Stations of the cross[edit]
On the back wall of the chapel are the traditional 14 stations of the cross. Although the 14 stations are usually depicted individually, Matisse incorporated all of them on one wall in one cohesive composition. The series begins at the bottom left as Jesus is brought before Pilate and condemned. The stations follow Jesus' progress carrying the cross. At the top in the center are the three most powerful images - The Raising of the Cross with Jesus' body nailed to it, the actual Crucifixion, and then Taking the Body of Jesus Down. The center panel has a straight vertical and horizontal composition, while the two surrounding stations have strong diagonal lines leading to the head of Jesus on the cross. The French artist Jean Vincent de Crozals served Matisse as model for the Christ.[5]

Sets of vestments[edit]
Matisse also designed the priests' vestments for the chapel, using the traditional ecclesiastical colors of the religious seasons: purple, black, pink/rose, green, and red. The Pope requested that the nuns send the vestments to Rome to be put in the Vatican's new museum of modern religious art. The nuns made copies of five of the sets of vestments, including chasubles, maniples, stoles, and coverings of the chalice, and sent them to Rome.

Remaining area[edit]
The outside of the chapel is white. The top of the roof is decorated with a blue-and-white zigzag pattern and carries an elaborate metal cross with a bell.

The chapel was made by the famous painter Matisse. Matisse was known for drawing squares- squares are in quadrants

The tombs at Naqsh-e Rustam, Iran, made in the 5th century BC, are carved into the cliffside in the shape of a cross. They are known as the "Persian crosses".




Mount Rushmore National Memorial is a sculpture carved into the granite face of Mount Rushmore, a batholith in the Black Hills in Keystone, South Dakota, United States. Sculpted by Gutzon Borglum and his son, Lincoln Borglum, Mount Rushmore features 60-foot (18 m) sculptures of the heads of four United States presidents: George Washington (1732–1799), Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826), Theodore Roosevelt (1858–1919), and Abraham Lincoln (1809–1865).[2] The memorial park covers 1,278.45 acres (2.00 sq mi; 5.17 km2)[3] and is 5,725 feet (1,745 m) above sea level.[4]


South Dakota historian Doane Robinson is credited with conceiving the idea of carving the likenesses of famous people into the Black Hills region of South Dakota in order to promote tourism in the region. Robinson's initial idea was to sculpt the Needles; however, Gutzon Borglum rejected the Needles because of the poor quality of the granite and strong opposition from Native American groups. They settled on Mount Rushmore, which also has the advantage of facing southeast for maximum sun exposure. Robinson wanted it to feature American West heroes like Lewis and Clark, Red Cloud,[5] and Buffalo Bill Cody,[6] but Borglum decided the sculpture should have broader appeal and chose the four presidents.

Byzantine quincunx church-QUINCUNX IS CROSS

(Left) Perspective drawing of a quincunx, or five-domed, church, a church type of the second Golden Age based on the domed cross element; (right) plan of church, showing cross-in-square design.

Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.


in Western architecture: The middle Byzantine period (843–1204)

...on the arms of the cross, producing a true five-domed type such as St. Mark’s Cathedral at Venice, or placed above the eastern and western extremities of the side aisles, producing a type called the quincunx. These domes were usually comparatively small and were set on drums, which tended to become narrower and taller with the progress of time. The eastern extremities of the side aisles formed...


in South Asian arts: The Gupta period (4th–6th centuries ad) the form of a niche, in which is placed an image. The Deogarh temple is also noteworthy for the large terrace with four corner shrines (now ruined) on which it is placed, prefiguring the quincunx, or pañcāyatana, grouping (one structure in each corner and one in the middle) popular in the later period. The doorway surround, too, is very elaborate, carved with...

in South Asian arts: Medieval temple architecture: North Indian style

...which is sometimes of considerable height and size. The attendant shrines—generally four—are placed at the corners of the terrace, forming a pañcāyatana, or quincunx, arrangement that is fairly widespread. The temple complex may be surrounded by a wall with an arched doorway ( toraṇa).


Three Examples of the Geometric Pattern, the Quincunx, in England


Henry III is inspired by Roman patterns to create a two church floors Continuing a theme of traditional floor patterns from a few weeks ago, here are three variations on the quincunx. The quincunx is the name given to an arrangement of five shapes, (usually the same, for example five circles, but not necessarily so) in which four sit around one centrally placed.


The first is Roman and is at an ancient site at Hurcott in Somerset. The second and third were both created under the patronage of Henry III during the 13th century. The second is the Westminster Pavement, which is reasonably well known. The third is at Canterbury Cathedral and until I read about it in an article in the Glastonbury Review, here, I was not aware that it existed. This article suggests that Henry, who was patron of two geometric floors, was inspired by seeing Roman patterns. He is shown top left processing with a controversial relic, the precious blood of Christ. All of this is detailed in the Review article.


Those who wish to know more about the quincunx and its place in the Christian tradition of geometric art can read about it here.


The Quincunx – a Geometric Representation of Christ in Majesty

by DAVID CLAYTON on MARCH 16, 2011

One of my hopes for the cultural renewal is the revival of a Christian form of geometric patterned art. With this in mind I have done my best to study past work, and try to discern the principles that underlie its creation. I wrote about resources that help in this respect in a previous article, here.


If tasked with the design of an ornate sanctuary floor now, for example, how might one go about it?

One approach, which was used by the Cosmati craftsmen of the middle ages was to have a large design for to fill the whole shape and then to infill with a variety of different geometric patterns. The Cosmatesque style is named after the Cosmati family which, over several generations, developed this distinctive style of work. If they were covering a large area, such as a whole church floor, they worked on three scales. For the grand form they tended to compartmentalize into rectilinear shapes. Then the sub-form would be a geometric design consisting of faceted polygons or interconnected circles. The final stage would be an infill of with very small repeated regular geometric shapes such as squares, triangles of hexagons (which are the three forms that can put together without creating gaps).




Cathedral of Sessa Aurunca, 13th century


One of the sub-forms is called the ‘quincunx’. This the generic name for the arrangement of five equivalent shapes that has four arranged symmetrically around the fifth which is centrally place (it is also a game-winning word in Scrabble so it’ll pay to remember this, if for no other reason). The five dots on dice, for example, are in a quincunx shape. I understand the name comes from the Latin for five-twelfths, a coin of this fraction value of the currency had this name and often had this arrangement of dots on it.


In the context of geometric patterned art, it is the shape of four smaller circles spinning of larger secondary one was not limited to the Cosmati craftsmen. It is seen in both Eastern and Western Churches and across many centuries. I am going to setting my class at Thomas More College the task of designing and drawing a sanctuary floor based upon this design later this term.


In some respects the quincunx can be thought of as the geometrical equivalent of the traditional image of Christ in Majesty. Around the central image of the enthroned Christ we see four figures representing the four evangelists carrying the Word to the four corners of the world. One of the reasons that the Church settled on four gospels was to emphasis this symbolism (see St Irenaeus writing in the 2nd century AD in Against Heresies). The quincunx also symbolizes Creation, as the number four represents the cosmos. The symbolism is of, again the four corners of the world – Christ spoke of the ‘four winds’; and the four ‘elements’ of the ancients from which all matter is comprised. These elements are fire, water, earth and air. In modern science the work element has come to mean something more specific than this. However, this does not invalidate this symbolism, to my mind, for they still symbolise very well, I feel the phases or states by which modern science categorises matter – solid, liquid, gas and energy (or alternatively plasma).


In his book on the Westminster pavement, which is the one example of Cosmati work in England, Richard Foster suggests that the inscriptions indicate that rather that signifying Creation, the quincunx signifies the final end. That is, rather than emanating from God, all is returning to God.


An 8th century German manuscript showing Christ in Majesty




A 13th century French ivory carving, in the Musee de Cluny




A sub-form of interconnected circles other than a quincunx, at S Maria in Trastever, Rome


I have no additional information as to why this particular design was chosen. All I can say is that I would have been very happy to see this in my bible because of the four-fold and eight-fold symmetry that exists in this. Four symbolises the world and four gospels were chosen by the Church so that the Word was carried to the four corners of the world by the four evangelists, each evangelists is symbolised by the four figures described as sitting around the throne of Christ in the book of the Apocalypse.


Regular readers will be familiar also with the symbolism of eight: it corresponds to the eighth day of Creation that ushers in the new covenant: the incarnation, death, resurrection of Christ. Sunday is the eighth day of the week. In the basic repeat unit, which is repeated like floor tiles, we have, geometrically portrayed, four versions of the Word in the gospels (four small octagons) spinning out of one large one, the Creator himself, enthroned and in glory. Pictorially, this would be Christ in Majesty surrounded by the Angel, the Lion, the Ox, and the Eagle. When you have four of the repeat units combined, there is long-range order which has a fourfold symmetry in which four large octagons surround the central, which is the broad design of this ‘carpet page’. There is a beautiful harmony to this, and it seems to me to reinforce the superabundant truth of Eucharist: that through the propagation of his gospel in a literary description of his life, Christ in Majesty is really made present in the world in the liturgy of His Holy Church.


Images from the Way of Beauty: Christ Enthroned and the Quincunx – Symbolic Images of the Gospels


Santa_Croce_in_Gerusalemme_Kosmaten_2009-600x450This week we show images, one is representational are and one is geometric art.


First is Christ Enthroned. I painted this for the childrens coloring book, Meet the Angels. It went on the back cover. It shows Christ, as described in the vision of Ezekiel and the Book of Revelaton, enthroned with the four faces of the Cherubim in each corner. Around the throne also are many six-winged seraphim – just wings and faces – and who are transparent so the colours of the background show through. This is a standard iconographic image and if you look on Google images for ‘Christ Enthroned’ or ‘Christ in Majesty’ you will see many in this style. It is painted in egg tempera. The almond shape around Christ is called a Mandorla (Italian for almond!) and represents the cosmos.



Christ-Enthroned-JPEG-445x600 (1)



The other images are examples of cut stone floorwork and are geometric designs in the ‘Cosmatesque’ or ‘Cosmati’ style. It is named after the Cosmati family which, over several generations, developed this distinctive style of work. If they were covering a large area, such as a whole church floor, they worked on three scales. For the grand form they tended to compartmentalize into rectilinear shapes. Then the sub-form would be a geometric design consisting of faceted polygons or interconnected circles. The final stage would be an infill of with very small repeated regular geometric shapes such as squares, triangles of hexagons (which are the three forms that can put together without creating gaps).


One of the standard designs is the ‘quincunx’. This the generic name for the arrangement of five equivalent shapes that has four arranged symmetrically around the fifth which is centrally place (it is also a game-winning word in Scrabble so it’ll pay to remember this, if for no other reason). The five dots on dice, for example, are in a quincunx shape. I understand the name comes from the Latin for five-twelfths, a coin of this fraction value of the currency had this name and often had this arrangement of dots on it.


This one is in Westminster Abbey:


Westminster Abbey, Cosmati floor, photomosaic



..and this is in Santa Croce in Rome:





In the context of geometric patterned art, it is the shape of four smaller circles spinning of larger secondary one was not limited to the Cosmati craftsmen. It is seen in both Eastern and Western Churches and across many centuries and was seen in Roman floor mosaics.


What is the connection between the geometric and representational forms?


The answer is that both sybolize the Word of God being taken to the world through the gospels. Around the central image of the enthroned Christ we see four figures representing the four evangelists carrying the Word to the four corners of the world. Wikipedia describes the source as follows:.


‘Matthew the Evangelist, the author of the first gospel account is symbolized by a winged man, or angel. Matthew’s gospel starts with Joseph’s genealogy from Abraham; it represents Jesus’ Incarnation, and so Christ’s human nature. This signifies that Christians should use their reason for salvation.


Mark the Evangelist, the author of the second gospel account is symbolized by a winged lion – a figure of courage and monarchy. The lion also represents Jesus’ Resurrection (because lions were believed to sleep with open eyes, a comparison with Christ in the tomb), and Christ as king. This signifies that Christians should be courageous on the path of salvation.


Luke the Evangelist, the author of the third gospel account (and the Acts of the Apostles) is symbolized by a winged ox or bull – a figure of sacrifice, service and strength. Luke’s account begins with the duties of Zacharias in the temple; it represents Jesus’ sacrifice in His Passion and Crucifixion, as well as Christ being High priest (this also represents Mary’s obedience). The ox signifies that Christians should be prepared to sacrifice themselves in following Christ.


John the Evangelist, the author of the fourth gospel account is symbolized by an eagle – a figure of the sky, and believed by Christian scholars to be able to look straight into the sun. John starts with an eternal overview of Jesus the Logos and goes on to describe many things with a “higher” christology than the other three (synoptic) gospels; it represents Jesus’ Ascension, and Christ’s divine nature. This symbolises that Christians should look on eternity without flinching as they journey towards their goal of union with God.’


One of the reasons that the Church settled on four gospels was to emphasis this symbolism (see St Irenaeus writing in the 2nd century AD in Against Heresies). The quincunx also symbolizes Creation, as the number four represents the cosmos. The symbolism is of, again the four corners of the world – Christ spoke of the ‘four winds’ and the symbolism of the four points of the compass comes from this.

The Traditional Symbolism of Four

by DAVID CLAYTON on MAY 25, 2012

This can be something of interest to us and the basis of a powerful lesson for our children.


Recently I wrote an article about the idea that the number five was symbolic of Our Lady, here. In it I raised a doubt in mind about the suggestion that it was part of the tradition. This doubt existed because of the lack of scriptural references or works of the Church Fathers citing it.


This can be contrasted with consideration of symbolism of the number four. Unlike the number five we have references from many different sources that point to a longstanding and firmly established tradition of Christian symbolism of the number four. We can also see how this symbolism has been reflected in the culture, through art for example. There are biblical references and the writings of the Church Fathers, some of which are included in the liturgy of the Church.


What brought this to mind was a passage in the Office of Readings from the book of the Apocalypse. The passage is from Rev. 7 and begins as follows: ‘I, John, saw four angels standing at the four corners of the earth, holding back the four winds of the earth, so that no wind should blow the earth, the sea or any tree.’


This statement links the created world, the earth, to the number four. We can also see how these expressions (the four winds and the four corners of the earth) derive these common usages. We can see also, why it would be natural to divide the points of the compass up into four quadrants. There are other references to the four winds in the bible, most importantly, Christ himself spoke of the four winds in Matthew 24 and Mark 13 in which we can see the parallels with the passage in the Apocalypse immediately, for example:


“And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. And he shall send his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.” (Mt 24: 30,31) This seems to extend the number four to a way of meaning ‘everywhere’ because he is applying it here to heaven as well.


