long made it a symbol of Los Angeles' post–World War II development, and it appears on numerous postcards from the 1950s and 1960s.[4]


Mall of America (founded by John Scott & Benjamin Clark) has a gross area of 4.2 million square feet (390,000 m²), with 2.5 million sq ft. (230,000 m²) available as retail space.[5] The mall is a nearly symmetric building, with a roughly rectangular floor plan. Over 520 stores are arranged along three levels of pedestrian walkways on the sides of the rectangle, with a fourth level on the East side. An addition planned north of the mall will allow for up to 900 stores. Four "anchor" department stores are at the corners. The Mall is organized into four different zones, each with its own decorative style.


During its run as a large entertainment and retail venue, certain aspects-such as-have been criticized and closely looked at. A Mardi Gras themed bar, Fat Tuesdays, shut its doors in early 2000 due to indecent exposure and alcohol related offenses, for ignoring warnings from the mall and Bloomington police to not repeat incidents caught on tape the year before.[9] Following that incident were other problems, such as foot traffic within the Mall after the bars (all on the fourth floor) had closed for the evening. The Mall storefronts were closed, however. The Hooters restaurant, the Cantina #1 restaurant and the Theatres at Mall of America movie theater are the only establishments remaining on the fourth floor.


Sunway Carnival Mall is a shopping mall located at Seberang Jaya, Central Seberang Perai District, Penang, Malaysia.


The 800,000-square-foot (74,000 m2) four story mall opened in June 2007.[1] It is located beside the Sunway Hotel within the town center of Seberang Jaya, a township initiated by the Government to boost the administrative, residential, industrial and commercial sector of Malaysia's northern region. Its investment cost to date stands at RM 156 million with a gross build-up of 800,000 sq ft (74,000 m2).[1]


Parkson Departmental Store, Golden Screen Cinemas and Giant Hypermarket are the anchor tenants.[1] It also contains over 150 specialty stores.[1]


System interchange

2.1 Four-way interchanges

2.1.1 Cloverleaf interchange

2.1.2 Stack interchange

2.1.3 Cloverstack interchange

2.1.4 Turbine interchange

2.1.5 Roundabout interchange

2.1.6 Hybrid interchanges

At the Holy Apostles (6th century) five domes were applied to a cruciform plan; the central dome was the highest. After the 6th century there were no churches built which in any way competed in scale with these great works of Justinian, and the plans more or less tended to approximate to one type. The central area covered by the dome was included in a considerably larger square, of which the four divisions, to the east, west, north and south, were carried up higher in the vaulting and roof system than the four corners, forming in this way a sort of nave and transepts. Sometimes the central space was square, sometimes octagonal, or at least there were eight piers supporting the dome instead of four, and the nave and transepts were narrower in proportion.


Korskirken (lit. The Cross Church) is a special parish church in Bergen municipality in Hordaland county, Norway. It is located in the centre of the city of Bergen, just east of the head of the Vågen bay. The cruciform church is part of the "Bergen domkirke" parish in the Bergen arch-deanery in the Diocese of Bjørgvin. The first church on the site was built around the year 1150, and it currently seats about 600 people.[1][2]


Korskirken is located at the intersection of the streets Kong Oscars gate and Nedre Korskirkeallmenning. The oldest part of the church dates back to the second half of the 12th century. The name refers to the True Cross (and not to its cruciform plan), and is rendered in English as "Holy Cross Church" or "Church of the Cross". This is because it was, as one of only a handful Norwegian churches, in possession of a relic from the True Cross. This relic was later stolen by the Danish king, along with several other relics from all over the country, during the Reformation.


Korskirken was first mentioned in Sverris saga from 1185. At the time of construction, the church was situated on the shore of Vågen, probably marking the southern border of settlement in Bergen. Korskirken was damaged in the fires of 1198, 1248, 1413, 1582, 1623, 1640 and 1702; the church originally had two towers, but one was destroyed in the 1582 fire and never rebuilt. It was originally built with straight rectangular plan. The church got its cruciform plan when transepts were added around 1615-1623.[4][5][6]


Cruciform passage graves describe a complex example of prehistoric passage grave found in Ireland, west Wales and Orkney and built during the later Neolithic, from around 3500 BC and later.


They are distinguished by a long passage leading to a central chamber with a corbelled roof. From this, burial chambers extend in three directions, giving the overall impression in plan of a cross shape layout. Some examples have further sub-chambers leading off the three original chambers. The network of chambers is covered by a cairn and revetted with a kerb.


A common trait is megalithic art carved into the stones of the chambers' walls and roofs. Abstract designs were favoured, especially spirals and zig-zags.


Examples are Newgrange in Ireland, Maeshowe in Orkney and Barclodiad y Gawres in Anglesey.

Most Gothic churches have the Latin cross (or "cruciform") plan, with a long nave making the body of the church. This nave is flanked on either side by aisles, a transverse arm called the transept, and, beyond it, an extension referred to as the choir.

In order to mitigate some of these drawbacks, a compromise is also possible. The tailplane can be mounted part way up the fin rather than right at the top, known as a cruciform tail. The Sud Aviation Caravelle is an example of an aircraft with this configuration.


The Pelikan design differs from the traditional elevator-and-rudder design in that it uses only two control surfaces in order to achieve control of pitch, yaw, and roll. When evaluated by Boeing engineers in October 1998, they found advantages of greater pitch control at high angles of attack and that two tails would have a lower radar signature than four.[1][2] However, they also found that using two larger control surfaces instead of four, might actually make the aircraft heavier. The bigger hydraulic pumps and cylinders needed to operate the larger surfaces would add 800 to 900 pounds (360 to 410 kg) of weight to the design.[1] This, and other factors made them use a four-post tail instead.[1]


Tests by Virginia Tech students[edit]

Virginia Tech students built a Pelikan tail model and got positive results for its viability using a wind tunnel.[3] The analysis by the students found several advantages such as a lower vertical surface area, which aids in stealth; less drag due to skin friction; and a lower weight due to the need for two as opposed to the usual four hydraulic actuators.[4]


Screw head - cross.svg

A cross or double-slot screw drive has two slots, oriented perpendicular to each other, in the fastener head; a slotted screwdriver is still used to drive just one of the slots. This type is usually found in cheaply-made roofing bolts and the like, where a thread of 5 mm (0.20 in) or above has a large flattened pan head. The sole advantage is that they provide some measure of redundancy: should one slot be deformed in service, the second may still be used.


Cruciform types[edit]

See also: Cross-slotted, Torq-set, and Phillips/square

The following are screw drives based on a cruciform shape; i.e., a cross shape. Other names for these types of drives are cross recessed, cross-head, cross tip, and cross-point. A double slotted screw drive is not considered cruciform because the shape is not recessed, and consists only of two superimposed simple milled slots.



Screw Head - Phillips.svg

Phillips drive tool and fastener sizes[3]

Tool size Fastener size

0 0–1

1 2–4

2 5–9

3 10–16

4 18–24

The Phillips screw drive was created by John P. Thompson, who after failing to interest manufacturers, sold his design to businessman Henry F. Phillips.[5][6] Phillips is credited with forming a company (Phillips Screw Company), improving the design, and promoting the adoption of his product.[5] The original patent[7] expired in 1966, but the Phillips Screw Company continued to develop improved designs.[5]


The American Screw Company of Providence, Rhode Island was responsible for devising a means of efficiently manufacturing the screw, and successfully patented and licensed their method; other screw makers of the 1930s dismissed the Phillips concept because it called for a relatively complex recessed socket shape in the head of the screw — as distinct from the simple milled slot of a slotted type screw. The Phillips screw design was developed as a direct solution to a number of problems with slotted screws: easy cam out; precise alignment required to avoid slippage and damage to driver, fastener, and adjacent surfaces; and difficulty of driving with powered tools.


Phillips drive bits are often designated by the letters "PH",[5] plus a size code 0000, 000, 00, 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4 (in order of increasing size); the numerical bit size codes do not necessarily correspond to nominal screw size numbers.[3][8]


A Phillips screw head is significantly different from a PoziDriv;[5] see § Pozidriv section below for details.


The design is often criticized for its tendency to cam out at lower torque levels than other "cross head" designs. There has long been a popular belief that this was actually a deliberate feature of the design, for the purpose of assembling aluminum aircraft without overtightening the fasteners.[9] Evidence is lacking for this specific narrative and the feature is not mentioned in the original patents.[10] However, a subsequent refinement to the original design described in US Patent #2,474,994[11][12][13] describes this feature.



Screw Head - Frearson.svg

Frearson vs Phillips.svg

The Frearson screw drive, also known as the Reed and Prince screw drive, is similar to a Phillips but the Frearson has a sharp tip and larger angle in the V shape.[14] One advantage over the Phillips drive is that one driver or bit fits all screw sizes. It is often found in marine hardware and requires a Frearson screwdriver or bit to work properly. The tool recess is a perfect, sharp cross, allowing for higher applied torque, unlike the rounded, tapered Phillips head, which can cam out at high torque. It was developed by an English inventor named Frearson in the 19th century and produced from the late 1930s to the mid-1970s. The Reed & Prince Mfg. Company of Worcester, Massachusetts, was put into bankruptcy in 1987 and liquidated in 1990. Another entity called Reed & Prince Manufacturing Corporation, now of Leominster, Massachusetts, purchased some of the assets including the name at the liquidation sale.[15]


French recess[edit]


French recess driver bit

[icon] This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2010)

Also called BNAE NFL22-070 after its Bureau de normalisation de l'aéronautique et de l'espace standard number.


JIS B 1012[edit]

Screw Head - JIS B 1012.svg

The JIS B 1012 is commonly found in Japanese equipment. It looks like a Phillips screw, but is designed not to cam out and will therefore be damaged by a Phillips screwdriver if it is too tight. Heads are usually identifiable by a single dot or an "X" to one side of the cross slot.[16]


Specific "JIS" standardized cruciform-blade screwdrivers are available for this type of screw.



Screw Head - Mortorq.svg

The Mortorq drive, developed by the Phillips Screw Company, is a format used in automotive and aerospace applications. It is designed to be a lightweight, low-profile and high-strength drive, with full contact over the entire recess wing, reducing risk of stripping.[17]



Screw Head - Pozidrive.svg


Screws with the Pozidriv head.

The Pozidriv is an improved version of the Phillips screw drive. Pozidriv was jointly patented by the Phillips Screw Company and American Screw Company. The name is thought to be a portmanteau of the words "positive" and "drive." Its advantage over Phillips drives is its decreased likelihood to cam out, which allows greater torque to be applied.[5][18][19][20] In ANSI standards, it is referred to as "Type IA."[21] It is very similar to, and essentially compatible with, the Supadriv screw drive.[22]


Pozidriv drive bits are often designated by the letters "PZ" plus a size code of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 (by order of increasing size);[5] the numerical bit size codes do not necessarily correspond to nominal screw size numbers.


