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FOUR DIVISIONS OF THE NATION (MAYA)- FOUR PEAKED MOUNTAIN- THE NAHUA TRIBES DIVIDED THEMSELVES INTO FOUR DIVISIONS- THE FOUR DIVISIONS OF THE MAYAN NATION WERE SEPARATED IN THE FOUR DIRECTIONS IN A QUADRANT

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4 Ahau was the katun when they sought and discovered Chichen Itzá. There it was that miraculous things were performed for them by their lords. Four divisions they were, when the four divisions of the nation, as they were called, went forth. From Kincolahpeten in the east one division went forth. From Nacocob in the north one division came forth. But one division came forth from Holtun Zuyua in the west. One division came forth from Four-peaked Mountain, Nine Mountains is the name of the land. 5 /

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p. 140

 

4 Ahau was the katun when the four divisions were called <together>. The four divisions of the nation, they were called, when they descended. They became lords when they descended upon Chichen Itzá. The Itzá were they then called.

 

139:5 Like the typical Nahua tribe, the Maya nation was composed of four main divisions. As we shall see in the next chronicle, when Mayapan was destroyed, the head-chief Tutul Xiu went out with his chiefs and with the "four divisions of the nation." It is not impossible that the system was a Nahua innovation. Here it is suggested that this method of organization was the result of the amalgamation of four different peoples into one nation.

THE MAYANS FOUR WORLD QUARTERS- FOUR STONES FOUR RAIN GODS FOUR BACABS FOUR COLORS FOUR DIRECTIONS FOUR TREES OF ABUNDANCE- FOUR PAHUATUHNS
APPENDIX A
THE MAYANS FOUR WORLD QUARTERS- FOUR STONES FOUR RAIN GODS FOUR BACABS FOUR COLORS FOUR DIRECTIONS FOUR TREES OF ABUNDANCE- FOUR PAHUATUHNS
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APPENDIX A

THE FOUR WORLD-QUARTERS

Few religious ideas were more widely spread among the aboriginal peoples of America than that of the sacred character of the four cardinal points. The Plains Indians of North America are said to ascribe the origin of this conception to the apparent motions of the sun to the east, north, west and south, 1 and the same explanation would appear to hold good for the peoples of Central America. The Maya connected the idea with a system of color symbolism: red with the east, white with the north, black with the west and yellow with the south. In the Dresden Codex we frequently find the glyphs for these directions associated with those representing the four colors in the order named. Each successive year followed the same rotation according to the day with which it began. The Kan years were ascribed to the east, the Muluc years to the north, the Ix years to the west and the Cauac years to the south, as shown by the calendar wheel of the Book of Chilam Balam of Ixil. 2 The same system governed the katun-wheel, only here we find whole groups of katuns associated with each of the cardinal points, as we see from the wheel on page 132 of the present work. On pages 41 and 42 of the Maya Codex Cortesianus there is a picture of the four world-quarters, each marked with its appropriate glyph, and in the Mexican Codex Fejérváry-Mayer 3 is a similar picture showing the trees and birds mentioned in Chapter X of the Chumayel. It is evident that the Mexican and Maya myths relating to this subject were very similar in some respects.

In Chapter X we have seen how the gods set up the four Trees of Abundance at the cardinal points to commemorate the previous destruction of the world. Like the conventionalized trees of the Palenque reliefs, the so-called crosses, these trees were surmounted by birds of mythological significance. From the four world-quarters came the winds, and here in all probability were the four great jars of water which supplied the rains. 4 According to the Mexican version of this myth the rain was favorable or unfavorable to the crops depending on the cardinal point from which it came. 5

From Landa we learn that "among the multitude of gods worshipped by these people they adored four, each of whom was called Bacab. These, they said, were four brothers whom God, when he created the world, placed at its four quarters to hold up the sky, so that it should not f all. They also state that these Bacabs were saved when the world was destroyed by a deluge.