Famously, St Irenaeus wrote in the 2nd century AD in his treatise, Against Heresies:


“There are four gospels and only four, neither more nor less: four like the points of the compass, four like the chief directions of the wind. The Church, spread all over the world, has in the gospels four pillars and four winds blowing wherever people live. These four gospels are in actual fact one single Gospel, a fourfold Gospel inspired by the one Spirit, a Gospel which has four aspects representing the work of the Son of God. These aspects are like the four cherubs described by Ezekiel. In the prophet’s words: `The first had the like ness of a lion,’ symbolizing the masterly and kingly role of Christ in priesthood; `the second had the appearance of an ox,’ the beast of sacrifice, recalling the perfect sacrifice of Christ; `the third had the face of a man,’ undoubtedly referring to the coming of the Lord in human nature; `and the fourth had the aspect of a flying eagle,’ with a clear allusion to the grace of the Spirit hovering over the Church. [cf. Ezek. 1:10; Rev. 4:7] The four Gospels correspond to these symbols. Christ is at the center of them. John actually speaks of his kingly and glorious Sonship to the Father in his opening words: `In the beginning was the Word.’ [John 1:1] Luke begins with Zaccharias offering sacrifice. Matthew chooses first of all the Lord’s human genealogy. And Mark leads off by calling on the prophetic Spirit which invests humanity from on high.”


Then in art we can see many examples of painting of Christ in Majesty from Eastern and Western traditions portraying this. Furthermore, as I have mentioned before, here, the quincunx, used in many decorative patterns in Churches, particularly on Church floors always strikes me as a geometric portrayal of this. The quincunx is a pattern that comes originally from the Romans and was brought into the Christian culture.


Last week I wrote about the importance of praying the Liturgy of the Hours in forming the minds of children. I cannot overemphasise how much the liturgy teaches directly as well as nourishes spiritually. On any given day the scriptural passages are selected that have common themes and so parallels between, for example, old and new testaments that would be lost if I was only attending Mass. These are often emphasised further by the choice of passage from the Fathers in the Office of Readings. In regard to this particular instance, imagine how much of an impression it would make on any impressionable mind to hear this passage read and then as part of their art lesson for that day to hear the other references to it, then to asked both to copy an illumination of the scene from a traditional psalter and to construct with just straight edge and a pair of compasses the quincunx. This I suggest would connect forever in their minds the liturgy, the cosmos, the four Evangelists and their gospels, and the culture.


Images from top: Psalter of St Louis and Blanche of Castille, 13th century; Peterborough Abbey Psalter, 13th century; the De Lisle Psalter, 14th century; the final three photos are of Trinity Chapel in Canterbury Cathedral. The floor design date is uncertain, but possibly 12th or 13th century.


A Luxury Boutique Hotel

16 Squares Luxury Suites and Boutique Hotel is one of Bangalore's finest hotels that provide great accommodation to the guests. Strategically located on the famous MG Road, the hotel is a two minute walk from Brigade road and Commercial street, two of Bangalore's most famous commercial hotspots. The hotel offers three room variations- Studio, Single Bedroom Apartment Suites and Double Bedroom Apartment Suites. All three rooms are tastefully decorated with modern furniture and are Wifi enabled. The rooms are comfortable and quiet to make sure our guests get a good night's sleep.…/historic-16-blocks-squares-w…/
Sixteen Squares Historic Walking Tour
Blacksburg was developed because it was situated along one of the East-West routes through the Valley of Virginia. Originating from the "Sixteen Squares" which were the first organized, developed land that made up the town, Blacksburg has grown far beyond its original size.
Take a self-guided tour or join one of our scheduled tours for brief immersion into Blacksburg's local history!
Click here for a guide to the self-guided tour!
Click here to check our calendar for upcoming scheduled tours!


The DC Street System


North, South, and East Capitol Streets and The National Mall divide Washington, DC, into four sections or quadrants: Northwest, Northeast, Southwest, and Southeast. The nexus of the four quadrants is the US Capitol Building. See map below showing the quadrants:



The streets in DC run three ways: east-west, north-south, and diagonally. Lettered streets run east-west, numbered streets run north-south, and diagonal streets have state names.


The National Mall and East Capitol ST run west and east, respectively, away from the US Capitol so all the east-west lettered streets therefore run parallel to them.


Starting at the US Capitol, the first east-west streets north and south of the Capitol are named A ST, the second east-west streets north and south of the Capitol are named B ST, the third C ST, and so on. The street names run through to Y with the letters J, X, and Z skipped. J is skipped because the architect of the DC street system, Pierre L'enfant, thought that the letters I and J looked almost the same typed and when written were indistinguishable from each other. It would have been too confusing to have two street names that looked the same right next to each other. I ST is also referred to as Eye ST.


Once the alphabet to Y is exhausted, the street names are double syllable words from A to Y followed by triple syllable words A to Y followed by the names of trees and flowers. Sometimes, this system is referred to as the first, second, third, and fourth alphabets. See map below showing an example of lettered streets:



North Capitol ST and South Capitol ST run north and south, respectively, away from the US Capitol so all the north-south numbered streets therefore run parallel to them.


Starting at the US Capitol, the first north-south streets east and west of the Capitol are named 1st ST, the second north-south streets east and west of the Capitol are named 2nd ST, and so on. See map below showing an example of numbered streets:



Since there are two of each lettered street and two of each numbered street, the quadrant is appended to the address to define which address is the correct one out of the four possibilities. Take the example below. If a person says they are at K and 12th streets, they need to list the quadrant or else they could be in four different places.


Note that because of this simple grid system, you can always tell exactly where you are in relation to the US Capitol Building. In the example below, if the person is at K and 12th streets NE, then he is 12 blocks east of the Capitol and A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, no J, K, or 10 blocks north of the Capitol. If the person is at K and 12th streets SW, then he is 12 blocks west of the Capitol and 10 blocks south of the Capitol.


Northwest (NW or N.W.) is the northwestern quadrant of Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States, and is located north of the National Mall and west of North Capitol Street. It is the largest of the four quadrants of the city (NW, NE, SW and SE), and it includes the central business district, the Federal Triangle, and the museums along the northern side of the National Mall, as well as such neighborhoods as West End, Petworth, Dupont Circle, LeDroit Park, Georgetown, Adams Morgan, Embassy Row, Glover Park, Tenleytown, Foggy Bottom, Cleveland Park, Columbia Heights, Mount Pleasant, the Palisades, Shepherd Park, Crestwood, Bloomingdale, Takoma, Chevy Chase, and Friendship Heights.


DC is divided into four quadrants with the Capitol Building’s rotunda as the center. The dividing streets are North Capitol, East Capitol, South Capitol and the National Mall. Therefore, the Mall is basically split down the middle: The Smithsonian Castle, Air and Space Museum and Lincoln Memorial are in southwest DC, while the Natural History Museum and American History Museum are in northwest DC.


Street and number addresses start out at the Capitol so there are many identical addresses. That’s why it’s VERY important to note the quadrant, otherwise, you could be looking for a building on K Street SE, for example, when you are really meant to be on K Street NE.


Streets running north and south are numbered (1st, 2nd, etc.) and streets running east-west are letters (interestingly, there’s no J).


The quadrants aren’t identical sizes and they never were. At one time it was an almost perfect square but now—see that big chunk out of southwest?—that’s Arlington and Alexandria, which the district eventually gave back to Virginia.



Northwest is the largest of the quadrants, covering over a third of the city. Its neighborhoods include Federal Triangle, Dupont Circle, Foggy Bottom, Adams Morgan and Georgetown, among others. This quadrant is typically what people think of when they think “DC.”



Southwest is the smallest quadrant and is really just a sliver of the city. Southwest is dominated by the waterfront area as well as the Bolling Air Force Base and Anacostia Naval Station.



Northeast’s neighborhoods include Pleasant Hill, Fort Totten and much of Capitol Hill, among others. The National Arboretum and Gallaudet University (a well-known school for the deaf) are also found here.



Southeast is bisected by the Anacostia River and contains the Library of Congress, Eastern Market, Nationals Stadium and the newly revamped Navy Yard.


3b- The Four Quarters of the Old City

The Old City of Jerusalem is divided into four quarters:

1- Jewish Quarter 2- Muslim Quarter 3- Armenian Quarter 4- Christian Quarter

The Jewish Quarter - is located just west of the Western Wall (back to top). The Jewish Quarter is a thriving modern community with more than 1,000 families. It has been rebuilt out of the rubble that was left from Jordanian occupation of the area from 1948 until the Six Day War of 1967. Since the destruction was severe, the Jews who returned to the Old City in 1967 excavated the quarter’s archaeological remains first and then built their city over, around and beside the ancient

discoveries. Today there are numerous synagogues and schools for Jewish studies, along with contemporary shops and restaurants up and down the streets. The ancient Roman Cardo Street (135 AD) with its old Byzantine bazaar (325 AD) has been preserved and is filled with trendy new businesses that sell a wide variety of items, including original art work by local artists.

The City of Miami has been divided into four quadrants (East, North, South and West) for the purpose of MIAMI 21. The quadrants were drafted corresponding to NET districts.

Miami 21 Quadrant boundaries


Map of Miami 21 Quadrants in relation to Commission Districts



Quadrant Boundaries


EAST Quadrant

Upper Eastside, Little Haiti, Wynwood/Edgewater, Overtown, and Downtown


NORTH Quadrant

Model City, Allapattah, Flagami (area north of SR-836 and east of 37th Avenue)


WEST Quadrant

West Flagler, Flagami (area south of SR-836 and west of 37th Avenue), Little Havana (north of SW 16th Street) and Coral Way (north of SW 16th Street)


SOUTH Quadrant

South/West Coconut Grove, North/East Coconut Grove, Coral Way (south of SW 16th Street), and Little Havana (south of SW 16th Street)


Georgetown was always overpopulated for its size. Some wards are densely populated. Instead of reducing this overcrowding, the problem has been increased by the lack of action to prevent increased urbanization. The problem is being compounded by widespread squatting in the city for which no action. This squatting has also increased the demand for transportation, this more vehicles.

The authorities have recognized the problem with traffic control. But they have missed the fact that this problem is now a crisis.

Last December, it was promised that this year the city would have been divided up into four quadrants so as to promote greater traffic control.

This is an excellent idea because Georgetown is suited to such a proposal. The streets of the city are designed in a grid-like fashion. Therefore it is going to be fairly simple to design the quadrants.

It is proposed to begin consultations on this plan next month. However, with a little more than two weeks before the month of March commences, the public is yet to learn about the specifics of the quadrants and how this affect traffic in each particular street in each quadrant.

Consultations obviously can only be meaningful if those being consulted know about the specifics of the plan. It was therefore expected that by now some announcement of the proposed plans would have been made public. The specifics of the proposed plan therefore needs to be unfurled.

But will dividing the city into quadrants provide a permanent solution of traffic control, indeed if any at all? If the businesses continue to balloon, if the squatting problem is not arrested and if illegal vending is allowed to continue, it makes no sense implementing any plan to design the city into four quadrants.

There has to be a moratorium on the establishment of new businesses in the city. The laws prohibiting businesses in residential areas, also, must be rigorously enforced. But if you do this, then illegal vending and squatting also have to be tackled. It makes no sense dividing the city into quadrants if the increase in businesses is not curtailed.

Georgetown cannot and should not have any new business places. It is too small a city for so many businesses and it is creating disorder and confusion in the city.

Solving the problems of traffic cannot be divorced from the problems of urbanization, illegal vending and squatting. If these problems continue, then demarcating quadrants in the city will not solve the crisis in traffic.

Is there favouritism in Calgary’s four quadrants?

The city of Calgary has a capital infrastructure budget of $5.8 billion over a course of four-years from 2014-2018. The goal is to balance the infrastructure projects in all four quadrants of the city. Instead what I have found is that the southwest quadrant of Calgary seems to be more immersed in construction. The City of Calgary’s infrastructure plans show that the southwest currently has 17 projects while the northeast quadrant has only five projects underway.

CARLSBAD- four quadrants

Facilities Provided by Other Agencies


Schools – School capacity to meet projected enrollment within the zone as determined by the appropriate school district must be provided prior to projected occupancy ². The city is served by four school districts: In addition to Carlsbad Unified, parts of S.E. Quadrant are served by San Marcos Unified, San Dieguito Union High School, and Encinitas Union Elementary districts.


Water distribution system – Line capacity to meet demand as determined by the appropriate water district must be provided concurrent with development. A minimum of 10-day average storage capacity must be provided prior to any development. The Leucadia Wastewater District and San Marcos County Water District serve portions of the S.E. Quadrant and have their own emergency water storage standards.


Wastewater treatment – Sewer plan capacity is adequate for at least a five-year period. Treatment is provided by the Encina Wastewater Control Facility.


"park district" = "quadrant". There are four park districts within the city, corresponding to the four quadrants.

In 1999 statewide Proposition 1a limited developer participation in school construction to payment of fees on a per-square-foot basis for new homes, as established by a state fee schedule.

Cape Coral Quadrant

Cape Coral - The City Of Canals



Cape Coral is located at 26°38′23″N, 81°58′57″W (26.639600, -81.982471).


According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 115.10 square miles (298.1 km²), making it the second largest in Florida. 105.19 square miles (272.4 km²) of it is land and 9.91 square miles (25.7 km²) of it (8.61%) is water.


The City is divided into Four Quadrants: NW, NE, SW and SE. The East-West Divide is Santa Barbara Blvd., and the North-South divide is Embers Pkwy/Hancock Bridge Pkwy. These are also the centers for the city"s street grid.


The City contains a large network of canals, some of which lead to the Gulf of Mexico and some to local lakes. Many houses are along the canals, a large number of which have docks or boat lifts. Fish regularly swim the canals, and can be caught with deep running minnow lures. The fish include Crevalle Jack, catfish, Mullet, and others.


The Cape Coral Bridge connects Cape Coral Parkway to College Parkway in Fort Myers. The Midpoint Memorial Bridge connects Veterans Parkway to Colonial Boulevard, also in Fort Myers. Hancock Bridge Parkway, after intersecting Santa Barbara Boulevard, sweeps north to its approximate terminus on Pine Island Road, with the east end of Hancock Bridge Parkway terminating at U.S. Highway 41.





Over the course of a few years, beginning in 1958, canals were dug, homes and businesses built, and a city was born. Celebrities were brought in to tout the benefits of “the Cape," as it’s known by the locals. The first building was a four-plex at the corner of Coronado and Cape Coral Parkway. This building was the Rosen"s company headquarters and the temporary home of Cape Coral"s first permanent resident, Kenny Schwartz, the Rosens" new general manager. Cape Coral"s first four homes were completed in May 1958 on Riverside and Flamingo drives.án-multiethnic-metropolis



Founded after the volcano Popocatépetl’s eruption in the first century, Teotihuacán became one of the largest and most populous preindustrial cities in the world, developing characteristics that made it unique in Mesoamerica. Its orthogonal urban grid system defined the city, with a geometric design reflective of Mesoamerican cosmology. The famed Avenue of the Dead and the East-West Avenue divide the city into four quadrants. Symbolically, the four quadrants represent the four corners of the Mesoamerican universe. The Pyramid of the Sun and the Pyramid of the Moon — also named by the Aztecs — are located at the core of the city. These and other monumental structures were built in Teotihuacán’s iconic talud-tablero architectural style. The pyramids align with natural landscape features, suggesting a remarkable feat of urban engineering. Likewise, Teotihuacános channeled the San Juan River to align with the city’s urban grid system.