Attempting to use a Phillips screwdriver bit is likely to cause damage because the design difference between them is fairly significant even though at first glance they appear to be very similar.[5] A Phillips driver has an angle on the flanks, a pointed tip and rounded corners. The Pozidriv screwdrivers have straight sided flanks, a blunt tip and additional smaller ribs at 45° to the main slots.[5] The Pozidriv was designed specifically to allow much greater torque to be applied because of its more positive engagement.[5]


The Pozidriv screws are visually distinguishable from Phillips by a set of radial indentations (or "tick marks") set at 45° from the main cross recess on the head of the screw.[5] The manufacturing process for Pozidriv screwdriver bits is slightly more complex. The Phillips driver has four simple slots cut into it, whereas in the Pozidriv each slot is the result of two machining processes at right angles. The result of this is that the arms of the cross are parallel-sided with the Pozidriv, and tapered with the Phillips.[18]


The chief disadvantage of Pozidriv screws is that they are visually quite similar to Phillips; thus many people are unaware of the difference or do not own the correct drivers for them, and often use an incorrect screwdriver. This results in difficulty with removing the screw and damage to the recess or driver, often rendering any subsequent use of a correct screwdriver unsatisfactory. Phillips screwdrivers will loosely fit in and turn Pozidriv screws, but will cam out if enough torque is applied, potentially damaging the screw head or driver. Because the drive wings on a Pozidriv screwdriver are square edged, their fit in a Phillips screw head is even worse, so they are more likely to slip or tear out the screw head.[5]



Screw Head - Supadrive.svg

The Supadriv (sometimes spelled incorrectly as "Supadrive") screw drive is very similar in function and appearance to Pozidriv—indeed, the two are often thought to be identical—and is a later development by the same company. The description of the Pozidriv head applies also to Supadriv. While each has its own driver,[23] the same screwdriver heads may be used for both types without damage; for most purposes it is unnecessary to distinguish between the two drives. Pozidriv and Supadriv screws are slightly different in detail; the later Supadriv allows a small angular offset between the screw and the screwdriver, while Pozidriv has to be directly in line.[24][25]


In detail, the Supadriv screwhead is similar to Pozidriv but has only two identification ticks, and the secondary blades are larger. Drive blades are about equal thickness. The main practical difference is in driving screws into vertical surfaces: that close to a near vertical surface to drive the screws into the drivers, Supadriv has superior bite, making screwdriving more efficient, with less cam out.[23]


An arrowslit (often also referred to as an arrow loop, loophole or loop hole, and sometimes a balistraria) is a thin vertical aperture in a fortification through which an archer can launch arrows.


The interior walls behind an arrow loop are often cut away at an oblique angle so that the archer has a wide field of view and field of fire. Arrow slits come in a remarkable variety. A common and recognizable form is the cross. The thin vertical aperture permits the archer large degrees of freedom to vary the elevation and direction of his bowshot but makes it difficult for attackers to harm the archer since there is only a small target at which to aim.


Usually, the horizontal slits were level, which created a cross shape, but less common was to have the slits off-set (called displaced traverse slots) as demonstrated in the remains of White Castle in Wales. This has been characterised as an advance in design as it provided attackers with a smaller target;[4] however, it has also been suggested that it was to allow the defenders of White Castle to keep attackers in their sights for longer because of the steep moat surrounding the castle.


The church is cross-shaped; the altar has a window on the eastern axis, while the nave had a semi-spherical cupola supported by four semicircular arches. The neo-Renaissance painting, done in 1886, has several large canvases, including two scenes near the entrance: Calvary and Christ Judged by Pilate. The wooden iconostasis is carved in a Baroque style; it has white columns with sculptures of gilt wood. Icons are arranged in the classical style. The exterior walls are decorated in a Constantinople Baroque on three registers of different dimensions.[1]



It is a neogothic cross shaped church made of brick, with the original 1869 design using a different color brick from the 1953 extension. The 1869 church has a tower in the west, three naves, a transept and a choir. Connected to the original choir is the extension from 1953, which stands wider than the original transept. The extension includes a second transept, and a new choir, with a sacristy attached to the northeast.[5][11]


A turret projects from the left of the main entrance, standing against the main tower, with a wooden road cross against the outside turret wall.


Around 50 stained glass windows, with two rose windows above the main entrance and one on both sides of the original transept.



A black marble baptismal font from 1796 and a wooden wayside cross against the church tower.[12]


Designed to be entered from the east, Ta Som is surrounded by a moat and enclosed by three laterite walls which are broken by two sets of gopura (entrance ways). The gopuras are cross-shaped and contain a small room on each side along with windows containing balusters. The main structure of the gopura are carved with four faces in the Bayon style.[1] The eastern outer gopura has been overgrown by a sacred fig (Ficus religiosa) which has grown down through the blocks that make up the gopura and into the ground.[3] The inner section of the temple consists of a central cruciform sanctuary with porches at each arm surrounded by four corner pavilions. Two small libraries sit on either side of the eastern entrance path.[1]

THE MUSEUM CALLED "THE CLOISERS" HAS FOUR CLOISTERS- four abbeys four windows- four tombs- four books


Its architectural and artistic works are largely from the Romanesque and Gothic periods. Its four cloisters; the Cuxa, Bonnefont, Trie and Saint-Guilhem cloisters, were sourced from French monasteries and abbeys.


The museum contains architecture elements and settings relocated mostly from four French medieval abbeys: the Cuxa, Bonnefort, Trie and Saint-Guilhem cloisters. Between 1934 and 1939 they were transported, reconstructed and integrated with new buildings, in a project overseen by the architect Charles Collens. The exterior building is influenced by and contains elements from the 13th century church at Saint-Geraud at Monsempron, France, from which the northeast end of the building borrows especially. It was primarily designed by Collins, who took influence from Bernard's original Cloisters Museum.


Rockefeller's main concerns were providing an architectural feature that would memorialise the north hill as a reminder of the area's history as a revolutionary site, and also provide views over the Hudson River. The exterior was built from 1935, and contains stone from a number of European sources, primarily limestone and granite.[11] It includes four Gothic windows from the refectory at Sens, and nine arcades from a priory at Firiory.[12] The bulbous Fuentidueña Chapel was especially difficult to fit into the area.[13]


The Gothic chapel contains four tombs, each a supreme example of sepulchral art.[55] Three of the tombs are from the Bellpuig de las Avellanes monastery, in northern Spain. The effigy of a young boy is from the church of Santa Maria at Casttello de Farfanya.[55] They were built for counts, their wives and children, each with a commemorative tombstone sculptural effigy.[54] The family is associated with the church of Santa Maria at Castello de Farfanya, which was redesigned in the Gothic style for Ermengol X, Count of Urgell, who was dead by 1314.[55]


The museum has collected four medieval illuminated books, each of the first rank and of major art-historical interest. Their acquisition was a significant achievement for the museum's early collectors—but consensus among the ruling hierarchy believed the Cloisters should focus on architectural elements, sculpture and decorative arts, which would enhancing the environmental quality of the institution. Manuscripts were considered more suited to the Morgan Library in lower Manhattan.[101]


The museum has four books of exceptional rarity and quality in its collection; the French "Cloisters Apocalypse" (c. 1330),[102] the Hours of Jeanne d'Evreux (c. 1325–28), the Psalter of Bonne de Luxembourg and the Limbourg brothers' Belles Heures du Duc de Berry (c. 1399–1416).

Roman sources mention a Shrine of the Four Nymphs (Tetranymphon), a nymphaeum built by Hadrian during the construction of Aelia Capitolina in 135[8][9][10] and mentioned in Byzantine works such as the 7th-century Chronicon Paschale; other nymphaea built by Hadrian, such as that at Sagalassos, are very similar.[11] It is unlikely that this shrine was built on the site of the Second Temple Pool of Siloam, but it may have been a pre-cursor to the Byzantine reconstruction, below.


All significant Iron Age civilizations of the Near East and Mediterranean made some use of columns. In Ancient Egyptian architecture as early as 2600 BC the architect Imhotep made use of stone columns whose surface was carved to reflect the organic form of bundled reeds; in later Egyptian architecture faceted cylinders were also common. Egyptian columns are famously present in the Great Hypostyle Hall of Karnak (ca. 1224 BC), where 134 columns are lined up in 16 rows, with some columns reaching heights of 24 metres.



The hall covers an area of 5,000 m2 (54,000 sq ft). The roof, now fallen, was supported by 134 columns in 16 rows; the 2 middle rows are higher than the others (being 10 metres (33 ft) in circumference and 24 metres (79 ft) high).


The complex is a vast open-air museum, and the second[citation needed] largest ancient religious site in the world, after the Angkor Wat Temple of Cambodia. It is believed to be the second[citation needed] most visited historical site in Egypt; only the Giza Pyramids near Cairo receive more visits. It consists of four main parts, of which only the largest is currently open to the general public. The term Karnak often is understood as being the Precinct of Amun-Ra only, because this is the only part most visitors see. The three other parts, the Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of Montu, and the dismantled Temple of Amenhotep IV, are closed to the public. There also are a few smaller temples and sanctuaries connecting the Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of Amun-Re, and the Luxor Temple.


The Precinct of Mut is an Ancient Egyptian temple compound located in the present city of Luxor (ancient Thebes), on the east bank of the Nile in South Karnak. The compound is one of the four key ancient temples that creates the Karnak Temple Complex. It is approximately 325 meters (1,066 feet) south of the precinct of the god Amun. The precinct itself encompasses approximately 90,000 square meters (968,751 square feet) of the entire area. The Mut Precinct contains at least six temples: the Mut Temple, the Contra Temple, and Temples A, B, C, and D (Fazzini, 1983, p. 18). Surrounding the Mut Temple proper, on three sides, is a sacred lake called the Isheru. To the south of the sacred lake is a vast amount of land currently being excavated by Dr. Betsy Bryan and her team from the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland.


The Precinct of Montu, located near Luxor, Egypt, is one of the four main temple enclosures that make up the immense Karnak Temple Complex. It is dedicated to the Egyptian god Montu. The area covers about 20,000 m². Most monuments are poorly preserved.

The sanctuary is made up as follows: a room with four columns serving various vaults of the worship and giving on the room of the boat which preceded the naos by the god. Nearby in Medamud was another Temple of Montu.


Menkaure’s pyramid complex consists of a valley temple, a causeway, a mortuary temple, and the king’s pyramid. The valley temple once contained several statues of Menkaure. During the 5th dynasty, a smaller ante-temple was added on to the valley temple. The mortuary temple also yielded several statues of Menkaure. The king’s pyramid has three subsidiary or queen’s pyramids.[6]:26–35 Of the four major monuments, only Menkaure's pyramid is seen today without any of its original polished limestone casing.[3]


The centrepiece of the monument (Figure 1 below) is a carved representation of a palm-leaf manuscript box holding the Thai Constitution of 1932, on top of two golden offering bowls above a round turret. The constitution is symbolically guarded by four wing-like structures (Figure 2 below), representing the four branches of the Thai armed forces—army, navy, air force and police—which carried out the 1932 coup.


The temple complex of Karnak is located on the banks of the Nile River some 2.5 kilometers (1.5 mi) north of Luxor. It consists of four main parts, the Precinct of Amon-Re, the Precinct of Montu, the Precinct of Mut and the Temple of Amenhotep IV (dismantled), as well as a few smaller temples and sanctuaries located outside the enclosing walls of the four main parts, and several avenues of ram-headed sphinxes connecting the Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of Amon-Re and Luxor Temple.


Four colossal 20 meter statues of the pharaoh with the double Atef crown of Upper and Lower Egypt decorate the facade of the temple, which is 35 meters wide and is topped by a frieze with 22 baboons, worshippers of the sun and flank the entrance.[7] The colossal statues were sculptured directly from the rock in which the temple was located before it was moved. All statues represent Ramesses II, seated on a throne and wearing the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. The statue to the left of the entrance was damaged in an earthquake, leaving only the lower part of the statue still intact. The head and torso can still be seen at the statue's feet.