p. 171

[paragraph continues] Other names are <also> given to each of these, and with them they designate the world quarter where God set them to hold up the sky." 1 The same writer goes on to tell us their names. In the east was Chacal Bacab, literally the Red Bacab, whose name was Cantzicnal, 2 and Landa also ascribes to him the names Chac Pauahtun and Chac-xib-chac. In the north was Zac-cimi, 3 as Zacal Bacab, or the White Bacab, was named, and he is also called Zac Pauahtun and Zac-xib-chac. In the west was Hozan-ek, or Ekel Bacab, the Black Bacab, also called Ek Pauahtun and Ek-xib-chac. In the south was Hobnil, or Kanal Bacab, the Yellow Bacab, to whom Landa also gives the names, Kan Pauahtun and Kan-xib-chac. Connected with the worship of these Bacabs were four stones, the Red, White, Black and Yellow Acantuns, which were anointed with the blood of the worshippers. Acantun might be translated as stone stela, and each of these probably had its mythological counterpart at one of the four cardinal points. 4

In the Motul Dictionary the word bacab is defined as "representante," possibly indicating that the Bacabs were the representatives of the gods. They were the advocates or patrons of the bee-keepers, 5 and it has been thought that their name was in some way connected with bees or honey, as cab can mean honey and bee-hive as well as earth and land. In the ritual in Chapter I we have noted that there were red, white, black and yellow bees, each sort ascribed to the world-quarter corresponding to their color. Of the individual names of the Bacabs, Cantzicnal and Hozan-ek mean little to the writer. Zac-cimi means a swoon, and Hobnil, which primarily means something hollow, is a term applied to a bee-hive, probably because it is made of the hollow section of a tree-trunk.

It seems likely that the four Pauahtuns were not quite the same as the Bacabs. Brinton gives an account of the misa milpera, or cornfield mass, as described by Baeza in a report written in 1813. 6 Here it is stated that "they are identical with the winds, and the four cardinal points from which they blow," and we find this confirmed in Chapter XI of the Chumayel which contains the Ritual of the Angels. In the modern ceremonies the red, white and black wind-spirits are identified with St. Dominic, St. Gabriel, and St. James; only the Yellow Pauahtun has the name of a Maya deity. This is Ix-Kan-le-ox, the goddess named for the yellow ramon 7 leaf. The word, Pauahtun, is difficult to translate. The last two syllables, Uah and tun, suggest

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a stone or a pillar set up or erected; but they are evidently personages, and the writer is inclined to identify them with the "angels" described by Landa in his account of the ceremonies preceding the New Year. 1 We have already seen in Chapter XI that the four Pauahtuns were set up before the world was created and were either identical or closely associated with the wind-spirits. Possibly they occupied the same position in the heavens that the Bacabs did on the earthly plane.

Landa has also ascribed to the four Bacabs the names, Chac-xib-chac, Zac-xib-chac, Ek-xib-chac and Kan-xib-chac. These appear to be the rain-gods who were four in number and were set at the four cardinal points. The author of the Motul Dictionary considers them to be one person and states that Chaac "was a gigantic man who taught agriculture and whom they later considered the god of bread, water, thunder and lightning." The names given by Landa could be translated as the Red, White, Black and Yellow male Chacs, or rain-gods.

We find in Landa a detailed description of the ceremonies performed on the five unlucky days which concluded the year. 1 Although they have been considered New Year's ceremonies, in each case the Bacabs and other personages belong to the year which is ending, and not to the coming year for which they are said to be the augury. On pages 25 to 28 of the Dresden Codex is the portrayal of some very similar ceremonies which Seler has analysed and compared with the Landa account. 2
THE FOUR WORLD-QUARTERS

Few religious ideas were more widely spread among the aboriginal peoples of America than that of the sacred character of the four cardinal points. The Plains Indians of North America are said to ascribe the origin of this conception to the apparent motions of the sun to the east, north, west and south, 1 and the same explanation would appear to hold good for the peoples of Central America. The Maya connected the idea with a system of color symbolism: red with the east, white with the north, black with the west and yellow with the south. In the Dresden Codex we frequently find the glyphs for these directions associated with those representing the four colors in the order named. Each successive year followed the same rotation according to the day with which it began. The Kan years were ascribed to the east, the Muluc years to the north, the Ix years to the west and the Cauac years to the south, as shown by the calendar wheel of the Book of Chilam Balam of Ixil. 2 The same system governed the katun-wheel, only here we find whole groups of katuns associated with each of the cardinal points, as we see from the wheel on page 132 of the present work. On pages 41 and 42 of the Maya Codex Cortesianus there is a picture of the four world-quarters, each marked with its appropriate glyph, and in the Mexican Codex Fejérváry-Mayer 3 is a similar picture showing the trees and birds mentioned in Chapter X of the Chumayel. It is evident that the Mexican and Maya myths relating to this subject were very similar in some respects.