Manzanilla’s most recent and ongoing archaeological project at Teotihuacán focuses on Xalla, a palatial complex adjacent to the Pyramid of the Sun. At Xalla, archaeologists recovered elite items like jade (from Central America) and mica (from Oaxaca). Architectural features and temples at Xalla follow the four-quadrant system indicative of Mesoamerican cosmology, with each of the four temples associated with different deities and material remains. Xalla may have been where Teotihuacán was co-ruled by the elites of each neighborhood, which would explain the absence of royal tombs in the city.


Data shows that the four genetic haplogroups of Mesoamerica were all present in the neighbor-hood center.

You may have noticed on our worship folder Sunday that we have changed our logo. Given all of the change taking place in the church, we felt it was a good opportunity to update the symbols – logo, name, etc. - that identify us to better reflect our mission and values. Our new logo, for example, contains a cross. This reminds us of the gospel, which is our motivation and our mission. It also pictures the four quadrants of Winter Haven- NE, SE, SW, NW. Each of the four quadrants are a different color because each of these sections of our city have a unique personality. It is our stated goal that within the next 10 years we will be able to plant a new congregation in each of these four quadrants, beginning in SW Winter Haven with Jeff and Marissa Skipper and their core group. So this new logo communicates our identity and vision well. I’m excited about this change.


During a snow event, the City is divided into four quadrants with the City's four snowplows working simultaneously. Street and Park Division personnel work 12-hour shifts, 7 days a week until the streets are passable. Streets are prioritized with major arteries, hills and curves being the first to be treated and cleared.


The Street Department will be working in the following priority order:…/city-foley-welcomes-dot-ti…
For years, a fact of life in Foley has been that our city is divided into four quadrants by the two major highways that intersect the city. Because of the grid created by the highways, key areas of the city, including the library and centrally located 6-acre park have not been easy to access except by car. 

TIGER funding from DOT will allow all four quadrants of the city to be more easily accessible with bicycle and pedestrian improvements that will create safe paths for better connectivity. These changes will promote walking and biking, and will enhance both quality of life and recreational opportunities.

The city is divided into four quadrants. Each week a different quadrant will be billed based on a rotating schedule. The due date is three weeks after the account is billed.

The quadrants are divided as:

Quad1 - Big Springs, East Lake Industrial Park, Highland Industrial Park, King's Heights, Meadowbrook, Ravenswood, Thorburn

Quad2 - Coopers Crossing, Hillcrest, Kingsview Industrial Park, Morningside, Prairie Springs, Waterstone, Windsong, Yankee Valley Crossing, Sierra Springs, Summerhill

Quad3 - Canals, Canoe, Bayview, Baysprings, Bayside, Fairways, Williamstown, Willowbrook, Woodside, Reunion, Sagewood

Quad4 - Airdrie Meadows, Edgewater, Edmonton Trail, Gateway, Jensen, Luxstone, Midtown, Old Town, Ridgegate, Silver Creek, Stonegate, Sunridge, The Village

The City of Lawndale is divided into four quadrants with a Special Assignment Officer assigned to each section, which are as follows:

East of Hawthorne Bl/North of Manhattan Bch Bl (Reporting Dist. 0331):

Deputy Larry Loughlin-Morales - (310) 219-2769


West of Hawthorne Bl/North of Manhattan Bch Bl (Reporting Dist. 0332):

Deputy Kyran Jones - (310) 219-2769


West of Hawthorne Bl/South of Manhattan Bch Bl (Reporting Dist. 0333):

Deputy John Bauer - (310) 219-2765


East of Hawthorne Bl/South of Manhattan Bch Bl (Reporting Dist. 0334):

Deputy Dean Omura - (310) 219-2765


If you are not sure which section of the City you live in, call any of the Special Assignment Officers and they will ensure that you are put in contact with the appropriate Deputy.



St. Charles is divided into four quadrants for hydrant flushing: northwest, southwest, southeast, and northeast. Main Street (Route 64) divides the north/south quadrants, and the Fox River divides the east/west quadrants. A map of each quadrant is available on the city website.


The spring 2017 hydrant flushing schedule will be:


• Northwest Quadrant: Monday, March 27 to Friday, March 31


• Southwest Quadrant: Monday, April 3 to Friday, April 7


• Southeast Quadrant: Monday, April 10 to Friday, April 14


• Northeast Quadrant (West of Dunham Road): Monday, April 17 to Friday, April 21


• Northeast Quadrant (East of Dunham Road): Monday, April 24 to Friday, April 28

SAN Francisco- four quadrants

What are Quadrants?

The City is divided into four geographic quadrants—Northwest, Northeast, Southwest, and Southeast—each monitored by a team of planners. Each team reviews permits and land use entitlements within that specified geographic quadrant.


San Francisco Current Planning Quadrants Map

Current Planning Quadrants Map

The Northwest Quadrant contains Supervisorial Districts 1, 2, and 5.

The Northeast Quadrant contains Supervisorial District 3 & a portion of District 6.

The Southwest Quadrant contains Supervisorial Districts 4, 7, 8, and 11.

The Southeast Quadrant contains Supervisorial Districts 6, 9, and 10.

Dividing the City geographically in this manner gives each planner the ability to become familiar with relevant neighborhood-specific design guidelines and neighborhood organizations. Planners from both Code Enforcement and Historic Preservation are also assigned a quadrant. Although Current Planners primarily work on permits and land use entitlements, participation in Long-Range Planning efforts is not uncommon considering their expertise in certain geographic areas and Planning Code compliance.

AYLA FOUR QUADRANTS TETRA;isl;jo;mon01;12;en

Excavations between 1986 and 1993, uncovered an AH 1st- / 7th-century Muslim settlement to the south of the Byzantine city which had been enclosed by a stone wall measuring 165 m x 140 m. The wall, 2.60 m thick and preserved to a height of 4.50 m, had a series of U-shaped towers with a single gate pierced in the centre of each wall and flanked by semi-circular towers. Behind the gates ran straight streets that intersected in the centre thus dividing the city into four quadrants. The point of intersection was marked by a tetrapylon (a four-way arch); this structure was transformed into a luxurious residential building decorated with frescoes in the second half of the AH 4th / AD 10th century. A rectangular mosque measuring roughly 55 m x 35 m occupied the northeast quadrant. (The northeastern extremity cut off by a drainage wadi).

The sanctuary consists of two aisles (riwaqs) formed by two arcades running parallel to the qibla wall. On the other three sides of the courtyard is a series of one-bay deep riwaqs. In the centre of the southeastern wall there was once a deep niche, (mihrab) which indicates the qibla (or direction of prayer). After the AH 2nd / AD mid-8th century the mosque was enlarged and a new suq (market) was constructed outside the southwest wall facing the sea.


 The City of Roanoke encompasses a land area of 43 square miles with 99,320 residents.

 The local public school division is Roanoke City Public Schools.

 The city is divided into 49 individually defined neighborhoods.

 The city is divided into four quadrants: Northwest (NW), Northeast (NE), Southwest (SW), and Southeast (SE).

The top of the flag read "Republic," the bottom "Growing With the Ozarks." In the middle was the city seal, a large oval divided into four quadrants — three containing symbols, the fourth an empty field of white. What if, Buckner proposed, the large "R'' was placed in the quadrant currently without a symbol?

"I like the fact that the white space is the white space," councilman John Jones replied.


"Yeah, I think we want to leave the white space," then-councilwoman Kathy Haralson quickly added.


Why such a reaction regarding a blank space? Sometime within the last 17 years, it's now clear, the portion of Republic's seal without a symbol became symbolic in and of itself.


The spot wasn't always empty. When it was adopted in 1991, Republic's seal contained four symbols, one in each quadrant.


In one, an outline of the state of Missouri. In another, an outstretched hand. In the third, silhouettes of two adults and two children. And in the lower left-hand quadrant, an ichthus — often called the "Jesus fish," and regarded as a symbol of Christianity.

Baltimore City Department of Public Works

Four City Quadrants

The quadrant areas of the city are swept monthly. These routes do not have posted parking restrictions. We ask that residents cooperate in the street sweeping effort by following the schedule when parking and move their cars on the designated sweeping days.

Pennsylvania - Four quadrants

Penn first advertised the layout of his town in Thomas Holme's Portraiture of the City of Philadelphia, published in 1683. As one can see, Penn designed the city as a rectangular gridiron. Broad and High streets cross each other at 'centre square' and divide the city into four quadrants. These 100 foot wide avenues were at broader than the other street, and broader than any street in London. Penn may have been influenced by Richard Newcourts plans for rebuilding burnt out parts of London, or perhaps by new garrison towns like Londonberry Ireland. In any case, his wide, open, rectilinear design was somewhat revolutionary, though today seems 'normal' for most American cities.

The city is divided into four quadrants or zones. Each month city crews clean the curb and gutter on streets that require it. A request for service can be made by calling Public Works at (817)743-4200. Calls for service can also be made for any hazardous material that has been spilled or dumped by calling Keller Fire Rescue Dispatch at (817)743-4522.

Pasargadae Persian Gardens provide the earliest known example of the Persian chahar bagh, or fourfold garden design (see Persian Gardens).


Shalimar Gardens, Lahore, was built by the governor of Lahore, with funds supplied by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, beginning in 1641 CE. The water is supplied by a canal dug from the nearby Ravi river. Built in the Mughal style, it is surrounded by high walls with towers in the corners. The inner face of the walls have traces of frescoes done in floral patterns. The canal passes through the gardens, which are constructed on three separate terraces at different elevations. The garden terraces are laid out in the traditional "paradise" motif of four channels converging on a central fountain, and cover a total of forty acres.[9] [2]




The complex is set around a large 300-metre (980 ft) square charbagh or Mughal garden. The garden uses raised pathways that divide each of the four quarters of the garden into 16 sunken parterres or flowerbeds.

It symbolises the four flowing rivers of Jannah (Paradise) and reflects the Paradise garden derived from the Persian paridaeza, meaning 'walled garden'. In mystic Islamic texts of the Mughal period, Paradise is described as an ideal garden of abundance with four rivers flowing from a central spring or mountain, separating the garden into north, west, south and east.


Chauburji is located on Lahore's Multan Road, which leads southwards to Multan, and was the gateway to an extensive garden known to have existed in Mughal times. The name "Chauburji," which translates as "four towers" was likely given by later generations, as the site as seen as a monumental gateway to an extensive garden.[1]



Humayun's tomb (Persian: آرامگاه همایون‎‎ Maqbara e Humayun Turkish: Hümayun Kabri) is the tomb of the Mughal Emperor Humayun in Delhi, India.

While the main tomb took over eight years to build, it was also placed in centre of a 30-acre (120,000 m2) Char Bagh (Four Gardens), a Persian-style garden with quadrilateral layout and was the first of its kind in the South Asia region in such a scale. The highly geometrical and enclosed Paradise garden is divided into four squares by paved walkways (khiyabans) and two bisecting central water channels, reflecting the four rivers that flow in jannat, the Islamic concept of paradise. Each of the four square is further divided into smaller squares with pathways, creating into 36 squares in all, a design typical of later Mughal gardens. The central water channels appear to be disappearing beneath the tomb structure and reappearing on the other side in a straight line, suggesting the Quranic verse, which talks of rivers flowing beneath the 'Garden of Paradise'.[16][24]


The entire tomb and the garden is enclosed within high rubble walls on three sides, the fourth side was meant to be the river Yamuna, which has since shifted course away from the structure. The central walkways, terminate at two gates: a main one in the southern wall, and a smaller one in the western wall. It has two double-storey entrances, the West gate which used now, while the South gate, which was used during Mughal era, now remains closed. Aligned at the centre on the eastern wall lies a baradari, literally a pavilion with twelve doors, which is a building or room with twelve doors designed to allow the free draught of air through it, finally on the northern wall lies a hammam, a bath chamber.[36]



Verinag Mughal Garden Design[edit]

Verinag Mughal Garden Plan

The design of the Verinag garden is an adaptation of the traditional Persian Charbagh(four gardens). The Charbagh takes its inspiration from the Quranic description of heaven as having four rivers, of wine, honey, milk, and water. The traditional Charbagh is uniformly shaped, with a water source in its center and four (char) radiating streams which divide the garden (bagh) into four parts. As with other Kashmiri gardens, Vernag is located on a steep hillside, with its water source at the top. The traditional Charbagh design had to be altered to fit the site's topography, as the source of water shifted from the traditional center of the square garden to the highest point of the garden. Given the limited options for flowing water (which could only run in one direction, from top to bottom), the double symmetry of the Persian garden was reduced to a central water axis, and the other traditional streams were minimized, appearing only in the form of the east-west canal.

FOUR GARDENS,_Srinagar,_Srinagar

Shalimar Bagh (Hindi: शालीमार बाग़; Urdu: شالیمار باغ‎) is a Mughal garden in Srinagar, linked through a channel to the northeast of Dal Lake, on its right bank located on the outskirts of Srinagar city in Jammu and Kashmir

The layout of the garden is an adaptation of another Islamic garden layout known as the Persian gardens. This garden built on a flat land on a square plan with four radiating arms from a central location as the water source



Mehtab Bagh (Hindi: मेहताब बाग़, Urdu: مہتاب باغ‎, translation: Moonlight Garden) is a charbagh complex in Agra, North India. It lies north of the Taj Mahal complex and the Agra Fort on the opposite side of the Yamuna River, in the flood plains.[1][2] The garden complex, square in shape, measures about 300 by 300 metres (980 ft × 980 ft) and is perfectly aligned with the Taj Mahal on the opposite bank.[3] During the rainy season, the ground becomes partially flooded.[4]


Inscriptions on the site of Mehtab Bagh mention that it adjoins other gardens to the west; these are called "Chahar Bagh Padshahi" and "Second Chahar Bagh Padshahi".[9] A compound wall surrounded the garden; it was made of brick, lime plaster, and red sandstone cladding. Measuring about 289 metres (948 ft) in length, the river wall is partially intact. Built on platforms, there were domed towers of red sandstone in an octagonal shape, which may have stood at the corners. A 2–2.5 metres (6 ft 7 in–8 ft 2 in) wide pathway made of brick edged the western boundary of the grounds, covering the remains of the boundary wall to the west.[4] Near the entrance is a small Dalit shrine on the riverside.[10] Of the four sandstone towers, which marked the corners of the garden, only the one on the southeast remains.