FOUR PILLARS AND FOUR SEATED FIGUERES WHO WERE THE FOUR MAIN GODS DURING THAT TIME IN EGYPT (before Egypt had three main gods it became four there is always an interplay between three and four)

From the hypostyle hall, one enters the second pillared hall, which has four pillars decorated with beautiful scenes of offerings to the gods. There are depictions of Ramesses and Nefertari with the sacred boats of Amun and Ra-Harakhti. This hall gives access to a transverse vestibule in the middle of which is the entrance to the sanctuary. Here, on a black wall, are rock cut sculptures of four seated figures: Ra-Horakhty, the deified king Ramesses, and the gods Amun Ra and Ptah. Ra-Horakhty, Amun Ra and Ptah were the main divinities in that period and their cult centers were at Heliopolis, Thebes and Memphis respectively.[6]

Largo di Torre Argentina is a square in Rome, Italy, that hosts four Republican Roman temples, and the remains of Pompey's Theatre. It is located in the ancient Campus Martius.[1]

The four temples, originally designated by the letters A, B, C, and D, front onto a paved street, which was reconstructed in the imperial era, after the fire of AD 80. The area was delineated to the North by the Hecatostylum (one-hundred columns porch) and the Baths of Agrippa, and to the South by the buildings related to the Circus Flaminius, to the East by the great porched square of Porticus Minucia Frumentaria, and to the West by the Theatre of Pompey.[3][4]


The Temple of Augustus in Barcelona was a Roman temple built during the Imperial period in the colony of Barcino (modern day Barcelona) as a place of worship for Emperor Augustus. It was the central building on Tàber Hill, currently in Carrer del Paradís number 10, in the city's so-called Gothic Quarter. At one point in history the temple was demolished, and its ruins were not discovered until the late 19th century, when three of its columns appeared on the construction site of Centre Excursionista de Catalunya.[1] A fourth column was then exhibited at the Plaça del Rei and was later added to the structure, as it can be seen nowadays. The temple is likely to have been built under Tiberius, who instituted a cult of Augustus.

FOUR TEMPLES- four columns

A portion of the text in this section is courtesy of the Ministry of Tourism of Lebanon[5] which provided the bulk of the description on the Roman temples of Niha. Niha is home to four Roman temples that were constructed between the 1st and 3rd century AD. The Lower two temples are located on the edge of the village, and the upper two temples are about 2 km above the village in what is known as "Hosn" Niha.


The Upper Great Temple is composed of a portico with four columns, leading to a cella, and then to an elevated adytum.


The classical hotel (katagogion) was used as a blue print for the building of hospitals. The katagogion in Epidauros, erected in the fourth century BC, was a healing center with a rectangular ground plan, consisting of four courtyards surrounded by colonnades (fig. 332).




Fig. 332 – Left: A plan of the Hotel (katagogion) in Epidauros. The guest-house was built in the fourth century BC. The buildings were two-storied, with twenty rooms in each quadrant giving a total of 4 x 20 x 2 = 160 rooms. Right: The temple of Asclepios in Troizen, near Epidauros, con-structed around 400 BC. To the right is the so-called three-pillar hall, dividing the area in four parts. The covered building was probably used as an inn.


Fig. 337 – The Hospital Real in Granada (Spain) was designed by the architect Enrique Egas and built between 1511 and 1522. The cruciform layout with four enclosed areas and a central tower can be rated as the ultimate tetradic design.


The cross-shaped plan became a popular architectonic device around the year 1500, in particular in Spain. THOMPSON & GOLDIN (1975; p. 37) noted that ‘the cross form was exploited for religious purposes or – hopefully – to assist ventilation. A third virtue of the form was discovered: ease of supervision. In a cross, looking goes both ways. If in a cross ward four times as many patients can look into the crossing to receive religious consolation from an altar there, four times as many patients can be watched from the crossing by the nursing staff. The cross form was a natural for prisons and insane asylums and was enthusiastically adopted in what were called ‘panoptical institutions.’


The plan of the Hospital Real de Dementes in Granada (Spain), was built in 1504 by the architect Enrique Egas. It had a (Greek) cross design (fig. 337). The Hospital de los Reyes in Santiago de Compostela (Spain) was another early example, constructed in the period between 1501 and 1511, also by Egas (fig. 338 left). The Hospital de la Sangre in Seville, by the architect Gainza, was somewhat later (1546 – 1600) (fig. 338 right).


Fig. 338 – A plan of the Hospital de los Reyes in Santiago di Compostela (1501 – 1511) (left) and the Hospital de la Sangre in Seville (1546 – 1600) (right) have the Greek cross as their ground plan in common. They followed religious-political reasons.


Vague notions of the Temple of Salomon might have been an inspiration in the style of hospital building. The visionary description of the temple during the Babylonian exile by Ezekiel provided the historic material, which was briefly described in Chapter 3.2.6 (p. 205) of this book. Salomon prescribed the temple as an exceptional building, and the Spanish Reyes Catolicos had to recreate that impression: rocks were brought from Portugal to Santiago and architects and builders were hired from the Low Countries. The message to the people was clear: architecture was used as a religious motivated expression of power.


Dieter JETTER (1987) gave a detailed overview of the hospitals of Santiago, Toledo and Granada and added a great number of other examples of hospitals built in the form of a cross. The three Spanish hospitals were constructed in a relative short time span of nearly twenty years (1500 – 1520). Their intentions can be placed, in Jetter’s view, within the context of a struggle between Christianity, on the one hand, and the Islam and Judaism, on the other hand.


The shape of the (Greek) cross is used as a distinct sign for infidels and acted as a Siegesdenkmal (triumphal monument) to thank God for the assistance in the struggle. The cross-shaped hospitals were proof of how to behave in life and how to be prepared for death, as indicated by the king of Spain. King Salomon was the historic example for the Spanish kings and a parallel between Fernando and Salomon was gladly accepted. Salomon was the King of all Israel in the same catholic meaning applied to Fernando, who was the King over all the Spanish properties in the world.


The notion of the four-fold became eminent in the end of the fifteenth century and is associated with growing oppositional thinking. The latter manifested itself in a search for boundaries in every field. Many discoveries were made, because a line of thinking was pushed to its limits (within the context of a dualistic framework). The year 1500 can be engraved in the book of (European) history as the Pivotal Point: oppositional thinking reached a creative presence. The world was round from that point in time onwards and would never be the same again. Europe experienced the ‘midlife crisis’ of its cultural existence: it was still strong, ready to conquer the world, but the seeds of incertitude were sown.


Fig. 339 – A plan of the Ospedale Maggiore in Milan (Italy), based on an original design by Filarete (1456), displays the basic geometric elements of a square divided by a cross.


The Ospedale Maggiore of Milan was one of the first hospitals to employ the cross plan as a deliberate architectonic feature. The Italian architect Antonio Averlino, also known as Filarete (1400 – 1465?), of Sforzinda fame, gave a detailed description and plan of the hospital as early as 1456. Originally, the cross-shaped plan had a chapel in the middle, but some of Filarete’s design elements got lost in the subsequent execution of the Ospedale Maggiore in the period between 1456 and 1500 (fig. 339). It took, in the end some three hundred and fifty years to complete the project. Subsequently, the building was heavily bombed in 1943 in World War II, but it recovered and is still in use as a hospital today.


The outlines of the Milanese hospital, published in his Trattato d’architettura (Tractate on Architecture), written in 1461-64, became an influential hospital design in the years to come. Filarete’s architectonic sketches also occurred in the Codex Maglia-bechiano, an account of the life of the Indians, prepared for the learned Dr. Cervantes de Salazar about 1553. The original book is in the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale of Florence (Firenze), but a facsimile edition is available (from the publisher Adeva of Vienna, Austria).


The Spedale e Chiesa di S. Spirito in Sassia in Rome is a design derived from a truncated (Greek) cross (with one arm missing). The name comes from the adjoining church founded by King Ina for the Saxon pilgrims (Sassia = Sassonia = Saxony). The hospital was founded by Innocentius III, but was thoroughly rebuilt by Baccio Pontelli under Sixtus IV from 1473 – 1477. Many other popes enlarged and enriched the building (fig. 340) and it still serves as a hospital.


Fig. 340 – A plan of the hospital (central part) and church (to the right) of the Arcispedale di Santo Spirito in Rome. The hospital part consisted of a truncated Greek cross. The architect was Baccio Pontelli and building took place between 1473 and 1477.


The cross-shape plan, as it was pioneered around 1500, became a common outlay of hospitals and asylums in the years to come. The Albergo dei Poveri in Genova (Italy) was built some hundred and fifty years later (1654), and showed the classical cross-in-square (fig. 341). The idea lingered on – and became even more popular – towards the end of the eighteenth century. The project of a naval hospital in El Ferrol (Galicia, Spain), by the architect Josef Müller (1789) is a good point in case (fig. 342).


Various plans of institutions of care in Europe are given in fig. 343. They illustrate the attractions of the square and the cross-in-square layout as an important feature in the building of hospitals over a long period of time. There seems to be a historic relation between the intention of ‘healing the masses’ and a tetradic-architectonic setting, even if the eclectic nature of this presentation is taken into account.

Temple of Portunus, with its tetrastyle portico of four Ionic columns
The tetrastyle has four columns; it was commonly employed by the Greeks and the Etruscans for small structures such as public buildings and amphiprostyles.

The Romans favoured the four columned portico for their pseudoperipteral temples like the Temple of Portunus, and for amphiprostyle temples such as the Temple of Venus and Roma, and for the prostyle entrance porticos of large public buildings like the Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine. Roman provincial capitals also manifested tetrastyle construction, such as the Capitoline Temple in Volubilis.

The North Portico of the White House is perhaps the most notable four-columned portico in the United States.

FOUR COLUMNS- tetrastyle


The temple was originally built in the third or fourth century BC but was rebuilt between 120-80 BC,[3] the rectangular building consists of a tetrastyle portico and cella, raised on a high podium reached by a flight of steps, which it retains.[4] Like the Maison Carrée in Nîmes, it has a pronaos portico of four Ionic columns across and two columns deep. The columns of the portico are free-standing, while the remaining five columns on the long sides and the four columns at the rear are half-columns engaged along the walls of the cella. This form is sometimes called pseudoperipteral, as distinct from a true peripteral temple like the Parthenon entirely surrounded by free-standing columns. The Ionic capitals are of the original form, different in the frontal and side views, except in the volutes at the corners, which project at 45°, a common Roman detail. It is built of tuff and travertine with a stucco surface.


George Washington's sixteen-sided barn (16 sides), the earliest recorded barn of this type.