In Chapter X we have seen how the gods set up the four Trees of Abundance at the cardinal points to commemorate the previous destruction of the world. Like the conventionalized trees of the Palenque reliefs, the so-called crosses, these trees were surmounted by birds of mythological significance. From the four world-quarters came the winds, and here in all probability were the four great jars of water which supplied the rains. 4 According to the Mexican version of this myth the rain was favorable or unfavorable to the crops depending on the cardinal point from which it came. 5

From Landa we learn that "among the multitude of gods worshipped by these people they adored four, each of whom was called Bacab. These, they said, were four brothers whom God, when he created the world, placed at its four quarters to hold up the sky, so that it should not f all. They also state that these Bacabs were saved when the world was destroyed by a deluge.

p. 171

[paragraph continues] Other names are <also> given to each of these, and with them they designate the world quarter where God set them to hold up the sky." 1 The same writer goes on to tell us their names. In the east was Chacal Bacab, literally the Red Bacab, whose name was Cantzicnal, 2 and Landa also ascribes to him the names Chac Pauahtun and Chac-xib-chac. In the north was Zac-cimi, 3 as Zacal Bacab, or the White Bacab, was named, and he is also called Zac Pauahtun and Zac-xib-chac. In the west was Hozan-ek, or Ekel Bacab, the Black Bacab, also called Ek Pauahtun and Ek-xib-chac. In the south was Hobnil, or Kanal Bacab, the Yellow Bacab, to whom Landa also gives the names, Kan Pauahtun and Kan-xib-chac. Connected with the worship of these Bacabs were four stones, the Red, White, Black and Yellow Acantuns, which were anointed with the blood of the worshippers. Acantun might be translated as stone stela, and each of these probably had its mythological counterpart at one of the four cardinal points. 4

In the Motul Dictionary the word bacab is defined as "representante," possibly indicating that the Bacabs were the representatives of the gods. They were the advocates or patrons of the bee-keepers, 5 and it has been thought that their name was in some way connected with bees or honey, as cab can mean honey and bee-hive as well as earth and land. In the ritual in Chapter I we have noted that there were red, white, black and yellow bees, each sort ascribed to the world-quarter corresponding to their color. Of the individual names of the Bacabs, Cantzicnal and Hozan-ek mean little to the writer. Zac-cimi means a swoon, and Hobnil, which primarily means something hollow, is a term applied to a bee-hive, probably because it is made of the hollow section of a tree-trunk.

It seems likely that the four Pauahtuns were not quite the same as the Bacabs. Brinton gives an account of the misa milpera, or cornfield mass, as described by Baeza in a report written in 1813. 6 Here it is stated that "they are identical with the winds, and the four cardinal points from which they blow," and we find this confirmed in Chapter XI of the Chumayel which contains the Ritual of the Angels. In the modern ceremonies the red, white and black wind-spirits are identified with St. Dominic, St. Gabriel, and St. James; only the Yellow Pauahtun has the name of a Maya deity. This is Ix-Kan-le-ox, the goddess named for the yellow ramon 7 leaf. The word, Pauahtun, is difficult to translate. The last two syllables, Uah and tun, suggest

p. 172

a stone or a pillar set up or erected; but they are evidently personages, and the writer is inclined to identify them with the "angels" described by Landa in his account of the ceremonies preceding the New Year. 1 We have already seen in Chapter XI that the four Pauahtuns were set up before the world was created and were either identical or closely associated with the wind-spirits. Possibly they occupied the same position in the heavens that the Bacabs did on the earthly plane.