The large square garden surrounding the tomb is surrounded by a wall that is approximately 280 metres (920 ft) long on each side.[10] The layout is in the form of four squares with wide foot paths and water tanks, which have been further subdivided into smaller squares. The garden is in the Mughal charbagh garden style, and is a smaller version of the garden of the Humayun Tomb which is also built in Delhi. One channel leads to the entrance gate and the other leads to the three pavilions. The main podium over which the mausoleum is built measures 50 metres (160 ft) on each side.[10] The high walls have been built in rubble stone masonry and have recessed arches in the interior. The towers or chatris are octagonal in shape. Its overall layout consists of four pavilions which have multiple chambers and the entrance gateway to the east is impressive. On the eastern side adjoining the gate are many apartments and a mosque, and a courtyard. The pavilions are laid out in the western, northern and southern directions and are named Jangli Mahal (palace in the forest), Moti Mahal (pearl palace) and Badshah Pasand (King’s favorite) respectively. Nawab’s family used to reside in these pavilions. Now the entire monument is under the control of Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) who have their offices in the pavilions and also a library over the main gate[11]


The tomb has four key features which are: The Char Bagh plan with the mausoleum at the center, a ninefold floor plan, a five-part façade and a large podium with a hidden stairway.[7]


There are four towers around the main tomb at the corners which are polygonal in shape and are provided with kiosks. They have marble panels which are faded, and decorated arches. There is an underground chamber in the mausoleum which houses the graves of Safadrjung and his wife. The ceiling of the mosque has been plastered, painted and ornamented.[2]


The façade, though built in the style of the Taj Mahal, lacks symmetry as the vertical axis has been given prominence which has resulted in an unbalanced appearance to the tomb. The dome is more elongated; the central part has a taller pishtaq. The four minarets at the four corners are part of the main mausoleum which was totally a different concept in elevation compared to the Taj Mahal where the towers are detached and away from the facade of the tomb


The tomb has four fountains on each of the four sides. In December 2013, it was reported that a plan was going on for "activating the fountains" as officials believed that they "were in working condition". But "in recent excavation", ASI unearthed a drainage system adjacent to the fountain. The system would "help them restart these". Though there are four fountains, but according to ASI, only one, which is opposite to the main entrance would be made "functional".[13]


The gardens surrounding the tomb are vast, and laid out in the Persian Chahar Bagh, or Paradise garden.[13] The garden is divided into four squares by paved walkways (khiyabans) and two bisecting central water channels which are designed to reflect the four rivers that flow in jannat, the Islamic concept of paradise. Each of the four square is further divided into smaller squares with pathways, creating into 16 squares in all. The garden forms a quadrangle measuring approximately 500 metres on each side.[14]


The square-shaped mausoleum is a 22 foot tall, single-story plinth with arcades lining all four sides of the structure. From the building rise four octagonal ornamental minarets projecting from each corner of the building, decorated with geometric inlaid stone. The minarets are divided into three sections, with the tomb forming the base, upon which the body of the minaret rests, called by white marble cupolas. The minarets rise to a height of 100 feet (30m).


The mausoleum features four ornamental minarets.


Storming of Sikandar Bagh, 16 November 1857

Sikandar Bagh (Hindi: सिकन्दर बाग़, Urdu: سِکندر باغ‎), formerly known by the British as Sikunder/Sikandra/Secundra Bagh, is a villa and garden enclosed by a fortified wall, with loopholes, gateway and corner bastions, approx. 150 yards square, c. 4.5 acres (1.8 ha), located in the city of Lucknow, Oudh, Uttar Pradesh, India

The Four-Square: A Classic Kitchen Garden Design

By John D. Simpson | March 1, 1998

Like a country kitchen, a four-square kitchen garden evokes thoughts of hearth, home, and abundance. It is a garden design based on a very simple layout that provides a rich, unpretentious display of color, form, and, quite literally, good taste. Refined through the centuries, the four-square has been an integral part of home life and, like a good kitchen, is a place where you can have beauty and eat it, too.


The history of the classic four-square garden goes back seven centuries, to the first English cottage gardens. The English cottage garden style was born not of abundance but in a society crippled by the Black Death of the 12th century. The plague so decimated the working peasantry that, to garner a work force for the landholding aristocracy, landlords offered land and cottages in exchange for crops. The gardens that sprouted up around these cottages became a hallmark of English culture for hundreds of years. They were planted in the traditional four-square layout.


Early cottage gardens were commonly divided into four rectangular plots by two intersecting paths—hence the term "four-square." This arrangement made it easier to cultivate crops such as grains, vegetables, herbs, berries, and fruits, and sometimes even to raise livestock. Flowers ultimately found their way into the gardens, becoming an essential part of the cottage garden style. Today's four-square gardens, typically smaller than their predecessors, may devote as much space to flowers as to salads. There is plenty of room for originality, so no two gardens need ever be alike.




The four-square kitchen garden is based on a very simple layout that allows plenty of room for originality, rich color and form, and, quite literally, good taste.

The four-square kitchen garden is based on a very simple layout that allows plenty of room for originality, rich color and form, and, quite literally, good taste.

A traditional English four-square garden is usually situated in the front yard, but modern yard arrangements make it both practical and appropriate to put the kitchen garden in the backyard. No matter where the garden is located, it should include four elements: an enclosure, an entry gateway, a T-shaped path system to delineate the planting beds, and a rich mixture of plantings.



To create a design for your garden, picture it as an outdoor room that first needs a good set of walls. A protective enclosure such as a masonry wall, fence, hedge, or closely planted trees creates this necessary boundary; the more solid the barrier, the more secure and cozy the interior of the garden will feel. Dry-laid stone walls usually make the most elegant enclosures, while wood fences are less labor intensive. A hedge is a reasonably priced alternative, but it may take time to grow to a mature size. One way to create additional interest is to vary your materials—you might build a brick wall for one side of the enclosure, and a hedge for another, for instance. Consider both aesthetics and surrounding structures when making your choices.


Entry gateway

A gate not only gives the garden some form of entry, but it also helps to provide a signature style by hinting at the garden's mood within. Depending on the design and materials used, the gateway can suggest formality, informality, whimsy, even humor. Historically, simple white picket gates provided entry to a cottage garden. Today, arbors and trellises draped in flowering vines are popular and reinforce the message that this is a special place.


Path system

The traditional four-square layout is created by straight paths, one leading from the garden gate to the front entry of the house, and the other crossing it at a 90-degree angle. Absolute symmetry is not a requirement, so pathways can be offset to accommodate gates and doors. Depending on available space, the intersection of the two paths can also become a natural focal point. If you have enough room, consider carving out a circular area in which to place a sculpture, cistern, or other ornament.


The paths can be made of just about any material, from wood shavings to brick to stone to lawn. This flexible palette makes it possible to start conservatively—say, with gravel or compacted earth—and plan for future indulgences of stone or brick. Use materials that are appropriate for your region.




Plants soften the linear austerity of a four-square garden. Think in terms of abundance, starting with the Border plants. Beds can be edged in shrubs, annuals, or perennials, depending on the size of the garden. If you have room for a hedge, choose a pleasing color and leaf texture since the hedge will be a backdrop for the other plants. Clipped English boxwoods (Buxus sempervirens) provide a traditional evergreen look. Other shrubs for hedges include photinia (Photinia fraseri), yews (Taxus species), hornbeams (Carpinus species), or some combination of these. Roses and pruned trees can also act as hedges in large gardens. For a more colorful look or a smaller garden, use low-growing flowers such as dwarf irises, daffodils, tulips, or lush lavenders to edge your beds.


Vegetables are the stars of the kitchen garden, and you can combine various vegetable colors and textures for innumerable design possibilities—plant kale in a diamond pattern and surround it with onions or radishes, for instance. Outside of the basic four-square structure, there are eally no rules to this type of garden.


Use herbs for edging, as fillers, or as accent plants. Plant creeping thyme along walkways, where it can spill out underfoot and release wonderful fragrance when stepped upon. Shrubby herbs like rosemary or sage create low, continuous class="border"rs if they are kept neatly trimmed.


Fruit trees are also essential for a complete kitchen garden. Of all the plants in the kitchen garden, they embrace the broadest range of seasons with displays of flowers, fruits, leaf color, and branch patterns. Plant fruit trees "orchard style" in one square, form a boundary planting, or even tumble them over a wall. Don't plant fruit trees throughout the garden, though, unless you can live with the resulting shade. If space is at a premium, espalier trees against a wall or a trellis or find dwarf varieties.


Vines are another feature in traditional four-square gardens. They give a garden a lived-in look, softening architecture and taking floral color to new heights. They are at their best twining around entryway arbors and gateposts, or clinging to walls and fences. Some good choices are Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia) and vine honeysuckles (Lonicera species)—but avoid Japanese honeysuckle (L. japonica), which is invasive. For color and edible fruit, choose from a wide variety of grapes, based on your climate. For color and fragrance, try wisteria (Wisteria floribunda) or climbing roses. Sweet peas and morning glories are fast-growing annual vines that can provide flowers quickly.


Finally, what is a kitchen without fresh cut flowers? Every kitchen garden must have them. Plant a corner of sunflowers to rise above the crowd, or tulips in a line to highlight a spring planting of lettuce. Or put a large planter in the center of the garden, and fill it with daffodils, cosmos, cornflowers, or whatever your heart desires. In a four-square garden, nearly anything goes.




If your house is contemporary, a traditional English-style cottage garden may not be appropriate, but it doesn't take much to give a four-square garden a modern look. Sculpture, for instance, can be very dramatic within the simple lines of the four-square. If the garden is large, try placing sculptural pieces in "hideaway" locations where they can be discovered. Be careful not to dominate the setting with overly large pieces, or you will destroy the inherent simplicity of the garden. Likewise, avoid curving pathways unless the garden is situated on a slope; there is a point at which the simple charm of the four-square can be lost to too many curves.


Since we tend to use our outdoor areas for entertainment more often than the 12th-century English peasants did, we should make space in the garden for this purpose. Leave all or part of one of the squares open for an outdoor terrace so you can enjoy the fruits of your labor while you watch them grow. The "floor" of this terrace can be anything from turf to gravel to stone pavers to brick. Or for a very contemporary feel, build a wood deck.


Modern four-squares are also tailored to their climates and regions, which can be both a challenge and a great opportunity. Use plants that reflect the regional color palette of plants, sky, and geology. Native dryland plants make a much more natural, appropriate kitchen garden in a desert climate than traditional cottage-garden plants. No matter where you live, a four-square kitchen garden will reward you with seasonal color, edibles, and an outdoor space that will feel like home.


John D. Simpson is a landscape architect who has designed gardens and parks in the Pacific Northwest and Hawaii for 20 years. He is the author of several articles on garden style, has taught at the University of Oregon Department of Landscape Architecture, and is Director of Parks and Development in Bend, Oregon.



At the centre of the temple stands a quincunx of towers.


The temple is a representation of Mount Meru, the home of the gods: the central quincunx of towers symbolises the five peaks of the mountain, and the walls and moat symbolise the surrounding mountain ranges and ocean


Each gallery has a gopura at each of the points, and the two inner galleries each have towers at their corners, forming a quincunx with the central tower. Because the temple faces west, the features are all set back towards the east, leaving more space to be filled in each enclosure and gallery on the west side; for the same reason the west-facing steps are shallower than those on the other sides.


A linga in the form of a quincunx, set inside a yoni, is carved into the riverbed at Kbal Spean.

A quincunx is a spatial arrangement of five elements, with four elements placed as the corners of a square and the fifth placed in the center. The five peaks of Mount Meru were taken to exhibit this arrangement, and Khmer temples was arranged accordingly in order to convey a symbolic identification with the sacred mountain. The five brick towers of the 10th-century temple known as East Mebon, for example, are arranged in the shape of a quincunx. The quincunx also appears elsewhere in designs of the Angkorian period, as in the riverbed carvings of Kbal Spean.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.


Built in the general style of Pre Rup, the East Mebon was dedicated in 953 AD. It has two enclosing walls and three tiers. It includes the full array of durable Khmer construction materials: sandstone, brick, laterite and stucco. At the top is a central tower on a square platform, surrounded by four smaller towers at the platform’s corners. The towers are of brick; holes that formerly anchored stucco are visible.

The long Old Khmer inscription found at the site (K.227), and now on display in the National Museum, Phnom Penh, relates how Prince Srindrakumara was protected on two different occasions by four companions in arms, once against Rahu, and once on a military campaign against Champa. Their four statues, with one of the prince, was placed in the central chapel.[3]:176,180


Besides the main temple and the mebon there are other eight secondary temples. Four stelae detailing Jayavarman VII's genealogy were placed (though they remain unfinished) at each of the four corners of the third enclosure wall, mirroring the stelae that occupied the four corner-shrines (Prasat Chrung) of the king's capital at Angkor Thom.


The Bayon in plan, showing the main structure. The dimensions of the upper terrace are only approximate, due to its irregular shape.

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.


Fig. 10: The proposed Shree Kalyana Venkateshwars Temple at Venkatapura - plan of the complex

Haynes was the first to observe that the four largest rivers on the four continents bordering the Atlantic Ocean (the Nile, Amazon, Mississippi, and Baltic) stand in relation to each other as do the outer arms of an enormous swastika. In "Tree of Life, Mythical Archetype" he persuasively argues that ancient navigators mapped these four rivers and derived the swastika from them. This is a facsimile edition of Wilson's 1896 report, which includes all of his writings on the subject of the swastika. THE CATHEDRALS WERE SHAPED AS CROSSES

Transept: Sometimes called the ‘Crossing’, the transept forms wings at right angles to the nave.[2] In early Romanesque churches, it was often at the east end, creating a Tau Cross. Later designs placed the transept about two-thirds of the way from the West End to the East End. This created the Latin cross plan. It usually separates the nave from the choir.[4]

A transept (with two semitransepts) is a transverse part of any building, which lies across the main body of the edifice.[1] In churches, a transept is an area set crosswise to the nave in a cruciform ("cross-shaped") building within the Romanesque and Gothic Christian church architectural traditions. Each half of a transept is known as a semitransept.[1]


Contents [hide]

1 Description

2 Other senses of the word

3 See also

4 References

5 External links


The transept of a church separates the nave from the sanctuary, apse, choir, chevet, presbytery or chancel. The transepts cross the nave at the crossing, which belongs equally to the main nave axis and to the transept. Upon its four piers, the crossing may support a spire (e.g., Salisbury Cathedral), a central tower (e.g., Gloucester Cathedral) or a crossing dome (e.g., St Paul's Cathedral). Since the altar is usually located at the east end of a church, a transept extends to the north and south. The north and south end walls often hold decorated windows of stained glass, such as rose windows, in stone tracery.


Occasionally, the basilicas and the church and cathedral planning that descended from them were built without transepts; sometimes the transepts were reduced to matched chapels. More often, the transepts extended well beyond the sides of the rest of the building, forming the shape of a cross. This design is called a "Latin cross" ground plan, and these extensions are known as the arms of the transept.[1] A "Greek cross" ground plan, with all four extensions the same length, produces a central-plan structure.