The Round Church, also known as the Old Round Church, is a historic church on Round Church Road in Richmond, Vermont. Built in 1812–1813, it is a rare, well-preserved example of a sixteen-sided meeting house. It was built to serve as the meeting place for the town as well as five Protestant congregations. Today it is maintained by the Richmond Historical Society and is open to the public during the summer and early fall, It is also available for weddings and other events.[3] It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1996 for the rarity of its form and its exceptional state of preservation.[2][4],_Vermont)

Contents [hide]

1 Description and history

2 See also

3 References

4 External links

Description and history[edit]

The Round Church is set on the east side of Round Church Road, a short way south of the Winooski River and Richmond's main village center. It is a two-story wood frame structure with sixteen sides, finished with wooden clapboards and modest Federal period styling. All but four sides have two sash windows; the wall section behind the pulpit has no windows, and three sides have doorways in the first level and windows in the second. The doorways are framed by simple pilasters and unadorned entablatures. The building is topped by a sixteen-sided roof with a two-stage octagonal belltower at the center.[4]


The church was built in 1812–13 by William Rhodes, a native of Claremont, New Hampshire, where there was a sixteen-sided brick church (since demolished) whose only surviving view shows great similarity to this building. Rhodes adapted the conventional meeting house to this distinctive form, borrowing at least some details from architectural pattern books, using a panel from Asher Benjamin's 1797 Public Builder's Assistant for the styling of the pulpit. The construction was funded by the sale of pews, most of which were purchased by Congregationalists, but at least four other Christian denominations were represented.[4]


Teeple Barn was a historic structure in Elgin, Illinois. It was a sixteen-sided barn designed by W. Wright Abell for Lester Teeple, a dairy farmer. In 1979, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places as the only surviving sixteen-sided barn in Illinois. The barn was destroyed on May 27, 2007, following a storm.



Lester Teeple was an early settler in the Elgin, Illinois, vicinity. He ordered the construction of the barn to store lumber in 1885. Teeple wanted to construct an octagon barn, a style typical in the area, particularly with Flemish immigrants. However, the lumber he intended to use to build it was not long enough to allow such a construction. W. Wright Abell was tasked with designing the barn, which was given sixteen sides instead of eight; the barn was his last known standing building. Teeple's farm provided dairy products to the Midwest. Hay would be distributed throughout the barn by a fork pulley system that allowed the hay to be dropped anywhere in the barn. Teeple Barn was renowned as the largest barn in the Elgin area, and one of the first designed with a professional architect. The barn remained in the Teeple family for over a hundred years, and was added to the National Register of Historic Places on December 10, 1979. In 1996, a non-profit group, AgTech, was created to restore the barn, and managed to restore the cupola in 1999. The group raised over $300,000 for repairs to the barn, which was the last sixteen-sided barn remaining in Illinois. On May 25, 2007, Teeple Barn was destroyed in a severe storm, and the remains were demolished a few days later.[2]


This Mandapa is located within the Gosagaresvara siva temple precinct, Old Town, Bhubaneswar. It is a lofty platform (Mandapa) provided with a flight of steps. There are sixteen pillars that support the superstructure of the flat roof. Construction of a Mandapa within a precinct is a feature of Orissan temple ritual and architecture. These Mandapas usually have sixteen pillars which are also noticed in the Hazari Mandapa in Kapilesvara temple precinct, Jalesvara Mandapa in the Jalesvara temple precinct of Kalarahanga and MuktiMandapa in the Jagannatha temple precinct of Puri.


Berlin (/bərˈlɪn/, German: [bɛɐ̯ˈliːn] ( listen)) is the capital and the largest city of Germany as well as one of its 16 constituent states. With a population of approximately 3.7 million,[4] Berlin is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union.

The Four Columns ("Les Quatre Columnes" in Catalan) are four Ionic columns originally created by Josep Puig i Cadafalch in Barcelona, Catalonia. They were erected in 1919, where the Magic Fountain of Montjuïc now stands.


The Sylvan Grove Theater and Columns,[1] also known as the Sylvan Grove Theater or simply the Sylvan Theater, is a sylvan theater located on the University of Washington campus in Seattle, Washington. Within the theater are four 24 foot (7.3 m) tall Ionic columns from the original University building downtown, constructed in 1861.[2] They are some of the oldest-standing architectural pieces in Seattle.[3] It has been called "one of the most beautiful places on campus."[4]


At the base inscriptions commemorate Nelson's four main victories over Britain's enemies the French and Spanish:


The Nile (Aboukir), 1, 2 August 1798, HMS Vanguard

Copenhagen, 1 April 1801, HMS Elephant

St Vincent, 14 February 1797, HMS Captain

Trafalgar, 21 October 1805, HMS Victory

On the top plinth are named four of the ships he sailed on for each battle.


On the western face - i.e. inland again - a Latin inscription reads: "This great man Norfolk boasts her own, not only as born there of a respectable family, and as there having received his early education, but her own also in talents, manners and mind."


The column itself, inspired to Heinrich Strack by the "torre faro" of Rodolfo Vantini (which stands in the monumental cemetery of Brescia), consists of four solid blocks of sandstone, three of which are decorated by cannon barrels captured from the enemies of the aforementioned three wars. A fourth ring is decorated with golden garlands and was added in 1938–39 as the whole monument has been relocated. The entire column, including the sculpture, is 67 metres (220 ft) tall.


The relief decoration was removed in 1945. It was restored for the 750th anniversary of Berlin in 1987 by the French president at that time, François Mitterrand.


Designers and architects[edit]

Werner designed the original hall of pillars with a glass mosaic.


The foundation is decorated with four bronze reliefs showing the three wars and the victorious marching of the troops into Berlin. They were created by:


Moritz Schulz (1825–1904)

Karl Keil (1838–89)

Alexander Calandrelli (1834–1903)

and Albert Wolff (1814–92)


Surrounded by a street circle, the column is also accessible to pedestrians through four tunnels, built in 1941 to plans by Albert Speer who likewise increased the width of the road between it and the Brandenburg Gate and designed the new Germania which was scheduled for construction after the victory obtained in the war. Via a steep spiral staircase of 285 steps, the physically fit may, for a fee, climb almost to the top of the column, to just under the statue and take in the spectacular views over the Tiergarten including the Soviet War Memorial, 1946, in line with the Nazi proposed north-south triumphal way by Speer and Adolf Hitler.



In the Arc de Triomphe, Paris (illustration, right) the central arch and side arches are raised on four massive planar piers.

Original plan by Bramante for St Peter's Basilica (Rome).

St Peter's Basilica[edit]

The original plan by Donato Bramante for St Peter's Basilica in Rome has richly articulated piers, rendered in solid black (illustration, left). The vaulting they support is in double lines, a familiar representation convention in architectural plans. Four piers support the weight of the dome at the central crossing. These piers were found to be too small to support the weight and were changed later by Michelangelo to account for the massive weight of the dome.[3]


The piers of the four apses that project from each outer wall are also strong, to withstand the outward thrust of the half-domes upon them. Many niches articulate the wall-spaces of the piers.[3]


The four main sculptural groups on each of the Arc's pillars are:

Le Départ de 1792 (or La Marseillaise), by François Rude. The sculptural group celebrates the cause of the French First Republic during the 10 August uprising. Above the volunteers is the winged personification of Liberty. This group served as a recruitment tool in the early months of World War I and encouraged the French to invest in war loans in 1915–16.[15]

Le Triomphe de 1810, by Jean-Pierre Cortot celebrates the Treaty of Schönbrunn. This group features Napoleon, crowned by the goddess of Victory.

La Résistance de 1814, by Antoine Étex commemorates the French resistance to the Allied armies during the War of the Sixth Coalition.

La Paix de 1815, by Antoine Étex commemorates the Treaty of Paris, concluded in that year.


The four sculptural groups at the base of the Arc are The Triumph of 1810 (Cortot), Resistance and Peace (both by Antoine Étex) and the most renowned of them all, Departure of the Volunteers of 1792 commonly called La Marseillaise (François Rude). The face of the allegorical representation of France calling forth her people on this last was used as the belt buckle for the honorary rank of Marshal of France. Since the fall of Napoleon (1815), the sculpture representing Peace is interpreted as commemorating the Peace of 1815.


In the attic above the richly sculptured frieze of soldiers are 30 shields engraved with the names of major French victories in the French Revolution and Napoleonic wars.[11] The inside walls of the monument list the names of 660 people, among which are 558 French generals of the First French Empire;[12] The names of those generals killed in battle are underlined. Also inscribed, on the shorter sides of the four supporting columns, are the names of the major French victories in the Napoleonic Wars. The battles that took place in the period between the departure of Napoleon from Elba to his final defeat at Waterloo are not included.


For four years from 1882 to 1886, a monumental sculpture by Alexandre Falguière topped the arch. Titled "Le triomphe de la Révolution" (the Triumph of the Revolution), it depicted a chariot drawn by horses preparing "to crush Anarchy and Despotism". It remained there only four years before falling in ruins.


Nelson's Column is a monument in Trafalgar Square in central London built to commemorate Admiral Horatio Nelson, who died at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The monument was constructed between 1840 and 1843 to a design by William Railton at a cost of £47,000. It is a column of the Corinthian order[1] built from Dartmoor granite. The Craigleith sandstone statue of Nelson is by E.H. Baily, and the four bronze lions on the base, added in 1867, were designed by Sir Edwin Landseer.[2]


The pedestal is decorated with four bronze relief panels, each 18 feet (5.5 m) square, cast from captured French guns. They depict the Battle of Cape St Vincent, the Battle of the Nile, the Battle of Copenhagen, and the death of Nelson at Trafalgar. The sculptors were Musgrave Watson, William F. Woodington, John Ternouth, and John Edward Carew, respectively.


The winning entry, chosen by the sub-committee headed by the Duke of Wellington was a design by William Railton for a Corinthian column, surmounted by a statue of Nelson, and flanked by four sculpted lions. Flights of steps would lead up between the lions to the pedestal of the column.[5] Several other entrants also submitted schemes for columns. The second prize was won by Edward Hodges Baily who suggested an obelisk surrounded by sculptures.[6]


The monument depicts four figures holding aloft a globe based on the Wikipedia logo,[1] reaching over two meters up.[2][3] The fiber and resin statue was designed by Armenian-born artist Mihran Hakobyan, who graduated from Collegium Polonicum.[1][3][4] It cost about 50,000 złotys (approximately $14,000; 12,000 euros) and was funded by Słubice regional authorities.[1][4][5]


The monument is shaped as a blooming flower petal-shaped structure with the inner walls of the petals inscribed with the outlines of Lahore Fort, Badshahi Mosque, Khyber Pass and Minar-e-Pakistan. The monument opens onto a marble terrace providing a bird's-eye view of Islamabad City.[2] The four main petals of the monument represent the four provinces (Balochistan, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab, and Sindh), while the three smaller petals represent the three territories (Gilgit-Baltistan, Azad Kashmir and the Tribal Areas).[3]


The structure comprises four blossoming flower petals, built of granite, representing the unity of Pakistani people. The inner walls of the petals are decorated with murals.The floor was also made up of granite. The central platform is made in the shape of a five-pointed star which is surrounded by a water body. A metallic crescent surrounding the star is inscribed with sayings of Muhammad Ali Jinnah and poetry of Allama Iqbal.


The English name is a translation and combination of the Urdu words Chār and Minar or meenar, translating to "Four Pillars"; the eponymous towers are ornate minarets attached and supported by four grand arches.[3]




The Charminar was constructed in the intersection of the historical trade route that connects the markets of Golkonda with the port city of Machilipatnam.[13]:195 The Old City of Hyderabad was designed with Charminar as its centerpiece.[14] The city was spread around the Charminar in four different quadrants and chambers, seggregated according to the established settlements. Towards the north of Charminar is the Char Kaman, or four gateways, constructed in the cardinal directions.[7][13] [15] [16]:170 Additional eminent architects from Persia were also invited to develop the city plan. The structure itself was intended to serve as a Mosque and Madraasa. It is of Indo-Islamic architecture style, incorporating Persian architectural elements.