When churches have only one transept, as at Pershore Abbey, there is generally a historical disaster, fire, war or funding problem, to explain the anomaly. At Beauvais only the chevet and transepts stand; the nave of the cathedral was never completed after a collapse of the daring high vaulting in 1284. At St. Vitus Cathedral, Prague, only the choir and part of a southern transept were completed until a renewed building campaign in the 19th century.


Other senses of the word[edit]

The word "transept" is occasionally extended to mean any subsidiary corridor crossing a larger main corridor, such as the cross-halls or "transepts" of The Crystal Palace, London, of glass and iron that was built for the Great Exhibition of 1851.


In a metro station or similar construction, a transept is a space over the platforms and tracks of a station with side platforms, containing the bridge between the platforms. Placing the bridge in a transept rather than an enclosed tunnel allows passengers to see the platforms, creating a less cramped feeling and making orientation easier.


A cross-in-square or crossed-dome plan was the dominant architectural form of middle- and late-period Byzantine churches. It featured a square centre with an internal structure shaped like a cross, topped by a dome.


The first cross-in-square churches were probably built in the late 8th century, and the form has remained in use throughout the Orthodox world until the present day. In the West, Donato Bramante's first design (1506) for St. Peter's Basilica was a centrally planned cross-in-square under a dome and four subsidiary domes.


In German, such a church is a Kreuzkuppelkirche, or ‘cross-dome church’. In French, it is an église à croix inscrite, ‘church with an inscribed cross’.


Contents [hide]

1 Architecture

1.1 Architectural form

1.2 Liturgical use

1.3 Common variations

2 Decoration

3 Origins and development

4 See also

5 References

6 Literature

7 External links


Architectural form[edit]

File:Pelekete monastery2.png

Plan of a typical cross-in-square church; based on the 8th-century Pelekete monastery in Tirilye.


Plan of a typical cross-in-square church; based on the 10th-century Myrelaion in Constantinople.

A cross-in-square church is centered around a quadratic naos (the ‘square’) which is divided by four columns or piers into nine bays (divisions of space). The inner five divisions form the shape of a quincunx (the ‘cross’).[1] The central bay is usually larger than the other eight, and is crowned by a dome which rests on the columns. The four rectangular bays that directly adjoin this central bay are usually covered by barrel vaults; these are the arms of the "cross" which is inscribed within the "square" of the naos. The four remaining bays in the corner are usually groin-vaulted. The spatial hierarchy of the three types of bay, from the largest central bay to the smallest corner bays, is mirrored in the elevation of the building; the domed central bay is taller than the cross arms, which are in turn taller than the corner bays.[2]


To the west of the naos stands the narthex, or entrance hall, usually formed by the addition of three bays to the westernmost bays of the naos. To the east stands the bema, or sanctuary, often separated from the naos by templon or, in later churches, by an iconostasis. The sanctuary is usually formed by three additional bays adjoining the easternmost bays of the naos, each of which terminates in an apse crowned by a conch (half-dome). The central apse is larger than those to the north and south. The term bema is sometimes reserved for the central area, while the northern section is known as the prothesis and the southern as the diakonikon.[3]


Although evidence for Byzantine domestic architecture is scant, it appears that the core unit of the cross-in-square church (nine bays divided by four columns) was also employed for the construction of halls within residential structures.[4]



A tetraconch, from the Greek for "four shells", is a building, usually a church or other religious building, with four apses, one in each direction, usually of equal size. The basic ground plan of the building is therefore a Greek cross. They are most common in Byzantine, and related schools such as Armenian and Georgian architecture. It has been argued that they were developed in these areas or Syria, and the issue is a matter of contention between the two nations in the Caucasus.[1] Apart from churches, the form is suitable for a mausoleum or baptistery. Normally, there will be a higher central dome over the central space.


The Basilica of San Lorenzo, Milan (370) is possibly the first example of a grander type, the "aisled tetraconch", with an outer ambulatory. In middle Byzantine architecture, the cross-in-square plan was developed, essentially filling out the tetraconch to form a square-ish exterior. Either of these types may also be described less precisely as "cross-domed". In these types the semi-dome of the apse usually starts directly from the central domed space.



The plan of Zvartnots Cathedral, Armenia.

The ruined Ninotsminda Cathedral of c.575 in Georgia is perhaps the oldest example in that country. The Armenian and Georgian examples are later than some others but a distinctive and sophisticated form of the plan. They are similar to the cross-in-square plan, but in Georgia the corner spaces, or "angle chambers", are only accessible from the central space through narrow openings, and are closed off from the apses (as at Jvari monastery, see plan above). In Armenia, the plan also developed in the 6th century, where the plan of St. Hripsime Church, Echmiadzin (618) is almost identical to Jvari.[2] Later a different plan was developed, with a tetraconch main space completely encircled by an aisle, or ambulatory in the terminology used for Western churches,[3] as at the ruined mid-7th century Zvartnots Cathedral.[4] The ruined so-called Cathedral of Bosra, of the early 6th century, is the earliest major Syrian tetraconch church,[5] though in Syria the type did not remain as popular as in the Caucasus.


The Mausoleum of Galla Placidia in Ravenna (425–30), world-famous for its mosaics, is almost a tetraconch, although there are short vaulted arms leading from the central space to each apse-end. These end in a flat wall with no semi-dome, and the entrance end is slightly longer.



Bramante's plan for St Peter's 1503–06

A famous revival of the tetraconch formula in the West is Bramante's first design for the Basilica of St. Peter, Rome.


A triconch building has only three apses; normally omitting the one at the liturgical west end, which may be replaced with a narthex. Many churches of both types have been extended, especially to the west by addition of naves, so that they came to resemble more conventional basilica-type churches. The church in Istanbul of St. Mary of the Mongols is an example.


Cruciform architectural plan[edit]


Peterborough Cathedral

Main articles: Cathedral diagram and Cathedral architecture of Western Europe

Christian churches are commonly described as having a cruciform architecture. In Early Christian, Byzantine and other Eastern Orthodox forms of church architecture this is likely to mean a tetraconch plan, a Greek cross, with arms of equal length or, later, a cross-in-square plan.


In the Western churches, a cruciform architecture usually, though not exclusively, means a church built with the layout developed in Gothic architecture. This layout comprises the following:


An east end, containing an altar and often with an elaborate, decorated window, through which light will shine in the early part of the day.

A west end, which sometimes contains a baptismal font, being a large decorated bowl, in which water can be firstly, blessed (dedicated to the use and purposes of God) and then used for baptism.

North and south transepts, being "arms" of the cross and often containing rooms for gathering, small side chapels, or in many cases other necessities such as an organ and toilets.

The crossing, which in later designs often was under a tower or dome.

In churches that are not oriented with the altar at the geographical east end, it is usual to refer to the altar end as "liturgical east" and so forth.


Another example of ancient cruciform architecture[1] can be found in Herod's temple, the second Jewish temple.

A crossing, in ecclesiastical architecture, is the junction of the four arms of a cruciform (cross-shaped) church.

In a typically oriented church (especially of Romanesque and Gothic styles), the crossing gives access to the nave on the west, the transept arms on the north and south, and the choir, as the first part of the chancel, on the east.


The crossing is sometimes surmounted by a tower or dome. A large crossing tower is particularly common on English Gothic cathedrals. With the Renaissance, building a dome above the crossing became popular. Because the crossing is open on four sides, the weight of the tower or dome rests heavily on the corners; a stable construction thus required great skill on the part of the builders. In centuries past, it was not uncommon for overambitious crossing towers to collapse. Sacrist Alan of Walsingham's octagon, built between 1322 and 1328 after the collapse of Ely's nave crossing on 22 February 1322, is the "... greatest individual achievement of architectural genius at Ely Cathedral" according to architectural historian Nikolaus Pevsner.[1]


A tower over the crossing may be called a lantern tower if it has openings through which light from outside can shine down to the crossing.


In Early Medieval churches, the crossing square was often used as a module, or a unit of measurement. The nave and transept would have lengths that were a certain multiple of the length of the crossing square. This was to ensure that the church was properly proportioned.




Crossing and lantern tower, Rouen Cathedral


Crossing with dome, Santa Maria del Fiore, Florence


Crossing tower, Canterbury Cathedral


Flèche above crossing, Notre Dame de Paris


Crossing tower, Saint-Sernin Basilica


Plan of the Basilica of St. Sernin, Toulouse, showing enlarged piers to support tower


Ely Cathedral

The cathedral is built from stone quarried from Barnack in Northamptonshire (bought from Peterborough Abbey, whose lands included the quarries, for 8000 eels a year), with decorative elements carved from Purbeck Marble and local clunch. The plan of the building is cruciform (cross-shaped), with an additional transept at the western end. The total length is 537 feet (164 m),[7] and the nave at over 75 m (246 ft) long remains one of the longest in Britain. The west tower is 66 m (217 ft) high. The unique Octagon 'Lantern Tower' is 23 m (75 ft) wide and is 52 m (171 ft) high. Internally, from the floor to the central roof boss the lantern is 43 m (141 ft) high. It is known locally as "the ship of the Fens", because of its prominent position above the surrounding flat landscape.[8][9]


The earliest baptismal fonts were designed for full immersion, and were often cross-shaped


The lack of documentation concerning the construction of the Gothic cathedral may be in part the result of fires that destroyed the chapter archives in 1218 and again in 1258—a fire that damaged the cathedral itself. Bishop Evrard de Fouilly initiated work on the cathedral in 1220. Robert de Luzarches was the architect until 1228, and was followed by Thomas de Cormont until 1258. His son, Renaud de Cormont, acted as the architect until 1288. The chronicle of Corbie gives a completion date for the cathedral of 1266. Finishing works continued, however. Its floors are covered with a number of designs, such as the bent cross (to symbolize Jesus' triumph over death). The labyrinth was installed in 1288. The cathedral contains the alleged head of John the Baptist, a relic brought from Constantinople by Wallon de Sarton as he was returning from the Fourth Crusade.


As numbers of clergy increased, the small apse which contained the altar, or table upon which the sacramental bread and wine were offered in the rite of Holy Communion, was not sufficient to accommodate them. A raised dais called a bema formed part of many large basilican churches. In the case of St. Peter's Basilica and San Paolo fuori le Mura (St Paul's outside the Walls) in Rome, this bema extended laterally beyond the main meeting hall, forming two arms so that the building took on the shape of a T with a projecting apse. From this beginning, the plan of the church developed into the so-called Latin Cross which is the shape of most Western Cathedrals and large churches. The arms of the cross are called the transept.[5]


Latin cross and Greek cross[edit]

Most cathedrals and great churches have a cruciform groundplan. In churches of Western European tradition, the plan is usually longitudinal, in the form of the so-called Latin Cross with a long nave crossed by a transept. The transept may be as strongly projecting as at York Minster or not project beyond the aisles as at Amiens Cathedral.


Many of the earliest churches of Byzantium have a longitudinal plan. At Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, there is a central dome, frame on one axis by two high semi-domes and on the other by low rectangular transept arms, the overall plan being square. This large church was to influence the building of many later churches, even into the 21st century. A square plan in which the nave, chancel and transept arms are of equal length forming a Greek cross, the crossing generally surmounted by a dome became the common form in the Eastern Orthodox Church, with many churches throughout Eastern Europe and Russia being built in this way. Churches of the Greek Cross form often have a narthex or vestibule which stretches across the front of the church. This type of plan was also to later play a part in the development of church architecture in Western Europe, most notably in Bramante's plan for St. Peter's Basilica.[2][5]

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

Byzantine: Chora Church, Istanbul: a domed church with an apsidal chancel, galleries at either side and a narthex. A modified cross-in-square plan.

Romanesque: Eschau Church, France: a cruciform plan with apse and aisles, west portal, and side entrance.


Bete Giyorgis from above, one of the rock-hewn churches of Lalibela


Some of the churches, such as Bete Ammanuel and the cross-shaped Bete Giyorgis, are entirely free-standing with the volcanic tuff removed from all sides


Bramante had envisioned that the central dome be surrounded by four lower domes at the diagonal axes. The equal chancel, nave and transept arms were each to be of two bays ending in an apse. At each corner of the building was to stand a tower, so that the overall plan was square, with the apses projecting at the cardinal points. Each apse had two large radial buttresses, which squared off its semi-circular shape.[36]

The Papal Basilica of St. Peter in the Vatican (Italian: Basilica Papale di San Pietro in Vaticano), or simply St. Peter's Basilica (Latin: Basilica Sancti Petri), is an Italian Renaissance church in Vatican City, the papal enclave within the city of Rome.


Old St. Peter's Basilica was the 4th-century church begun by the Emperor Constantine the Great between 319 and 333 AD.[27] It was of typical basilical form, a wide nave and two aisles on each side and an apsidal end, with the addition of a transept or bema, giving the building the shape of a tau CROSS


The foundations were completed for a new transept and choir to form a domed Latin CROSS with the preserved nave and side aisles of the old basilica. Some walls for the choir had also been built.[31


Designed principally by Donato Bramante, Michelangelo, Carlo Maderno and Gian Lorenzo Bernini, St. Peter's is the most renowned work of Renaissance architecture


St. Peter's is one of the four churches in the world that hold the rank of Major Basilica, all four of which are in Rome.




The mausoleum is laid out in a cruciform floor plan, with a central dome on pendentives and barrel vaults over the four transepts.


Most large Gothic churches and many smaller parish churches are of the Latin cross (or "cruciform") plan, with a long nave making the body of the church, a transverse arm called the transept and, beyond it, an extension which may be called the choir, chancel or presbytery. There are several regional variations on this plan.

16 Divisions refers to the 16 divisions of construction, as defined by the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI)'s MasterFormat. In 2004, MasterFormat was updated and expanded to 50 Divisions. The standard is the most widely used standard for organizing specifications and other written information for commercial and institutional building projects in the U.S. and Canada. It provides a master list of divisions, and section numbers and titles within each division, to follow in organizing information about a facility’s construction requirements and associated activities. Standardizing the presentation of such information improves communication among all parties involved in construction projects.
Before November 2004, MasterFormat was composed of 16 primary divisions: there are now 50 divisions.
Division 01 — General Requirements
Division 02 — Site Construction
Division 03 — Concrete
Division 04 — Masonry
Division 05 — Metals
Division 06 — Wood and Plastics
Division 07 — Thermal and Moisture Protection
Division 08 — Doors and Windows
Division 09 — Finishes
Division 10 — Specialties
Division 11 — Equipment
Division 12 — Furnishings
Division 13 — Special Construction
Division 14 — Conveying Systems
Division 15 — Mechanical
Division 16 — Electrical
See 50_Divisions for the full list of divisions.

16 Squares quadrant model

Category:Four-masted ships

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Four-masted ships.

Pages in category "Four-masted ships"

The following 25 pages are in this category, out of 25 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).



SS City of Rome


Dundonald (ship)


Esmeralda (BE-43)


Falls of Clyde (ship)

Falls of Halladale


Herzogin Cecilie


Spanish ship Juan Sebastián Elcano


Kings County (barque)

Kruzenshtern (ship)




Margaret Todd (schooner)

Minnie A. Caine



Omega (barque)


Pamir (ship)

Passat (ship)

Peking (ship)

Phocea (yacht)

Pommern (ship)


USS Robert H. McCurdy (SP-3157)


STS Sedov


BAP Unión (BEV-161)


Viking (barque)


Msy Wind Song

Msy Wind Spirit


Most ocean-going windjammers were four-masted barques, since the four-masted barque is considered the most efficient rig available because of its ease of handling, small need of manpower, good running capabilities, and good capabilities of rising toward wind. Usually the main mast was the tallest; that of Moshulu extends to 58 m off the deck. The four-masted barque can be handled with a surprisingly small crew—at minimum, ten—and while the usual crew was around thirty, almost half of them could be apprentices.


Moshulu (ex Kurt) is a four-masted steel barque built by William Hamilton and Company on the River Clyde in Scotland in 1904. The largest remaining original windjammer, she is currently a floating restaurant docked in Penn's Landing, Philadelphia, adjacent to the museum ships USS Olympia and USS Becuna.


Although a schooner may have up to four masts, the typical schooner has only two, with the foremast shorter than the mainmast. There may be a bowsprit to help balance the rig. The principal issue with a schooner sail plan is how to fill the space between the two masts most effectively. Traditional schooners were gaff rigged, and the trapezoid shape of the foresail occupied the inter-mast space to good effect, with a useful sail area and a low center of effort.


A Bermuda rigged schooner typically has four triangular sails: a mainsail, a main staysail abaft the foremast, plus a forestaysail and a jib (or genoa) forward of the foremast.[clarification needed] An advantage of the staysail schooner is that it is easily handled and reefed by a small crew, as both staysails can be self-tacking. The main staysail will not overlap the mainsail, and so does little to prepare the wind for the mainsail, but is effective when close-hauled or when on a beam reach. Although the main staysail has less area than an equivalent gaff sail, a loose-footed "fisherman" may be flown above the main staysail to maximize drive in light airs. The fisherman's staysail, a four-sided fore-and-aft sail, is not strictly a staysail, but is clewed abaft the foremast. An alternatively light-air sail is a triangular mule.


Some Bermuda schooners have (instead of a main staysail) a rectangular boomed sail clewed to the foremast; but although it can be self-tacking, it will be smaller in area than a main staysail and its use complicates flying a fisherman.[clarification needed]

Hesper and Luther Little, two of the last four masted schooners to be built in the United States.

Marine steam engines were the first mechanical engines used in marine propulsion, however they have mostly been replaced by two-stroke or four-stroke diesel engines

Square four engine[edit]

See also: Motorcycle engine

Ariel Square Four

A square four is a type of four-cylinder engine, a U engine with two cylinders on each side. This configuration was used on the Ariel Square Four motorcycle from 1931 to 1959. Although the engine was compact and had as narrow a frontal area as a 500 cc, parallel twin, the rear pair of cylinders on this air-cooled engine were prone to overheating.


This design was revived as a liquid-cooled two-stroke version on some racing Suzukis, and their subsequent road-going version the Suzuki RG500. Although some racing success was achieved, the road bikes did not sell well and the design was phased out in favour of inline four-stroke designs, as engineering and marketing resources were being applied to more common four-stroke designs at the time.[citation needed]


An experimental square four outboard motor was built for evaluation, but the design was not used due to the complexity of the drivetrain.[12]


The Iowa-class battleships were a class of six fast battleships ordered by the United States Navy in 1939 and 1940 to escort the Fast Carrier Task Forces that would operate in the Pacific Theater of World War II. Four were completed: USS Iowa (BB-61), USS New Jersey (BB-62), USS Missouri (BB-63), and USS Wisconsin (BB-64). Two more were laid down, USS Illinois (BB-65)[1] and USS Kentucky (BB-66),[2] but both were canceled in August 1945, at war's end, and both hulls were scrapped in 1958. Like other third-generation American battleships, the Iowas followed the design pattern set forth in the preceding North Carolina-class and South Dakota-class battleships, which emphasized speed in addition to secondary and anti-aircraft batteries.[3] Based on wartime experience, they were to serve as fast escorts for Essex-class aircraft carriers.


Between the mid-1940s and the early 1990s, the Iowa-class battleships fought in four major US wars. In World War II, they defended aircraft carriers and shelled Japanese positions. During the Korean War, the battleships provided seaborne artillery support for United Nations forces fighting North Korea, and in 1968, New Jersey shelled Viet Cong and Vietnam People's Army forces in the Vietnam War. All four were reactivated and modernized at the direction of Congress in 1981, and armed with missiles during the 1980s, as part of the 600-ship Navy initiative.[4] The first reactivated battleship, New Jersey, was commissioned for the third time on 28 December 1982. Then Iowa was recommissioned 28 April 1984, Missouri was recommissioned 10 May 1986, and lastly Wisconsin was recommissioned 22 October 1988.[4] During Operation Desert Storm in 1991, Missouri and Wisconsin fired missiles and 16-inch (406 mm) guns at Iraqi targets.


The Navy had spent about $1.7 billion, from 1981 through 1988, to modernize and reactivate the four Iowa class battleships.[4] Costly to maintain, the battleships were decommissioned during the post-Cold War draw down in the early 1990s. All four were initially removed from the Naval Vessel Register; however, the United States Congress compelled the Navy to reinstate two of them on the grounds that existing naval gunfire support would be inadequate for amphibious operations. This resulted in a lengthy naval gunfire debate over whether battleships should have a role in the modern navy. Ultimately, all four ships were stricken from the Naval Vessel Register and released for donation to non-profit organizations. With the transfer of Iowa in 2012, all four are part of various non-profit maritime museums across the US.


The Littorio class, also known as the Vittorio Veneto class,[Note 1] was a class of battleship of the Regia Marina, the Italian navy. The class was composed of four ships—Littorio, Vittorio Veneto, Roma, and Impero—but only the first three ships of the class were completed. Built between 1934 and 1942, they were the most modern battleships used by Italy during World War II. They were developed in response to the French Dunkerque-class battleships, and were armed with 381-millimeter (15.0 in) guns and had a top speed of 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph). The class' design was considered by the Spanish Navy, but the outbreak of World War II interrupted construction plans.


The plan comprises a central core with four radiating wings. The state rooms located in the central core are accessed from the outside by a flight of grand steps on the north. On the south is another portico surmounted by a colonnaded verandah with a dome above. The four wings accommodate the various offices and residential quarters along with four sets of staircases. The plan of the wings allows for a great deal of natural ventilation in the spaces while also permitting views across the gardens. The entire compound is surrounded by a balustraded wall with a grand arched gateways.


The plan comprises a central core with four radiating wings. The state rooms located in the central core are accessed from the outside by a flight of grand steps on the north. On the south is another portico surmounted by a colonnaded verandah with a dome above. The four wings accommodate the various offices and residential quarters along with four sets of staircases. The plan of the wings allows for a great deal of natural ventilation in the spaces while also permitting views across the gardens. The entire compound is surrounded by a balustraded wall with a grand arched gateway at each of the four cardinal points.


The residential portion is divided into four suites. The Prince of Wales Suite in the north-west wing of the first floor is where the President, Vice-President and the Prime Minister of India and heads of state of other nations reside when visiting the state of West Bengal. The Wellesley Suite is located on the second floor in the north-eastern wing, the Dufferin Suite is on the second floor of north-west wing, and the fourth suite is the Anderson Suite.


An obelisk (UK: /ˈɒbəlɪsk/; US: /ˈɑːbəlɪsk/, from Ancient Greek: ὀβελίσκος obeliskos;[1][2] diminutive of ὀβελός obelos, "spit, nail, pointed pillar"[3]) is a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape or pyramidion at the top

The British Museum possesses four Assyrian obelisks:

The White Obelisk of Ashurnasirpal I (named due to its colour), was discovered by Hormuzd Rassam in 1853 at Nineveh. The obelisk was erected by either Ashurnasirpal I (1050–1031 BC) or Ashurnasirpal II (883–859 BC). The obelisk bears an inscription that refers to the king’s seizure of goods, people and herds, which he carried back to the city of Ashur. The reliefs of the Obelisk depict military campaigns, hunting, victory banquets and scenes of tribute bearing.


The Rassam Obelisk, named after its discoverer Hormuzd Rassam, was found on the citadel of Nimrud (ancient Kalhu). It was erected by Ashurnasirpal II, though only survives in fragments. The surviving parts of the reliefs depict scenes of tribute bearing to the king from Syria and the west.[19]


The Black Obelisk was discovered by Sir Austen Henry Layard in 1846 on the citadel of Kalhu. The obelisk was erected by Shalmaneser III and the reliefs depict scenes of tribute bearing as well as the depiction of two subdued rulers, Jehu the Israelite and Sua the Gilzanean, giving gestures of submission to the king. The reliefs on the obelisk have accompanying epigraphs, but besides these the obelisk also possesses a longer inscription that records one of the latest versions of Shalmaneser III’s annals, covering the period from his accessional year to his 33rd regnal year.


The Broken Obelisk, that was also discovered by Rassam at Nineveh. Only the top of this monolith has been reconstructed in the British Museum. It is the oldest recorded obelisk from Assyria, dating to the 11th century BC.[20]


It features twenty relief scenes, five on each side. They depict five different subdued kings, bringing tribute and prostrating before the Assyrian king. From top to bottom they are: (1) Sua of Gilzanu (in north-west Iran), (2) "Jehu of Bit Omri" (Jehu of the House of Omri), (3) an unnamed ruler of Musri (probably Egypt), (4) Marduk-apil-usur of Suhi (middle Euphrates, Syria and Iraq), and (5) Qalparunda of Patin (Antakya region of Turkey). Each scene occupies four panels around the monument and is described by a cuneiform script above them.


The tradition of the Ripon Hornblower has endured for centuries and continues on to this day.[33] It originates with the wakeman of Ripon, whose job in the Middle Ages was similar of that to a mayor although he had more responsibilities in the keeping of law and order. Every day at 9:00pm the horn is blown at the four corners of the obelisk in Ripon Market.[34] The horn has become the symbol of the city and represents Ripon on the Harrogate borough coat of arms. There are three museums in Ripon collectively known as the Yorkshire Law and Order Museums; it includes the Courthouse, the Prison and Police and the Workhouse Museums.[35]


Battersea Power Station is a decommissioned coal-fired power station located on the south bank of the River Thames, in Nine Elms, Battersea, an inner-city district of South West London. It comprises two individual power stations, built in two stages in the form of a single building. Battersea A Power Station was built in the 1930s, with Battersea B Power Station to the east in the 1950s. The two stations were built to a nearly identical design, providing the long-recognized four-chimney layout. The station ceased generating electricity in 1983, but over the past 50 years it has become one of the best known landmarks in London and is Grade II* listed.[1][2] The station's celebrity owes much to numerous popular culture references, which include the cover art of Pink Floyd's 1977 album Animals and its appearance in the 1965 Beatles' film Help!

The Morgan Plus 4 Plus or +4+ was an attempt by the Morgan Motor Company to modernize the bodywork, somewhat similar to the Aero 8. Only 26 were built, due to poor sales, in spite of its performance.
The equipment may have varied, but an example sold in 1969 was mechanically similar to the Morgan +4 of the same year. It had the straight 4 pushrod engine of a Triumph TR4A, giving 110 hp (82 kW). The transmission was 4 speed with synchromesh on 2nd, 3rd and 4th. It also shared the suspension with the +4. In front, it had sliding king pins tilted 17 degrees from the vertical, a development of a 1910 design. This was lubricated by grease and by engine oil released by a button under the clutch pedal. It had coil springs (very hard) and bottoming coils instead of rubber pads. The rear had conventional leaf springs with solid rear axle. There was no perceptible body lean, even when cornering very hard. It had disc brakes in front, drums in the rear, hard pedal pressure with no power assist. The frame was Z section steel rails with structural plywood floor, extended by steel tubes in front.

The Morgan Plus 4 Plus or +4+ was an attempt by the Morgan Motor Company to modernize the bodywork, somewhat similar to the Aero 8. Only 26 were built, due to poor sales, in spite of its performance.
The equipment may have varied, but an example sold in 1969 was mechanically similar to the Morgan +4 of the same year. It had the straight 4 pushrod engine of a Triumph TR4A, giving 110 hp (82 kW). The transmission was 4 speed with synchromesh on 2nd, 3rd and 4th. It also shared the suspension with the +4. In front, it had sliding king pins tilted 17 degrees from the vertical, a development of a 1910 design. This was lubricated by grease and by engine oil released by a button under the clutch pedal. It had coil springs (very hard) and bottoming coils instead of rubber pads. The rear had conventional leaf springs with solid rear axle. There was no perceptible body lean, even when cornering very hard. It had disc brakes in front, drums in the rear, hard pedal pressure with no power assist. The frame was Z section steel rails with structural plywood floor, extended by steel tubes in front.

Cluster of Four Cubes

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cluster of Four Cubes is a 1992 kinetic stainless steel sculpture by George Rickey, installed at the National Gallery of Art Sculpture Garden in Washington, D.C.[1]



The 4th funnel was indeed a fake if you get a chance to read the book Last Days of the Titanic then you will see in a photo of the ship in Queenstown that a small black dot is on the top of the funnel and it is actually a stoker who came up for air. The original plans called for only three funnels to be seen on the ship there would be no 4th however Lord Pirre added the 4th because in those days a ship with four funnels was the symbol of a safe ship.


Govindaji Temple, Old and New - Vrindavan Today

Vrindavan Today508 × 1024Search by image

The temple is a massive cruciform building of red sandstone and resembles the larger of the


The temple is a massive cruciform building of red sandstone and resembles the larger of the two Sas Bahu temples in Gwalior. Part of the temple has been damaged, for at one time it was used as a quarry. The chief loss the temple has suffered is the loss of its central dome, the curvilinear tower which surmounted the cella. The temple is wonderfully grand and impressive, with lordly pillars with beautiful bracket capitals and numberless pointed arches opening into the deep shadows.


“The cruciform structure reminded western scholars such as Percy Brown and Fergusson of a Greek cross, but this should not mislead us into thinking of foreign derivations. Such cruciform structures find extensive mention in our ancient Vastu texts. In its external appearance and the principles on which this temple has been designed, this structure derives from and has striking affinities with numerous large temples built in the same style, the most notable example being the Sasbahu temple inside the Gwalior fort. The elevations of both the temples comprise several storeys, each containing open arcades. The builders of Govind Dev temple seem to have made considerable advances in the disposition of the arcades since the Gwalior experience. It would be appropriate to say that they had acquired entirely new insights in temple architecture.” Baijnath Aryan



The temple itself is approached by a long causeway which terminates in a cruciform platform (naga bridge). From thence it ascends in three levels to a quincunx of towers. Only the five central towers remain, the others (at the corners of each enclosure) having collapsed. Bridging the third and second enclosures on the western axis is a unique structure, the so-called cruciform cloister, which replicates in plan the temple's third level platform.