As part of a sixty-day period for public input, two city commissions called for the removal of four monuments associated with the Confederacy: the Lee statue, statues of Jefferson Davis and P.G.T. Beauregard, and an obelisk commemorating the Battle of Liberty Place. Governor Bobby Jindal opposed the removals.[10]


On December 17, 2015, the New Orleans City Council voted to remove four statues from public display, among them the statue of Robert E. Lee located in Lee Circle.[16][17] Four organizations immediately filed a lawsuit[18] in federal court the day of the decision and the City administration has agreed that no monument removals will take place before a court hearing scheduled for January 14, 2016.[19]


In January 2016, David Mahler, a contractor who had been hired by the City of New Orleans to remove the four statues including the statue of Robert E. Lee located in Lee Circle backed out of his contract with the city after he, his family, and employees began receiving death threats. According to authorities in Baton Rouge, early on the morning of January 19, 2016 the Fire Department found a 2014 Lamborghini Huracan ablaze in a parking lot behind David Mahler's company, H&O Investments, LLC. The car, belonging to Mahler and valued at $200,000 was completely destroyed.[20]

The World Trade Center cross, also known as the Ground Zero cross, is a group of steel beams found among the debris of the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan, New York City, following the September 11 attacks in 2001. This set of beams is so named because it resembles the proportions of a Christian cross.

The Club of Four was an alliance of four European truck manufacturers: Saviem, Volvo, DAF, and Magirus-Deutz.

An Iveco with a Club of Four cab

Officially called the Société Européenne de Travaux et de Développement (ETD), the team was based in Paris. Founded to develop a shared range of light trucks, its main success was a shared cab design.[1] Cabs can be one of the most expensive parts of a truck to design and build; the alliance allowed one cab design to be shared among four different truck manufacturers, allowing economies of scale. In 1978, Saviem was merged with Berliet to create Renault Véhicules Industriels (RVI), but the new company continued as a member of the Club.[2] Magirus-Deutz became part of Iveco.


To bring patients closer with nature, the architects created an organic cross-shaped hospital building that wraps around a lush central courtyard. In contrast to traditional high-rise hospitals, the New North Zealand Hospital will be low-rise with a soft and flowing shape to help bring the massive campus down to an inviting human scale. Paths crisscross the interior courtyard to provide fast internal connections between opposite sides of the building. A large garden will also be installed on the hospital roof.


Cross Ward conceptThis is a featured page


The wards housing multiple patients continued to be expanded and became the standard for the public hospitals for hundred of years. Often the wards were configured so the sick could see the altar to assist with their recovery. The cross-shaped plan, which is thought to have originated in Florence, Italy, in the 1400s achieved this goal with the altar in the middle and multiple wards radiating from it. The plan is similar to many hospitals today with the nurse's station rather than the altar at the center. The cross shape ward gave rise the concept of segregation between men and women. Cross ward were built and projected all over Europe.

Figure 7 : Filarette’s original plan for Ospedale Maggiore, 1456


Figure 7 : Filarette’s original plan for Ospedale Maggiore, 1456


The first published ward design was the Ospedale Maggiore by Filarete, projected in 1456 in the form of two cross ward with chapel. Filarete’s Original design Shows the cross ward for men to the right and for women to the left of an oblong court , in the center of which placed the church. The eighteen century plan give a better idea of what Ospedale looked like when fully built and functioning. In this plan we found , each court of the men’s ward was given over to a separate function : Pharmacy , icehouse wood yard, kitchen. In the first plan Filarete intended 8 beds to a side , only 16 in one of the huge arm of the cross but the number of bed soon doubled in later century with the number of patient increase.


Figure 8 Filarette’s plan for Ospedale Maggiore, 18th century.


Figure 8 Filarette’s plan for Ospedale Maggiore, 18th century.

In 1561 , an interesting French cross ward was designed by Phillibert Delorme but never built. The four large ward were arranged around an open arcade court proberbly for the shake of ventilation. In 1635, Italian cross shaped hospital was built by Furttenbach to produce a “ Grosses Lazarett” . at the crossing there was a fight of staircase. There was no alter was included in that plan but twenty years later the plan took the shape of roman cross . Figure 9 “ Grosses Lazarett” planned by Furttenbach , in 1635 and 1655


Figure 9 “ Grosses Lazarett” planned by Furttenbach , in 1635 and 1655


The ultimate cross shape panoptical hospital plan is the cross ward of the insane asylum in Erlangen, west Germany built in 1834. The intriguing pinwheel effect produced by an offset single loaded corridor – that is , one with rooms only an offset single loaded corridor.


Figure 10 Cross ward of the insane asylum in Erlangen, west Germany , 1834


Figure 10 Cross ward of the insane asylum in Erlangen, west Germany , 1834


Kenyatta National Hospital


swastika buildings Nairobi Kenya(images via: TechMtaa and YouTube)


Located on the grounds of Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya, is an “estate” of four low buildings that from the air display swastika floorplans. Two of the buildings are oriented in the traditional counterclockwise direction as employed for several thousand years by cultures as disparate as India’s ancient Sanskrit-speaking Indus Valley Civilization and the Native American tribes of the American desert southwest.


Located just north of Thunderbird Hospital on W Thunderbird Rd west of 56th Ave. in Glendale, Arizona you’ll find the Thunderbird Internal Medicine building and its doppelganger to the south, the Oakeson Physical Therapy building. Known together as “The Fountains”, the buildings house a number of small to mid-sized doctor’s offices, labs and diagnostic facilities. The low-lying, nested cluster of buildings feature coppery-red terracotta tiled roofs and exhibit a blueprint more like a child’s pinwheel than a classic swastika. The coordinates of the buildings on Google Earth are N by W.


swastika buildings Phoenix(image via: Phora)


Curiously, another group of 4 buildings (probably by the same architect) is situated relatively nearby at N by W. The two buildings at either end of the row display a full swastika/pinwheel plan while the inner pair display 3/4 crosses only. What’s up with metro Phoenix and swastika-shaped buildings? Like many such designs, structuring these buildings in a swirled cross design optimizes the exterior wall area to allow for a maximum number of outward-facing windows. While visually pleasing for those working there, the plan also eases the need for air conditioning, an important factor when planning architecture in the desert southwest.


Built in 1934, the “Swastika Estate” at Hanfstaenglstrasse 16 and “Swastika House” on the Donaustrasse were designed to save on construction costs at first and heating expenses later – that’s his story and he’s sticking to it. Each location features four linked houses which, if their appearance on Google Maps is any indication, remain occupied and in good shape after nearly 80 years. “A friend’s mum actually lived in one of the “arms’ of the house on the Donaustrasse,” According to one commenter who happened to come across posted images of these homes, “I visited there a couple of times – there is no way you can tell from the outside that you’re entering a gigantic swastika.”


Designed in the mid-1970s and completed in 1980, the Wesley Acres Methodist Retirement Home in peaceful, sleepy Decatur, Alabama is a sterling example of your tax dollars at work! Established by the HUD who also partially subsidize rents, the facility consists of 96 one-bedroom units and 4 two-bedroom units. All well and good, until someone decides to check out the place on Google Maps… DOH!


Though the approximately 120 mainly low-income residents of the home are (or at least, have been) oblivious to its shape, non-residents such as the late Democratic Sen. Howell Heflin and Israeli-American researcher Avrahaum Segol spearheaded a vocal push to modify the facility’s blueprint. The latter claimed that the building’s shape was intended to pay homage to German scientists brought to nearby Huntsville after World War II to work on America’s budding space program but Mike Giles, counsel for the Methodist Homes Corp. of Alabama and Northwest Florida responded that “It was certainly not intentional,” and that the building was originally supposed to be much larger. In the event, two extensions were added to the building though whether the swastika-shape of the home was affected is debatable.

Built from 1971 to 1976, the Slotervaart Ziekenhuis (Slotervaart Hospital) looms over western Amsterdam’s Tuinstad Slotervaart (garden city) neighborhood. The building’s resemblance to a swastika is only noticeable from the air, and from directly above at that.


The hospital is laid out on a cross pattern with four additional long rectangular annexes connecting to each end of the much taller central cross, and with a slight overlap that negates the formation of four 90-degree angles. One may assume that even the original architects were surprised by the publication of Google Maps images showing the hospital’s interesting (to some) orientation.


The MUNA-Museum in Marktbergel, central Bavaria, is a former ammunition plant located in Marktbergel, central Bavaria. The factory was designed in the shape of a rough swastika as this was the most effective compromise between the need to maintain a production line while keeping explosive materials as separated from one another as possible. Visitors to the museum are unaware of its overall shape unless they view one of the posted site maps.


At the height of World War II, the then MUNA (Main Air Munitions Plant) saw up to 3,000 civilian workers, soldiers and forced laborers assembling ammunition for the Wehrmacht. The plant specialized in ammo for the Wehrmacht’s legendary 88mm flak guns. Considering its importance to the German war machine and its unmistakeable swastika shape, one wonders why Allied bombers didn’t repeatedly flatten the complex which seems to be in reasonable shape today.


Besides being a transportation hub, Denver International Airport has been the subject of mild to wild conspiracy theories since it opened in 1995. Privately funded by the ominously-named New World Airport Commission at a cost of $4.8 billion ($3.1 billion over budget), DEN features a series of murals by Leo Tanguma that include a menacing, gas-masked stormtrooper wielding a scimitar and an AK47. Nice.


Denver Airport swastika(image via: Democratic Underground)


Though symbolism aplenty is to be found at Denver International Airport, even in small doses, the layout of the runways reveals another symbol writ very, very large. It may not be a perfect swastika but the airport’s runways are arranged such that planes can take off and land from any of four directions with a minimum of interference. Very efficient, no? So were the autobahns.


Kresty (Russian: Кресты, literally Crosses) prison, officially Investigative Isolator No. 1 of the Administration of the Federal Service for the Execution of Punishments for the city of Saint Petersburg (Следственный Изолятор № 1 УФСИН по г. Санкт-Петербургу) is a detention center in Saint Petersburg, Russia. The prison consists of two cross-shaped buildings (hence the name) and the Orthodox Church of St. Alexander Nevsky. The prison has 960 cells and was originally designed for 1150 detainees.[1] It is slated to be closed after the construction of a modern prison facility (also in the shape of a cross).


Tomishko designed a prison consisting of two five-storey cross-shaped buildings. The shape of the buildings allowed observation of all the corridors from a single point and also had religious significance, encouraging penance among the inmates. The crosses were joined together by a massive five onion domed red brick Russian Revival cathedral on top of an administrative building. There was also a prison hospital, a ward for infectious diseases, a morgue, an ice-room and a smithy.[2]


Construction started in 1884 and continued until 1890. It was performed by the inmates of the prison who were kept on the site: a part of the old prison was demolished, then the detainees built the new one while continuing to live in the remaining parts of the old building, then the prisoners were moved to the new building, the remains of the old building were demolished and construction continued. The prison was one of the first buildings in Russia that used electric lighting, effective ventilation and central heating. In the center of one of the cross-shaped buildings Tomishko installed a monument to English philanthropist and prison reformer John Howard.[2] By the time it was built it was considered the most advanced prison in the world and it still remains the largest prison in Europe.[3]


Designed by George Gilbert Scott, it was based on London's New Model Prison at Pentonville with a cruciform shape, and is a good example of early Victorian prison architecture. The Pentonville Prison design of 1842 was based on the design of Eastern State Penitentiary of 1829 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.