The mandala found its expression in architecture, in particular in relation with the ground plan. The tetradic ground plan became the messenger of an ideal representation of building-in-general (the universe). The four-fold was lifted from its earthly dimensions into a cosmic awareness.


The Tibetan sanctuary of Samye Gompa, founded around 800 AD by King Tresong Detsen and guru Padmasambhava, is an example of the mixture of a mandala and a tetradic design (fig. 134). The central temple represents Mount Meru, while the surrounding temples are visualizations of the oceans and continents that encircle the sacred mountain.




Fig. 134 – The Tibetan sanctuary of Samye Gompa is a monastic complex with the ground plan of a mandala.


The southern branch of the Silk Road was less used in the fourth and fifth century because of drought. The isolation of this part of central Asia resulted in a characteristic brand of Buddhism, before the influence of the Islam (KLIMKEIT (1988). The sanctuary of Rawak, in the desert north east of Khotan, was a perfect Buddhist building. Its mandala design can still be recognized in its present ruinous state (fig. 135).




Fig. 135 – The Stupa of Rawak near Khotan represented a mandala. Khotan was one of the important places on the Silk Road. Marco Polo visited the city at the end of the thirteenth century.

The four Buddhist schools (Hinyana, Mahayana, Tantryana and Vajrayana) shared the form of the stupa as the first representation of the Buddha. Emperor Asoka, who ruled India from 274 – 232 BC, constructed many stupas, or sacred mounts, throughout India to worship Buddha. The stupa is not a building in a traditional sense, but originally a burial or reliquary mound, which developed into a symbolic object. The Emperor also erected many stone pillars and monolithic columns, as a focal point of worship – like the famous one with the four lions in Sarnath, near Benares, where Buddha preached his first sermon.


The Hungarian-born explorer Aurel Stein (1862 – 1943) and his team followed the tracks of Hedin some five years later (1900-1901). The description of the wanderings around Khotan and the subsequent discovery of the stupa of Rawak as ‘by far the most imposing structure I had seen among the extant ruins in the Khotan region’, reads like an adventure story (STEIN, 1903; p. 446, Chapter XXX). However, some doubt about the nature of his antiquarian tours can be cast by a modern observer. Stein is nowadays seen by some as a ruthless raider and typified as a ‘foreign devil’ (in particular after his third expedition between 1913 – 1916 and his failed fourth expedition).


The Swedish explorer Sven Hedin (1865 – 1952) discovered the ‘Pompeji der Wüste’ after he left Khotan (Chotan) on the 14th of January 1896 with a party of four man, three camels and two donkeys (in order to test the latter’s endurance in an extended desert march). They followed the track to the north and rested at the village of Tavek-kel (HEDIN, 1919; II, p. 44). From here they went eastwards into the desert and crossed the sand dunes to a place called Takla-makan (which is also the name for the western extension of the Gobi Desert). Hedin indicated this place on the map as ‘Ruinen einer alten Stadt’ (fig. 136).


The Great Stupa at Sanchi, with its present height of sixteen and a half-meter, encases an earlier one, which was made of burnt bricks and mud. Stone casing was used in the reconstruction in the middle of the second century BC when a terrace with a double flight of steps, balustrades and a paved processional path were added. A triple ‘parasol’ – set within a square railing or harmika – tops the hemispherical dome. Entrances of Stupa No. 1 were added in the first century AD. They make a right angle with the cross design of the stupa, forming a swastika (GLAUCHE, 1995; fig. 139).




Fig. 139 – This ground plan of the ‘Great Stupa’ of Sanchi (India) indicate the four gateways (or toranas), which were later added to make the plan look like a swastika.


The outer railing and the gates of the ‘Great Stupa’ are richly sculptured. The southern gate reveals the birth of Buddha, the northern gate is crowned by the wheel of law, the eastern gate depicts the young Gautam leaving the house to seek enlightenment and the western gate gives the Seven Incarnations of Buddha (four trees and tree stupa).


The worship of Buddha was not made visible through figures at Sanchi, but through the artistic use of symbols.


1. The lotus represents Buddha’s birth,


2. The tree signifies his enlightenment,


3. The wheel (of Law, Dharmachakra) points to his first sermon


4. The stupa is his nirvana or salvation.


These various stages are mirrored in the four sacred Buddhist pilgrimage centers in Nepal and India as mentioned in the ‘Mahaparinirvana Sutra’ (The Book of the Great Decease) in Chapter V:


His birthplace at Lumbini, east of Kapilavastu (Nepal);

Buddha Gaya (Bihar), where he attained enlightenment under the sacred pipal tree (Ficus religiosa). The nearby Mahabodhi Temple has a beautiful pyramidal spire and is situated on the location of Buddha’s original Bodhi Tree;

Sarnath or Isipatan (Uttar Pradesh), where he delivered his first sermon and

Kushinara or Kashinagar (Uttar Pradesh), where he died.

These four places/stages are, by and large, in agreement with the Four Quadrants of the quadralectic world view. Characteristics of these areas are given in terms of (a dualistic) visibility. The First Quadrant (I) is designated as a place of the invisible invisibility. It contains an indeterminable and arbitrary ‘beginning’, before any division took place. The Second Quadrant (II) is regarded as the realm of ideas and the first division, creating an invisible visibility. The Third Quadrant (III) harbors the consciousness of limitations and the establishment of a visible visibility, known as empirical reality. Finally, the Fourth Quadrant (IV), with its visible invisibility, is the summary of previous and future experiences.


The symbolism of the elements is reflected in the different architectonic parts of the stupa (fig. 140). The lower part of the stupa consists of a square or cube with terraces and steps in various forms. This square/cube symbolized the earth, the most stable and static geometric body. The covering dome is related to the mass of a world all-encircling sea (water). The triangular shape of the conus points to the highest aims, in the same way as flames reach for the sky (fire). The calyx, symbolizing Buddha’s upturned begging bowl, was associated with the sky (air) and the flaming drop is a reference to space (quintessence).


The most famous of all the stupa temples is the Borobudur, forty kilometers northwest of Yogyakarta (Indonesia). The form recalls a stupa, a hemisphere or segment of a globe. Some say that the Candi Borobudur is designed as a mandala rather than a stupa, but both can be true: the former refers to the ground plan as representation of the world (fig. 141), while the latter is the three dimensional symbol of nirwana (fig. 142).




Fig. 141 – The ground plan of the Borobudur Temple on the island of Java, Indonesia. The positions of the hands of Buddha (mudras), which are given in the sculptures of the galleries, have a symbolic meaning. They not only indicate directions, but also the phases of human development. The Bhumisparsha mudra signifies the ‘touching of the earth’ (east). The Varada (Wara) mutra symbolizes charity and compassion (south). The Dhyana mudra points to the principle of wisdom (west). The triangle shape is an identification with the mystic fire and the Three Jewels of Buddhism. The Abhaya mudra means fearlessness, associated with protection and peace (north). It is a sign of good intentions. Finally, the Dharmachakra mudra is related to the ‘Wheel of Dharma’ – pointing to the middle. It sets the teaching of the Buddha in motion.


The construction of the Borobudur, the largest Buddhist temple, took place in four different stages. Stage I (775 – 780) comprised the base and two galleries. Two more galleries were added in Stage II (790) added and the foundations were improved. Stage III (810) consisted of dismantling of the round structure, which was built at the end of stage II and three new circular terraces were made. Stage IV (in 820 and 840) consisted of further modification and improvement of the existing structure, with no major changes. The finishing touches were probably made around 900 AD.




The Shivaistic (Hinduistic) temple-complex of Prambanan is situated some forty kilometers to the east of Borobudur. It matches the beauties of the contemporary Borobudur temple in many respects.




Fig. 143 – A Map of the Prambanan temple complex by N.J. Krom (1920).


Prambanan is Java’s largest Hindu temple complex (fig. 143). The Lara Djong-grang group (also spelled as Lorojonggrang) consists of three large structures and five minor temples surrounded by a wall. The main temple is nearly fifty meters high and is dedicated to Shiva (Ciwa), the Destroyer. The Vishnu (Wisnu) temple is situated at the north of the Shiva temple and the Brahma temple to the south. The complex originally consisted, in Krom’s reconstruction, of two-hundred-and-fifty-six (16 x 16) minor temples, called candi perwara. The middle square was enclosed by a second wall of 220 x 220 meters (modern sources give the figures 110 x 110 meters) The openings in the walls were orientated towards the four wind directions. A possible third boundary wall was located (by Krom), enclosing a terrain of 400 x 400 meters (or more recent 222 x 390 meters) This outer wall also had four openings, but was not parallel to the inner walls.



The (Buddhist) Candi Sewu lies one kilometer north of Prambanan. Its name means ‘Thousand Temples’, because some two hundred-and-fifty minor temples are placed around the central temple. The complex, dating from the first half of the ninth century, was built in the shape of a mandala (fig. 144) and covers an area of 185 x 165 meters.




Fig. 144 – A map of the Candi Sewu (Tjandi Sewoe) complex, near Prambanan (Indonesia) shows the general plan of a mandala. The cruciform main temple is positioned in the middle of an enclosed area and surrounded by the ‘Thousand Temples’, protected by a second wall.


The Candi Sewu has a cruciform ground plan and four stairs in the wind directions (fig. 145). The central part of the building is surrounded by four cellas, one of which leads into the main room (from the east).




Fig. 145 – The main (central) temple of Candi Sewu (Tjandi Sewoe) is an example of a perfect tetradic building, bearing all the symbolism of the one-, two-, three- and fourfold in its architectonic layout.


Many more ‘candi’ (temples) and sanctuaries in Indonesia could be mentioned as representatives of Hindu and/or Buddhist devotion to higher division thinking. The general intention is not exhaustive, but the general conclusion of Indonesian religious architecture has to be one of recognition.


Further study is necessary on the connection of the Hindu religious views and the worship of Buddha on the one side and the modern conception of four-fold thinking on the other side. A search for deep-seated links on a psychological level should rise above the level of numerology. Ways can be explored in the earlier mentioned terrain of non-duality (LOY, 1988; p. 163 and 180). This major characteristic of the philosophical and religious traditions in India and China – and other countries under their sphere of influence, like Indonesia) – might hold the key to an understanding. Both views aim to escape the rigid bonds of oppositionality and point to a world of higher division thinking.


More than two thousand temples and pagodas can be found in Bagan, in central Myanmar. Bagan, or Pagan as it was sometimes known, stood as the capital of Myanmar from 1044 to 1287. The golden Shwe-Zigon temple (No 1.) is regarded as the most national of all Myanmar’s pagodas (fig. 146).




Fig. 146 – The Shwe-Zigon temple in Bagan (Myanmar), built in the eleventh century, became the prototype for the later pagodas in the country.


The Ananda temple (no. 2171) also rates high as one of the finest temples in the country. The building activities started in 1091 during the reign of King Nanwrahta (1044 – 1077 and was finished under King Kyanzittha (1084 – 1113). Major restoration and reconstruction took place in 1979. The ground plan is cruciform and the temple square can be entered from all four sides through projecting porches (fig. 147). The central shrine has four large standing Buddha images representing Gautama (west), Kakusandha (north), Konagamana (east) and Kassapa (south).




Fig. 147 – The elevation (above) and ground plan (below) of the Ananda temple in Bagan (Myanmar/Burma). The temple shows different styles and forms of the Early Period, which had come to rest. An enclosing wall and four gateways are integrated in the entire composition.


Paul STRACHAN (1989) provided a comprehensive overview of the architecture in Imperial Pagan in Myanmar. The compilation of some ground-plans of temples (fig. 148A/B), do hardly justice to his informative book, but they are a good illustration of the general ‘tetradic’ character of Buddhist architecture in the country. The wide field of temple and pagoda building in Myanmar will be left unexplored at the present time, despite the fact that it represents a major concentration of ‘tetradic’ buildings in the world.




Fig. 148A – The pagodas in Myanmar (Burma) indicate a strong preference to a tetradic way of building. 1. Myin-pya-gu plan forming a lei-myet-hna; 2. Groundplan No.1600 Nat-Hlaug-Kyaung. Shrine confining the Devas. Warly Period, c. 850 – 1120; 3. No. 1239 Nan-hpaya ground plan. Perfect gu temple. Reign of Anawrahta, first free-standing Buddhist ‘cave’ at Pagan. The sikhara is carried by four freestanding piers; 4. No. 1192 Naga-Yon groundplan; 5. Ground plan of No. 771 Dhamma-Yan-Gyi. Grondplan based on the Ananda’s Greek cross type of plan; 6. No. 758 Sulamani ground plan. The Later Period 1170 – 1300. Inner Circle Monuments. Sithu II (1174 – 1211), tireless temple builder. In: STRACHAN (1989).




Fig. 148B – The pagodas in Myanmar (Burma) indicate a strong preference to a tetradic way of building. 7. Plan of Sein-nyet Ama. No. 1085-6 Sein-Nyet Ama (elder sister); 8. Ground plan of No. 1391 Myinkaba Kubyauk-Nge. Late Period; 9. No. 995 Bogyoke-mi groundplan; 10. No. 482 Thambula ground plan. Late Period. In: STRACHAN (1989).


Fig. 149 – The concentric plan of Pre Rup, a small temple which is situated some six kilometers north east of Angkor Wat. The building functioned as King Rajendravarman’s state temple and was built in 961. It consists of two enclosures with gateways at all four sides, a pyramidal structure and five shrines on top.


King Udayadityavarman II (1050 – 1066) was engaged in the building of the colossal temple-mountain of Bapuon, situated three and a half kilometers north of Angkor Wat (fig. 150). The temple was built around 1060 and dedicated to Shiva. The three-stepped pyramid has four enclosures and contains many relief panels, in particular in the gopuras of the second enclosure. The temple is poorly constructed and collapsed several times, but restoration is now in progress.




Fig. 150 – A plan of Bapuon temple, which was built around 1060 by Angkorean King Udayadityavarman II.


The most sacred of all Chinese structures is the Great Altar of Heaven in Beijing (Peking). The emperor prayed every year in the middle of the first lunar calendar month for a good harvest. The ritual was established in the third century BC. The Circular Hall of Prayer for Good Harvest (Tiantan) was built for this purpose during the Ming Dynasty in 1420 (fig. 152). It became, together with the Forbidden City and the Summer Palace, a symbol of Beijing and a major attraction for tourists. The complex follows tetradic lines, with a reference to time and division thinking.




Fig. 152 – The Great Altar of Heaven in Beijing (China) consists of three circular terraces with marble balustrades (called the Altar for Grain prayers).). There are four staircases to the four cardinal points and four lesser intermediate staircases. The wooden structure – without iron nails, steel rods or cement – is thirty-eight meters high and thirty meters in diameter. The four pillars in the center represent the four seasons of the year, while the inner twelve pillars symbolize the months. The coffer ceiling of the hall is carved with dragons and phoenixes.


The most-rewarding and interesting overview of Asian religious architecture has to be completed here. A preliminary conclusion can be, that the (religious) thoughts, which motivated the architects and builders of temples, shrines and pagodas in the eastern hemisphere – and resulted in such prominent buildings – are not far removed from the basic four-fold ideas. Division and movement are recognized (in the East as well as in the West) as the prime movers of a communication and the elementary appearances find their spiritual translation in the material reality of sacred buildings.


Further research in the religious architecture of Asia from a quadralectic point of view will, most likely, give a conformation of these first findings. The field is still wide open and inviting for any serious scholar.


The Flavian theatre in Rome became known as the Colosseum, because a thirty-seven meter high statue of Nero (the Colossus Neronis) was moved during the reign of emperor Hadrian from the Domus Aurea to a place in front of the Amphitheatrum Flavium. The Colosseum has four stories (fig. 327), but it is unlikely that a four-fold idea was present during the design around 70 AD under Emperor Vespasian, since the fourth story was only added in 230 AD. The bottom three stories – as part of the original design – have each eighty columns and eighty arches. The stories are separated by thin architraves. The arches on the bottom story are separated by Doric columns (plain) and are engaged (shaft is part of the wall). The second story has engaged Ionic columns (fluted and tapered) and the third story has Corinthian columns (ornate). The fourth story consists of a solid wall with Corinthian pilasters. The space between the pilasters was originally filled with forty rectangular windows.


Unexplained Mystical Structure: Egyptian “Ankh Cross” Temple―Built By The Aztecs?

By Richard Cassaro November 13, 2012 Category: Sacred Sites & Symbols

The Egyptian ankh cross…in Mexico? That’s right. The ruins of a mysterious Aztec temple bears a strange and striking resemblance to Egypt’s ankh cross. This Aztec ankh temple is perfectly aligned with an Egyptian-like stone pyramid at the same archaeological site. Scholars doubt any Aztec connection to the Egyptians, since both cultures evolved on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean, and were never in contact. Yet, strangely, the meaning of this Aztec ankh seems suspiciously parallel to the meaning behind Egypt’s ankh cross.


Pyramid aligned with an Egyptian-style ankh cross temple, Calixtlahuaca, Mexico.


The Aztecs and the Egyptians were parallel civilizations in many ways, despite having evolved on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean. Both cultures built pyramids, both used solar symbolism, and both believed in life after death, preparing their dead for a journey to the afterlife via an elaborate and highly-ritualistic ceremony.


Both cultures also used a very similar “tau” cross symbol―for the very same purpose: To signify the forces and interplay between physical life (which they saw as temporary, material) and spiritual life (which they saw as eternal, spiritual).


In Egypt, this cross was called “ankh,” which was formed by a “tau” cross (looks like the letter “T”) with a loop on top of it:





Egypt’s ankh cross is a tau symbol with a loop on top.


In Mexico, the Aztecs and Mayas used the same exact “tau” cross, only with no loop:





Tau-shaped icons built by the Mayans, forerunner of the Aztecs.


“The Tau cross was common enough in Egyptian symbolism that it has sometimes also been called the Egyptian cross…The Spanish conquistadors found the cross to be well known as a symbol by the Incas and Aztecs…”


― Geoffrey W. Bromiley, International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: A-D

“The Egyptian Tau―the sign of life―also occurs on Central American monuments…”


―Robert S. Littell, The Living Age

Usually the Aztecs did not put a loop above their tau cross. However, there exists in ruins a cruciform-shaped building located at an archaeological site called Calixtlahuaca in present-day Mexico. This Aztec ankh cruciform building is stunningly similar, in both shape and design, to countless ankh crosses depicted by the Egyptians.




Mysterious ankh-shaped cruciform building, built by the Aztecs at Calixtlahuaca in Mexico.


Can it be proven that both the Egyptians and Aztecs use this same cross symbol to convey the same spiritual beliefs?


The Ankh was, for the ancient Egyptians, the symbol (the actual hieroglyphic sign) of life. But not the “life” that we think of when we use the word “life”; it was symbolic of another kind of life, namely the spiritual life of the soul that most of us do not recognize in our day-to-day existence.




The ankh cross is sometimes called the “key of life.”


“There is one basic mistake Egyptologists are making when it comes to Egyptian civilization: They believe the Egyptians were “preoccupied” with death. Egyptologists repeat this over and over again like a mantra. They’re wrong— the complete opposite is true. The Egyptians were profoundly focused on “life,” which they took to be the “spiritual” being within them, the part that never dies.


Here’s the difference (and this is important): The Egyptians were convinced—like so many of us are—that when a person passed away, something that formerly animated that person’s body was now missing or had fled. They believed much more strongly than we do that this non-material Self, the “soul within” or “god within,” was the “vital force” and the source of consciousness. They saw this soul as their real Selves, the real “Life” eternal, which they symbolized with the ankh cross, today found everywhere among the ruins.


Unlike the Egyptians, modern Westerners are far more attached to the material world and physical body. We identify with our bodies, cars, homes, and careers. To the Egyptians, we are the ones preoccupied with death, and overly concerned with our own perishable material selves. We identify not with the soul, but with the transitory vehicle it temporarily inhabits.


Although in Egypt life itself was seen as a manifestation of the divine, and therefore something that could be enjoyed and should be celebrated, identifying solely with the body as we moderns do transforms the body into a tomb and the world into a prison. By constantly nurturing the soul, they were “practicing” for life after death, one might say. When death came, therefore, nothing vital was considered lost. Today, if death comes to a man with a mansion, a fleet of cars, and a large company or hedge fund—all is lost.”


―Richard Cassaro, Written In Stone: Decoding The Secret Masonic Religion Hidden In Gothic Cathedrals And World Architecture

The Aztecs believed in precisely this same “life” as the Egyptians. For the Aztecs (as for many of us) a person’s death was not the end of their existence; instead it was the end merely of the physical life of that person. There was something inside that continued to exist, that lived on after death:


“The Aztecs believed that people lived on when their life on Earth was over. The kind of afterlife they had depended on the way they had lived in this life….When someone died, their family dressed them in their best clothes. The family danced and chanted funeral prayers…Then the Aztec’s body was buried…with the Aztec’s possessions and enough food for the long journey to the underworld…”


―Dr. Elizabeth Baquedano, The Aztecs: Understanding People In The Past

“In the Aztec religion there was the belief in a life after death…In relation to this belief the Aztecs show an ethical ideal to attain, evidenced in their struggle of good against evil. In this case the mission of the Aztecs was to be on the side of the sun, the symbol of good, opposing the fearful gods of darkness, the symbols of evil.”


― Dinorah B. Méndez, Evangelicals in Mexico: Their Hymnody and Its Theology

Whereas the Egyptians used the ankh cross (formed in part by the tau) to express this concept of “life” beyond death, the Aztecs did as well. The Aztec tau cross was identical to the Egyptian:




Aztec tau cross, also called the Tree of Life, housed in the Anthropology

Museum in Mexico City. This image recurs in Prehispanic codices.


“In the Aztec world, the tau cross is the Tree of Life…”


―Gary Varner, Mysteries of Native American Myth and Religion


“…the cross…was a sacred symbol in practically every religion…Among the Aztecs of ancient Mexico…it was known as the Tree of Life.”


― Jean Delaire, Mystery Teaching in the West, 1935

As a symbol of the Tree of Life, the Aztec tau cross (like the Egyptian tau) symbolized the concept of “life” and “life after death”―the same “life after death” the Egyptians symbolized using the ankh cross.


It should be noted that the Aztecs were not the only pre-Columbian American culture to use the Tau; the T-shaped doorway or window appears as a common architectural motif in stone masonry across Mesoamerica. It is found, for instance, at Chaco Canyon in northern New Mexico and Mesa Verde in southwestern Colorado.



Steps leading through a T-shaped doorway down into

Casa Rinconada, the Great Kiva at Chaco Canyon, N.M.


In his classic book Atlantis: the Antediluvian World, Ignatius Donnelly says the tau was an important icon signifying “hidden wisdom” for Mexicans as well as for Peruvians, Egyptians, Phoenicians, and Chaldeans. Donnelly says it was emblematic of rejuvenation, freedom from physical suffering, hope, immortality, and divine unity.


The mystic Manly P. Hall held a similar view:


“Augustus Le Plongeon, in his Sacred Mysteries Among the Mayas and Quiches, notes that the Crux Ansata, which he calls The Key to the Nile and the Symbol of Symbols, either in its complete form or as a simple TAU, was to be seen adorning the breasts of statues and bas-reliefs at Palenque, Copan, and throughout Central America. He notes that it was always associated with water; that among the Babylonians it was the emblem of the water gods; among the Scandinavians, of heaven and immortality; and among the Mayas, of rejuvenation and freedom from physical suffering.”


―Manly Hall, The Secret Teachings of All Ages

Getting back to the tau being a direct link that connects the Egyptians with the Aztecs, we can see in the following parallel artwork how both cultures, the Egyptians and Aztecs, created similar drawings associated with the tau cross.



Left: Aztec Tree of Life. Right: Egyptian Ankh cross of Life. Both depict tau crosses.

In both images there are twin deities facing inward, toward the cross. The

positions of their arms, hands, feet and legs are almost perfectly parallel!


Note how in both images above there are deities flanking the cross. In both instances the deities are striking symmetrical poses, facing the cross. Also, in both instances, the deities seem to be making the same precise bodily gestures. We see this in the positions of the hands, arms, legs, feet and heads.


In one of the Qabbalistic Masonic legends, Hiram Abiff is given a hammer in the form of a TAU by his ancestor, Tubal-cain. The tau cross is preserved to modern Masonry under the symbol of the T square. This appears to be the oldest form of the cross extant.





The tau cross used to build patterns in a window at

the Convent of Saint Anthony near Castrojeriz, Spain.


“The philosophical cross, the two lines running in opposite directions, the horizontal and the perpendicular, the height and breadth, which the geometrizing Deity divides at the intersecting point, and which forms the magical as well as the scientific quaternary, when it is inscribed within the perfect square, is the basis of the occultist. Within its mystical precinct lies the master-key which opens the door of every science, physical as well as spiritual, it symbolizes our human existence, for the circle of life circumscribes the four points of the cross, which represent in succession birth, life, death and IMMORTALITY.”


― H.P. Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled

The Fool, sitting for days beneath the tree of life (which has the shape of a tau cross) intent on finding his spiritual Self, suddenly climbs a branch and dangles upside down like a child, forgetting for a moment, all that he is and all that he knows.



The Hanged Man (XII) is the twelfth trump or Major Arcana card in most

traditional Tarot decks. It is used in game playing as well as in divination.


Money and coins fall down from his pockets, but instead of seeing money he sees merely metal and paper. He feels as though he’s hanging between the mundane world and the spiritual world, able to see both. The moment feels surreal; connections he never understood before are made, mysteries are revealed. The biggest mystery of all is the realization that he is not merely the physical body, that part of himself that is physical and temporary. He is composed of a spiritual inner Self, a soul, and that this soul is eternal; it was never born and will never die.


In his book The Pictorial Key to the Tarot, A.E. Waite, the designer of the Rider-Waite tarot deck, described the Hanged Man as the man who suddenly recognizes—or, better, “resurrects”—his higher Self and higher nature, which until then had in a sense been “dead” within him:


“The gallows from which he is suspended forms a Tau cross…There is a nimbus about the head of the seeming martyr. It should be noted (1) that the tree of sacrifice is living wood, with leaves thereon; (2) that the face expresses deep entrancement, not suffering; (3) that the figure, as a whole, suggests life in suspension, but life and not death…He who can understand that the story of his higher nature is imbedded in this symbolism will receive intimations concerning a great awakening that is possible, and will know that after the sacred Mystery of Death there is a glorious Mystery of Resurrection.”


―A.E. Waite, The Pictorial Key to the Tarot



In Conclusion


Today, the prevailing anthropological view of antiquity among scholars is that ancient and indigenous peoples worldwide developed their own complex cultures independent of outside influence or inspiration. Any suggestions to the contrary have been generally dismissed as either fanciful, racist, or demeaning. Ancient peoples worldwide, scholars have argued, were fully capable of developing their own civilizations. But, nagging evidence still remains; evidence like the ankh cross and tau cross symbol being found worldwide, and particularly among the Egyptians and pre-Columbian American cultures.


The mall has four levels, each of which is approximately the shape of a rectangle. The mall has between 200 and 250 stores,[15][16] including 16 anchor stores.[10] In addition to the more traditional department store anchors of Lord & Taylor,[10][17] Macy's,[10][17][18] and JCPenney, which will be closing in 2017,[10][17] these currently include:


Barnes & Noble[17]

Bed, Bath & Beyond[17]

Best Buy[10][17]

Burlington Coat Factory[17]

BJ's Wholesale Club[10][17]

DSW Shoe Warehouse[17]


Home Depot[10][17][18]

Dick's Sporting Goods[17]

Forever 21[17]

Old Navy[17]





Five Below[17]

Bath & Body Works[17]


The east end of the mall features Lord & Taylor and Macy's. [15] The west end has a Best Buy, Burlington Coat Factory and a Target. Other major stores in the mall include, Barnes & Noble, Bed Bath & Beyond, Forever 21, H&M, JCPenney, Modell's Sporting Goods, Old Navy, Staples & Uniqlo, Formerly, a Sports Authority store was located on the west end, but it closed and was replaced by Autobahn Indoor Speedway.



Two boys climbing on the Palisades Climb Adventure rope course.

On the fourth floor can be found a stadium-seating 21-screen AMC Theatres,[4][20] a comedy club and several full-service restaurants.[4] Further down toward the west end was an IMAX theater.[21][22] It closed in 2015 because the IMAX theater moved into AMC Theatres. 5 Wits Interactive Family Entertainment Center replaced the former IMAX Theater and opened in 2016.[23] Level 4 is the entry point to Palisades Climb Adventure, a five level, 85 foot tall climbing obstacle course created by WonderWorks that allows guests to climb on obstacles while strapped into a harness.The climb adventure shows the climber from the top of the mall to the bottom.[24]


At east end of the fourth floor is an ice rink,[15][7] which is home to many teams and programs such as the Palisades Predators Youth Hockey team[25] and BUDS for Hockey.[26] The rink also houses a free skate and Learn to Skate program, an arcade, and a party room for birthday parties.[27]


BJ's Wholesale Club and Home Depot are not seen inside the mall, they both are separated but near. BJ's is near the entrance on the first floor, the Home Depot is near Target.

In 2015, the mall added a full-service car wash which is located in the underground parking lot. However, it was removed a year later.[28]