From Pentonville to Reading


The prison was designed by George Gilbert Scott, based on London's New Model Prison at Pentonville with a cruciform shape, and it is a good example of early Victorian prison architecture.


Oscar Wilde


The famed wit and raconteur was sent to prison at Reading after serving time in Pentonville and Wandsworth Prisons in London following his arrest and trial for gross indecency.


Although he did not have writing materials at first, he went on to write a 50,000 word letter to Lord Alfred Douglas, with whom he had had an earlier affair. It was later published as De Profundis.


Fairfield is one of the most central wards in the London Borough of Wandsworth, London, containing Wandsworth High Street, Old York Road and the council buildings themselves. The ward forms a cross shape, running from Mexfield Road on the edge of Putney in the west, to Plough Road near Clapham Junction in the east, and from the River Thames to the west of Wandsworth Bridge in the north, to Allfarthing Lane to the east of Garratt Lane in the south.


The Ward W. Willits House is a building designed by architect Frank Lloyd Wright. Designed in 1901, the Willits house is considered the first of the great Prairie houses. Built in the Chicago suburb of Highland Park, Illinois, the house presents a symmetrical facade to the street. One of the more interesting points about the house is Wright's ability to seamlessly combine architecture with nature. The plan is a cruciate with four wings extending out from a central fireplace. In addition to stained-glass windows and wooden screens that divide rooms, Wright also designed most of the furniture in the house.


The Willits House is the first house in true Prairie style and marks the full development of Wright's wood frame and stucco system of construction.[5] Although the Willits House has two stories, it is a more complex shape, consisting of a rectangular central space with a rectangular wing projecting from each side of that space.[6] This is a standard design feature for most prairie-style houses, in addition to low roofs, elements that run parallel to the ground and extend out beyond the frame of the house. Wright used a cruciform plan with the interior space flowing around a central chimney core and extending outward onto covered verandas and open terraces.[4] The plan of the house is a windmill style, as seen with the four wings extending from the fireplace in the central core and the movement from each wing being along a diagonal line. Wing two contains the great living room with high windows and a walled terrace. The dining room, extended by a large porch, comprises the third wing; the fourth, towards the rear of the house, contains the kitchen and servants' quarters.[7] Wright incorporates diagonals into several other places in his design – the dining room has a prow-shaped end bay and another prow-shaped projection, the reception room has a similar prow-shaped bay, the art glass light over the entry stairway is rotated 45 degrees, again emphasizing the diagonal, and the terminating piers of the porte cochere are offset from the end wall by 45 degrees.[7]


Cruciate ligaments (also cruciform ligaments) are pairs of ligaments arranged like a letter X.[1] They occur in several joints of the body, such as the knee. In a fashion similar to the cords in a toy Jacob's ladder, the crossed ligaments stabilize the joint while allowing a very large range of motion.



The 612-bed, four-storey hospital on the site of the former Edith Cavell Hospital replaces both Peterborough District Hospital (which opened in 1928 as the Memorial Hospital and was enlarged in continuous phases between 1960 and 1968) and the Edith Cavell Hospital (built 1988). Peterborough Maternity Unit, adjacent to the district hospital, closed and moved into a new dedicated women and children’s unit at the new hospital at 9am on 30 November 2010, with Accident and Emergency transferring at 2am on 3 December. The services were fully transferred from Edith Cavell Hospital and Peterborough District Hospital on 7 December, after which Peterborough City Hospital became fully functional.


The heel-shaped cairn, with its usually cruciform chamber, is a type of megalithic monument that is found in Scotland, especially in Caithness and Sutherland and on the Shetland Islands. On Orkney, the Isbister Cairn is the only site that is similar in shape.


The often cruciform chambers, accessed via a short passage, have a large recess at the head and two smaller recesses to the side. They were covered with corbelled vaults, of which however usually only remnants survive. The best known sites of this type on the Shetlands are:


The Cruciform Building on Gower Street houses the preclinical facilities of the UCL Medical School


The Central Street School is an historic school building located at 379 Central Street in Central Falls, Rhode Island. This  2 1⁄2-story wood-frame building was built by the city in 1881 to meet burgeoning demand for education brought about by the success of the local mills. The building is cruciform in shape, with Italianated hooded entrances at opposited ends of the east–west axis of the building. Each floor houses two classrooms.[2]


The building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979.[1]


On the interior, the building has a basic cruciform plan, with classrooms at the corners, and central corridors running north-south and east-west. On the second floor the east corridor ends in a small room that initially served as a library, above the main entrance. The stairwells on both floors were flanked by narrow rooms, which were used as wardrobes. The third floor contained a large assembly hall, with a stage on the west end.[2]


Cruciform passage graves describe a complex example of prehistoric passage grave found in Ireland, west Wales and Orkney and built during the later Neolithic, from around 3500 BC and later.


They are distinguished by a long passage leading to a central chamber with a corbelled roof. From this, burial chambers extend in three directions, giving the overall impression in plan of a cross shape layout. Some examples have further sub-chambers leading off the three original chambers. The network of chambers is covered by a cairn and revetted with a kerb.


Palladio would often model his villa elevations on Roman temple facades. The temple influence, often in a cruciform design, later became a trademark of his work. Palladian villas are usually built with three floors: a rusticated basement or ground floor, containing the service and minor rooms. Above this, the piano nobile accessed through a portico reached by a flight of external steps, containing the principal reception and bedrooms, and above it is a low mezzanine floor with secondary bedrooms and accommodation. The proportions of each room within the villa were calculated on simple mathematical ratios like 3:4 and 4:5, and the different rooms within the house were interrelated by these ratios. Earlier architects had used these formulas for balancing a single symmetrical facade; however, Palladio's designs related to the whole, usually square, villa.[5]

The site was south of the current Temple Newsam House, between Pontefract Lane and the River Aire. The site may be found on pre-1991 maps as Temple Thorpe Farm, which it overlapped to the south, and is now a few yards to the south-east of junction 45 on the M1 motorway. Any archaeological remains are now entirely destroyed by open cast mining. Excavations in 1903 found human remains, stone coffins and a possible chapel. [1] A rescue dig in 1989-1991 failed to find the chapel, which was surmised to be under an industrial spoil heap to the south. The remains of a large cruciform barn, 50.5 x 13m, were discovered, a possible dovecote, barrel pits, and part of a moat. [2]


The site was given by John Dawes, a local benefactor and landlord, and the church was built by Thomas Allom in a cruciform shape with a short chancel, transepts, and nave from 1847-1848. Bridget Cherry and Nikolaus Pevsner write that Christ Church Highbury 'is a successful and original use of Gothic for a building on a cruciform plan with broad octagonal crossing. The cross-plan with broad nave and crossing was popular for churches in the low church tradition where an effective auditorium for the spoken word was preferred to a plan designed for an elaborate liturgy.'[1]

THE ENIGMATIC CRUCIFORM MOUND (there is also 27 structures- that was the fourth and highest number in Platos two tetractys- tetra is four)

The Folkert Mound Group of Hardin County, Iowa is a collection of 27 prehistoric mounds on the bluffs above the Iowa River, in a variety of shapes, including linear, compound, conical, and an enigmatic cruciform mound. The earliest map of the mounds was made by John Hotopp in 1974,[2] and the mound group was mapped in detail in 2006.[3] The alignment of the cruciform mound is especially interesting to researchers.[4] Horton[5] felt the cruciform mound aligned with the 11th century Crab Nebula supernova. However Lensink[6] felt there was little evidence of this possible alignment. An apparent alignment of the largest conical mound, A, in the south with the end peaks of the cruciform mound, X, and an alignment between Mound X and the end of longest mound, T, has been postulated, but the meaning of these alignments is unknown.[7]

Cruciform sword

Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century

The plain sword used by knights, distinctive due to the flat bar used as a guard. The overall shape of the sword when held point down is that of a cross.


It is believed this shape was encouraged by the church to remind Knights of their religion.[citation needed] It was however very popular due to the protection it offered to the hand and certain attacks that rely on the cross to trap the blade of the enemy. See Sword.


Cruciform product design


In addition to common cross-shaped products, such as key chains and magnets, certain designers have gone so far as to create cruciform devices and accessories. For example, the mass-produced cruciform MP3 player "Saint B", or the "iBelieve", an accessory that converts the original iPod Shuffle into a cross shape designed by Scott Wilson in 2005. The cruciform MP3 players often come preloaded with audio files of the New Testament, but are mainly purchased for users to pridefully display their faith.[3]

Cruciform web design

Cruciform web designs use a cross-shaped web page that expands to fill the width and height of the web browser window. There are a number of different approaches to implementing them.

Four-poster bed

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Four-poster bed


Ornate Elizabethan four-poster bed

A four-poster bed is a bed with four vertical columns, one in each corner, that support a tester, or upper (usually rectangular) panel. This tester or panel will often have rails to allow curtains to be pulled around the bed. There are a number of antique four-poster beds extant dating to the 16th century and earlier; many of these early beds are highly ornate and are made from oak. An example of such an early 16th-century four-poster resides in Crathes Castle, which was made for the original castle owners in the Burnett of Leys family. THE GUY HAS FOUR SWASTIKAS ON HIS CHEST- THE QUADRANT MODEL

Fig. 359b – The sign of the cross in place and time. 7. Cross of Beresford-Hope, 8/9th century (PALLOTTINO, 1966); 8. Crucifix on a cross from Birka, Uppland, 10th century (PALLOTTINO, 1966); 9. The key to universal movement, Mexico (CHURCHWARD, 1934); 10. From the Oseberg grave (TURVILLE-PETRE, 1964); 11. Fibula, Kärlich (Rijnland), 7th cent. . Bonn, Landesmuseum (BUSCH & LOHSE, 1965).


With the exception of Carroll Hall, the residence halls are split among five main segments of the campus: Main (God) Quad, South Quad, North Quad, Mod Quad and West Quad. All first-year students are not only guaranteed on-campus housing, but are required to reside on campus for at least one semester. Many of the halls were inserted in 1973 on the National Register of Historic Places.[4][5]


The Tuscan order is in effect a simplified Doric order, with un-fluted columns and a simpler entablature with no triglyphs or guttae. It was not one of the three orders of classical architecture described by the Roman architect Vitruvius; these were the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. Instead the Tuscan order, presented as a standardized formal order, is an invention of Italian Renaissance writers largely motivated by nationalism. However, relatively simple columns with round capitals had been part of the vernacular architecture of Italy and much of Europe since at least Etruscan architecture.


Sebastiano Serlio described five orders including a "Tuscan order", "the solidest and least ornate", in his fourth book[1] of Regole generali di architettura sopra le cinque maniere de gli edifici (1537). Though Fra Giocondo had attempted a first illustration of a Tuscan capital in his printed edition of Vitruvius (1511), he showed the capital with an egg and dart enrichment that belonged to the Ionic. The "most rustic" Tuscan order of Serlio was later carefully delineated by Andrea Palladio.


In its simplicity, The Tuscan order is seen as similar to the Doric order, and yet in its overall proportions, intercolumniation and simpler entablature, it follows the ratios of the Ionic. This strong order was considered most appropriate in military architecture and in docks and warehouses when they were dignified by architectural treatment. Serlio found it "suitable to fortified places, such as city gates, fortresses, castles, treasuries, or where artillery and ammunition are kept, prisons, seaports and other similar structures used in war."


Not all modern writers accept the Tuscan order, and it is sometimes called "Doric" even by those aware of the distinction.


Equally, where the Greek Ionic volute is usually shown from the side as a single unit of unchanged width between the front and back of the column, the Composite volutes are normally treated as four different thinner units, one at each corner of the capital, projecting at some 45° to the facade. This has the advantage of removing the necessity to have a different appearance between the front and side views, and the Ionic eventally developed bending forms that also allowed this.


The composite order is a mixed order, combining the volutes of the Ionic order capital with the acanthus leaves of the Corinthian order.[1


With the Tuscan order, a simplified version of the Doric order, also found in ancient Roman architecture but not included by Vitruvius in his three orders, the Composite was added by Renaissance writers to make five classical orders. Sebastiano Serlio (1475–1554) published his book I sette libri d'architettura in 1537 in which he was the second to mention the composite order as its own order and not just as an evolution of the Corinthian order as previously suggested by Leon Battista Alberti. Leon Battista Alberti in his De re aedificatoria (English: On the Art of Building) mentions the composite order, calling it "Italic".[3]


The runner stone is supported by a cross-shaped metal piece (rind or rynd) fixed to a "mace head" topping the main shaft or spindle leading to the driving mechanism of the mill (wind, water (including tide) or other means).


The runner stone is supported by a cross-shaped metal piece (rind or rynd) fixed to a "mace head" topping the main shaft or spindle leading to the driving mechanism of the mill (wind, water (including tide) or other means).


The runner stone is supported by the rind, a cross-shaped metal piece, on the spindle. The spindle is carried by the tentering gear, a set of beams forming a lever system with which the runner stone can be lifted or lowered slightly and the gap between the stones adjusted. The weight of the runner stone is significant (up to 1,500 kilograms (3,300 lb)) and it is this weight combined with the cutting action from the porous stone and the patterning that causes the milling process.


The Taj Mahal exemplifies Mughal architecture, both representing paradise[75] and displaying the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan's power through its scale, symmetry and costly decoration. The white marble mausoleum, decorated with pietra dura, the great gate (Darwaza-i rauza), other buildings, the gardens and paths together form a unified hierarchical design. The buildings include a mosque in red sandstone on the west, and an almost identical building, the Jawab or 'answer' on the east to maintain the bilateral symmetry of the complex. The formal charbagh ('fourfold garden') is in four parts, symbolising the four rivers of paradise, and offering views and reflections of the mausoleum. These are divided in turn into 16 parterres.[76]


Proto-Cubism: Pablo Picasso's 1907 painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon uses a fourth dimension projection to show a figure both full face and in profile.[107]


In classical architecture, amphiprostyle (from the Greek ἀμφί (amphi), on both sides, and πρόστυλος (prostylos), a portico) denotes a temple with a portico both at the front and the rear.[1] The number of columns never exceeded four in the front and four in the rear. The best-known example is the tetrastyle small Temple of Athena Nike at Athens.


See also the Temple of Venus and Roma.


Set on a platform measuring 145 metres (476 ft) in length and 100 metres (330 ft) in width, and stood 29.5 metres (97 ft) tall, being 31 metres (102 ft) counting the statues, the peristyle (also peripteral) building measured 110 metres (360 ft) in length and 53 metres (174 ft) in width. The temple itself consisted of two main chambers (cellae), each housing a cult statue of a god—Venus, the goddess of love, and Roma, the goddess of Rome, both figures seated on a throne. The cellae were arranged symmetrically back-to-back. Roma's cella faced west, looking out over the Forum Romanum, and Venus' cella faced east, looking out over the Colosseum. A row of four columns (tetrastyle) lined the entrance to each cella, and the temple was bordered by colonnaded entrances ending in staircases that led down to the Colosseum.

In the Triumph, the general was drawn in a four-horse chariot before his troops. He wore Jupiter's laurel crown, and was applauded as Jupiter's embodiment for the day – or a king, by any other name. See Mary Beard, The Roman Triumph, The Belknap Press, 2007.

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Very little remains of Roma's cult temples in the Eastern Mediterranean world. Four altars survive, and one deliberately mutilated statue.[13]


The four brackets supporting the cornerstones feature four different divine couples: Shiva-Parvati, Brahma-Shakti, Rama-Sita, and Vishnu-Lakshmi. A single couple appears on all the three faces of each bracket.[19]


The incomplete but richly carved dome is supported by four octagonal pillars, each 39.96 feet (12.18 m) high.[21][18] Each pillar is aligned with 3 pilasters. These 4 pillars and 12 pilasters are similar to the navaranga-mandapas of some other medieval temples, in which 16 pillars were organized to make up 9 compartments.[19]

16 PILLARS,_Ellora

Within the courtyard, there is a central shrine dedicated to Shiva, and an image of his mount Nandi (the sacred bull). The central shrine housing the lingam features a flat-roofed mandapa supported by 16 pillars, and a Dravidian shikhara.[1] The shrine – complete with pillars, windows, inner and outer rooms, gathering halls, and an enormous stone lingam at its heart – is carved with niches, plasters, windows as well as images of deities, mithunas (erotic male and female figures) and other figures. As is traditional in Shiva temples, Nandi sits on a porch in front of the central temple. The Nandi mandapa and main Shiva temple are each about 7 metres high, and built on two storeys. The lower stories of the Nandi Mandapa are both solid structures, decorated with elaborate illustrative carvings. The base of the temple has been carved to suggest that elephants are holding the structure aloft. A rock bridge connects the Nandi Mandapa to the porch of the temple. The base of the temple hall features scenes from Mahabharata and Ramayana.[24]

Lebanon Is Building The Largest Inhabitable Cross In The World

The cross itself is 60 meters high and includes a small church in one of the crossbars. Its galleries will offer an incredible view over the sea and mountains.

There’s a massive project underway in the North of Lebanon where they are building the largest inhabitable cross in the entire world.

The Ijadbra Cross website cites these 5 objectives of the project:

  1. Spiritual: Not only is the cross a tourist attraction, it is also an oasis for meditation, prayer and reunion with God.

  2. Psychological: The outstretched cross provides a feeling of serenity and inner peace for the restless soul that is worried about its own existence.

  3. Economical: Being one of a kind in its shape and message not only in the East but throughout the world, this project is expected to attract thousands of pilgrims from all over the world.
    Thus, it will crown the Road of Saints and create many jobs in the Batroun region hence limiting emigration.

  4. Social: The cross in its horizontal and vertical dimensions is in its essence a symbol of the connection between God and men on the one hand and between men among each other on the other, no matter their race, religious beliefs or social status.
    The cross is an invitation for love, reconciliation and coexistence.

  5. Environmental: The cross built on the mountain top will limit the concrete invasion destroying “Green Lebanon” and offer a gorgeous natural resort for anyone seeking rest and relaxation.

The actual construction of the cross is almost complete:


  1.  Dolan, Anthony (November 2009). "Four Little Words". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 10, 2012.

  2. Jump up ^

Cross Yagi Antenna


Main Products : Cross Yagi Antenna

Jesus 'seen' in telephone pole

An image of Jesus Christ on the cross has been “seen” in a telephone pole covered in vines next to a motorway in Louisiana.

'God Is With Us': Student's Post-Tornado Cross Photo Goes Viral 


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Mar 26, 2015 // 10:31am 


McArthur-Martin Hexadecagon Barn is a historic barn located at Bloomville in Delaware County, New York, United States. It includes the 16-sided portion of the barn, calf wing and driveway, driveway ramp with stone embankment, two round silos and a frame addition. The barn was built in 1883 and is a three story frame structure, 100 feet in diameter.[2]


It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984.[1]


Gamel Hexadecagon Barn is a historic barn located at North Collins in Erie County, New York. It is a 16-sided barn with a diameter of 80 feet (24 m). It is a two story frame structure and covered with board and batten siding.[2]


It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984.[1]


Knight Barn built 1894-96 2955(?) Copenhagen Road

40.677882°N 124.25336°W Loleta, California 16-sided barn, shown standing in photos by Mary Louise Lorensen.[27] Shows collapsed in center in Google 2016 satellite imagery.

Fountaingrove Round Barn Fountaingrove Round Barn.jpg Fountaingrove Parkway at Round Barn Blvd

38.475767°N 122.72746°W Fountaingrove, Santa Rosa, California 16-sided[28]


The cour d'honneur, now known as The Quadrangle, still retains the principal entrance to the palace however.


In the French formal garden, a bosquet (French, from Italian bosco, "grove, wood") is a formal plantation of trees, at least five of identical species planted as a quincunx, or set in strict regularity as to rank and file, so that the trunks line up as one passes along either face. Symbolic of order in a humanized and tamed Gardens of the French Renaissance and Baroque Garden à la française landscape, the bosquet is an analogue of the orderly orchard, an amenity that has been intimately associated with pleasure gardening from the earliest Persian gardens of the Achaemenids.


At the center of the ovato tondo stands an uninscribed Egyptian obelisk of red granite, 25.5 metres tall, supported on bronze lions and surmounted by the Chigi arms in bronze, in all 41 metres to the cross on its top. The obelisk was originally erected at Heliopolis, Egypt, by an unknown pharaoh.


At the centre of the square is an ancient Egyptian obelisk, erected at the current site in 1586. Gian Lorenzo Bernini designed the square almost 100 years later, including the massive Tuscan colonnades, four columns deep, which embrace visitors in "the maternal arms of Mother Church". A granite fountain constructed by Bernini in 1675 matches another fountain designed by Carlo Maderno in 1613.


The colossal Tuscan colonnades, four columns deep,[3] frame the trapezoidal entrance to the basilica and the massive elliptical area[4] which precedes it. The ovato tondo's long axis, parallel to the basilica's façade, creates a pause in the sequence of forward movements that is characteristic of a Baroque monumental approach. The colonnades define the piazza. The elliptical center of the piazza, which contrasts with the trapezoidal entrance, encloses the visitor with "the maternal arms of Mother Church" in Bernini's expression. On the south side, the colonnades define and formalize the space, with the Barberini Gardens still rising to a skyline of umbrella pines. On the north side, the colonnade masks an assortment of Vatican structures; the upper stories of the Vatican Palace rise above.


Detail of the ceiling of one of the cupolas in Michelangelo’s Greek cross design for St Peter’s Basilica


On the wall opposite the main doors at the extreme right of the atrium is Bernini’s equestrian statue of Constantine, constructed between 1662 and 1668. Constantine is portrayed at the instant that led to his ultimate conversion, after his vision of “In Hoc Signo Vinces” (or, “By This Sign Though Shalt Conquer”) encircling a cross, and before subsequent victory at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on the Tiber in 312 AD. Ten years after this victorious battle, Constantine, the first Christian emperor, began his initial construction of the original St. Peter’s. This statue of Bernini's employs the Baroque idea of a charged space, of capturing a given moment; both horse and rider are gazing up at the cross above, responding to the image they see. The horseman's clothes are blowing in the wind, set against a backdrop of drapery that is seemingly filled with movement. Constantine's horse is on its hind legs, with the hair of its mane and tail exaggerated. This concept of theatricality, of flowing movement arrested at a single point in time, is one that is entirely of the Baroque era. It has been said that the finished statue was so unwieldy and large that a door of Bernini's studio had to be torn down in order to remove it.


While working on the canopy structure, Bernini was commissioned to assemble four prized relics with four figures of saints associated with these relics in the four surrounding niches supporting the dome. The first of these relics, now regarded as more symbolic than authentic, is the kerchief St. Veronica used to wipe the perspiration from Christ's face as He carried the Cross to Calvary. It is said that the impression of Christ's face was miraculously imprinted on the kerchief.


Each of the four saints faces the awe-inspiring baldachino, and the figures stand below balconies that contain angels in their bas-reliefs, balconies which serve as displays for the three remaining relics that are brought out on Easter and Good Friday. Of there four sculptures, only St. Longinus was carved by Bernini (the other three were done by Bernini's assistants). This 14.5-foot tall statue constructed between 1635 and 1638 was one of Bernini's largest, and the artist made at least twenty-two models in preparation for it. Important to note are St. Longinus' outstretched limbs - his arms and legs are elongated and spread out, and artistic technique that would not have even been considered in the Renaissance time. The idea of "knowing how to draw a straight line but choosing to draw a curve instead", of breaking out of a single block in thought, was inherently Baroque in nature.


Surrounding the chair, at each of the four legs, are four saints that contribute to the spectacular Baroque setting. In the foreground are giant statues of St. Augustine and St. Ambrose, their robes appearing to be blown in the wind, representing the Latin branch of the Catholic Church. Situated at the background are statues of St. Athanasius and St. Chrysostom, signifying the Greek branch of the Catholic Church. The four saints in the background and foreground have their fingertips linked to the Chair by loops of drapery and are interpreted as being in communion with the chair, as opposed to supporting the chair itself. This is a crucial distinction, as the chair supports itself, significant when taking into consideration the attitude of the Church as being self-sustaining.


Surrounding Alexander VII's tomb are four allegorical figures: Prudence, Charity, Truth, and Justice. This imagery is noteworthy when keeping in mind the desired impact the patron (Alexander VII) intended the viewer to have. That is, the fact that Pope Alexander VII is surrounded by virtues and is carved in a kneeling position makes him appear quite pious. Alexander's successor, Pope Innocent XI, had a severe view towards nudity, and forced Bernini's statue of Truth to be covered up with a bronze cloth and painted white.


Walking across the piazza, this forest of 284 columns is four columns deep, and this depth adds to the idea of a fully-encompassed space. There are, however, two points along the broad axis of the piazza (spanning the obelisk and two fountains) from where the four-column-deep colonnades line up in single file.


St. Helena

Statue of St. Helena with fragment of the True Cross she discovered in the Holy Land. Sculpted by Andrea Bolgi.


Bernini's Projects

Statue of Constantine

Equestrian Statue of Constantine the Great

In this statue designed by Bernini, Constantine is capture at the moment of his spiritual conversion and is riding his horse without stirrups or reigns.

On the wall opposite the main doors at the extreme right of the atrium is Bernini’s equestrian statue of Constantine, constructed between 1662 and 1668. Constantine is portrayed at the instant that led to his ultimate conversion, after his vision of “In Hoc Signo Vinces” (or, “By This Sign Though Shalt Conquer”) encircling a cross, and before subsequent victory at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on the Tiber in 312 AD. Ten years after this victorious battle, Constantine, the first Christian emperor, began his initial construction of the original St. Peter’s. This statue of Bernini's employs the Baroque idea of a charged space, of capturing a given moment; both horse and rider are gazing up at the cross above, responding to the image they see. The horseman's clothes are blowing in the wind, set against a backdrop of drapery that is seemingly filled with movement. Constantine's horse is on its hind legs, with the hair of its mane and tail exaggerated. This concept of theatricality, of flowing movement arrested at a single point in time, is one that is entirely of the Baroque era. It has been said that the finished statue was so unwieldy and large that a door of Bernini's studio had to be torn down in order to remove it.


If we recall Bernini's choice of twisted solomonic columns and recognize that, in his time, these columns would have invoked images of Jerusalem itself, then it is of utmost significance that Jerusalem was the site of Christ's crucifixion, resurrection, and ascent to heaven. This is because, through elements within the crossing of the church (at the intersection of the nave and transepts where the baldachin rises beneath the dome), the baldachin is established as Jerusalem. Bernini himself suggested the altar below the baldachino represented the Crucifixion, the triumphant cross above signified the Resurrection, and Michelangelo's dome at the top was symbolic of Christ's ascent to heaven. In addition to this, Bernini also pointed out the triple nature of Christian divinity that was embodied in the form of a great dove underneath the canopy (Holy Ghost), cross above the baldachino (Christ the Son), and mosaic by Cesari d'Arpino in the summit of the dome (God the Father).


While working on the canopy structure, Bernini was commissioned to assemble four prized relics with four figures of saints associated with these relics in the four surrounding niches supporting the dome. The first of these relics, now regarded as more symbolic than authentic, is the kerchief St. Veronica used to wipe the perspiration from Christ's face as He carried the Cross to Calvary. It is said that the impression of Christ's face was miraculously imprinted on the kerchief. The second relic is the fragment of the True Cross, brought to Rome from the Holy Land by St. Helena, Constantine's mother. Thirdly, the skull of St. Andrew (St. Peter's brother) who was thought to be martyred in Greece on an X-shaped cross was once acquired by the church, but was brought back to Greece in 1964 by Pope Paul VI. Lastly, there is the relic of the lance of St. Longinus, the Roman centurion who stabbed Christ's side, only to realize Christ's divinity after inflicting this fatal wound.


St. Peter’s Basilica, also called New St. Peter’s Basilica, present basilica of St. Peter in Vatican City (an enclave in Rome), begun by Pope Julius II in 1506 and completed in 1615 under Paul V. It is designed as a three-aisled Latin cross with a dome at the crossing, directly above the high altar, which covers the shrine of St. Peter the Apostle. The edifice—the church of the popes—is a major pilgrimage site.


St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City.

Overview of St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City.

The mosaics of St. Peter’s Basilica in Vatican City are restored.

View of the dome inside St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City.

St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City.


Take a tour of St. Peter’s Basilica in this video.

Contunico © ZDF Enterprises GmbH, Mainz

Learn about the restoration of tiles in St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City.

Contunico © ZDF Enterprises GmbH, Mainz

View of the dome inside St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City.

© Ron Gatepain (A Britannica Publishing Partner)


On April 18, 1506, Julius II laid the first stone for the new basilica. It was to be erected in the form of a Greek cross according to the plan of Donato Bramante. On Bramante’s death (1514) Leo X commissioned as his successors Raphael, Fra Giovanni Giocondo, and Giuliano da Sangallo, who modified the original Greek cross plan to a Latin cross with three aisles separated by pillars. The architects after Raphael’s death in 1520 were Antonio da Sangallo the Elder, Baldassarre Peruzzi, and Andrea Sansovino.


Paul V (1605–21) adopted Carlo Maderno’s plan, giving the basilica the form of a Latin cross by extending the nave to the east, thus completing the 615-foot- (187-metre-) long main structure. Maderno also completed the facade of St. Peter’s and added an extra bay on each end to support campaniles. Although Maderno left designs for these campaniles, only one was built, and that was of a different design executed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini in 1637. Under the commission of Alexander VII (1655–67) Bernini designed the elliptical piazza, outlined by colonnades, that serves as the approach to the basilica.


St. Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, by Carlo Maderno, 1607.

Interior of St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City.

Altar of St. Gregory I in St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City.

Presentation Chapel in St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City.

St. Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, by Carlo Maderno, 1607.

Robert Harding Picture Library

Interior of St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City.

© Ron Gatepain (A Britannica Publishing Partner)

Altar of St. Gregory I in St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City.

© Ron Gatepain (A Britannica Publishing Partner)

Presentation Chapel in St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City.

© Ron Gatepain (A Britannica Publishing Partner)


The first big thing that caught my eye was a "wall of prayer", with a black square embedded in it. Above this wall there is a big cross and a painting of King Solomon (allegedly St. Peter) holding the key that unlocks the truth.


This wall is flanked by the carvings of two popes (priests of the "fish-god" Enki, as I have explained in my previous article) wearing the Anunnaki cross (later known as Templar cross; also used by Hitler to decorate his most valuable soldiers and engraved on the pope's clothing). Beneath, we can see a white Dove (actually, the dove is being obsessively displayed throughout the basilica):


The black altar itself, with its snake-like winding columns, is littered with depictions of: suns, beehives and bees, laurels, squares, pine cones and naked children (sexually abused and sacrificed in Satanic rituals);

Notice the dove (Inanna) on the altar's ceiling, radiating energy in the shape of the Anunnaki cross;


During the "religious" rituals, the pope has access to this underground level through a double stairway, leading exactly beneath the black altar. Extremely strange for a Christian religion (the Catholics are Christian) is the inverted cross symbolism, which is Satanic.


It is also known as the cross of St. Peter and this, in my opinion, is one of the reasons why he was chosen as the alleged patron of the church.




Entrance to the first level of the catacombs: notice the eight-pointed stars depicted on the floor, all around the altar, and the reversed (up-side down) crosses on the doors to the catacombs;


Another reason is that his name starts with the letter P, from Pleiades. The St. Peter's Basilica resides above the X formed by Orion Constellation, as I have presented in the opening in this article. The interlocked X and P are a cipher, a KEY, for unlocking the truth.




Every human cell includes twenty -three pairs of chromosomes, one of which is

responsible for establishing the sex of the individual. Modern science groups

the first twenty -two pairs of chromosomes together and calls them autosomes,

but it is the structure of the final pair of chromosomes that ultimately

determines which sex a person will be. These sex-determining chromosomes

are shaped either like an X, with four branches, or like a Y, with three

branches, and so they are called the X and Y chromosomes... Dogon

mythology takes a similar approach when it organizes the 266 seeds or signs of

Amma's egg... The parallel nature of these descriptions provides us with a

new basis for interpreting the Dogon numerological assignments of the

number four as female and the number three as male because these numbers




correspond to the X and Y chromosomes of science — the first, with four

branches, produces a female child, and the second, with three branches,

produces a male. Based on this interpretation, it is completely understandable

that the number seven would then be numerologically assigned to the

individual because it is the pairing of an X and a Y chromosome that

determines the sex of an individual, (p. 113-114)


Far wall: Pope with heka staff - trademark of the Egyptian "royalty"; notice the fish/reptilian scales beneath;

The "Christian" Chi-Rho/Orion-Pleiades sculpted on the sarcophagus;

Notice the Masonic laurel painted on the archway and the chain with pine cones at both ends;

The chain's supports have Anunnaki/Templar cross motif;

The paths leading out of the catacombs and the Sistine Chapel meet in a small courtyard, where a statue of Saint Gregorius Armeniae Illuminator (a.k.a. Gregory the Illuminator) resides.


An average of 3 billion consumers buy Oreo packages each year, making Oreo the top-selling cookie of the 20th century. But have any of those billions of people ever noticed that they licked off the creamy white filling from the Knight Templar symbol, dipped the Cross Pattee sign into the glass of milk, or satisfied their hunger with the Nabisco logo? Life is just full of surprises.


Here's everything you need to know about the logo on your favorite Oreo cookie.


Cross of Lorraine