Landa has also ascribed to the four Bacabs the names, Chac-xib-chac, Zac-xib-chac, Ek-xib-chac and Kan-xib-chac. These appear to be the rain-gods who were four in number and were set at the four cardinal points. The author of the Motul Dictionary considers them to be one person and states that Chaac "was a gigantic man who taught agriculture and whom they later considered the god of bread, water, thunder and lightning." The names given by Landa could be translated as the Red, White, Black and Yellow male Chacs, or rain-gods.

We find in Landa a detailed description of the ceremonies performed on the five unlucky days which concluded the year. 1 Although they have been considered New Year's ceremonies, in each case the Bacabs and other personages belong to the year which is ending, and not to the coming year for which they are said to be the augury. On pages 25 to 28 of the Dresden Codex is the portrayal of some very similar ceremonies which Seler has analysed and compared with the Landa account. 2

THE MAYAN DIVIDED THEIR TOWNS INTO FOUR DIVISIONS- SO DID THE AZTECS- THERE WERE FOUR CHIEFS IN THE FOUR DIVISIONS- THIS WAS CALLED THE NAHUA PATTERN- ALL OF THE NAHUA TRIBES DIVIDED THEIR TOWNS INTO FOUR PARTS WITH FOUR CHIEFS (QUADRANTS)

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A comparison of the Maya sources cited in this paper with Zurita's account 5 of the political institutions of Mexico leads to the conclusion that the central government at Mayapan corresponded in many respects to the Nahua pattern. At the time of the revolution which destroyed the city we are told that "the halach-uinic Tutul <Xiu> departed with the chiefs of the town and of the four districts or divisions of the town," 6 and we are reminded of the four main divisions of the Aztec and Tlaxcalan states. The four chiefs of these divisions were especially concerned with the distribution of tribute from subject peoples, and we find an echo of this function in the present work when we read: "At Tikuch arrived the tribute of the four men." 7 The resemblance is less apparent in the local government of the Yucatecan towns and villages. Here the administration of the batab, assisted by the ah-cuch-cags and ah-kulels probably followed the ancient traditions of Yucatan.

THE MAYANS ARE KNOWN FOUR THEIR CALENDAR USED FOUR PERIODS- THEY ARE QUADRANT NUMBERS AS WELL- 8000, 160000 (16). 3200000 (32 is 16 times 2), and 64000000 (four 16s)

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For the sake of simplicity, I shall use the terms derived from Beltran to distinguish the higher periods, namely:

 

1 pictun

 

= 20 baktuns

 

(

 

8,000 tuns)

 

1 calabtun

 

= 20 pictuns

 

(

 

160,000 tuns)

 

1 kinchiltun

 

= 20 calabtuns

 

(

 

3,200,000 tuns) 1 alautun= 20 kinchiltuns

 

(

 

64,000,000 tuns)

THE INCAS MAIN TEXT THE POPUL VUH WAS DIVIDED INTO FOUR BOOKS (THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT) THE INCA HAD FOUR CREATION MYTHS-- 400 YOUTH- FOUR MESSENGERS IN SHAPE OF OWL- FOUR BOUQUETS OF FLOWERS-400 YOUTH SLAIN- FOUR PERFECT MEN MADE BY GOD- FOUR WOMEN ARE MADE TO ACCOMPANY THE FOUR MEN

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But their mission was not yet complete. The sons of Vukub-Cakix, Zipacna and Cabrakan, remained to be accounted for. Zipacna consented, at the entreaty of four hundred youths, incited by the hero-gods, to assist them in transporting a huge tree which was destined for the roof-tree of a house they were building. Whilst assisting them he was beguiled by them into entering a great ditch which they had dug for the purpose of destroying him, and when once he descended was overwhelmed by tree-trunks by his treacherous acquaintances, who imagined him to be slain. But he took refuge in a side-tunnel of the excavation, cut off his hair and nails for the ants to carry up to his enemies as a sign of his death, waited until the youths had become intoxicated with pulque because of joy at his supposed demise, and then, emerging from the pit, shook the house that the youths had built over his body about their heads, so that all were destroyed in its ruins.

 

But Run-Ahpu and Xbalanque were grieved that the four hundred had perished, and laid a more efficacious trap for Zipacna. The mountain-bearer, carrying the mountains by night, sought his sustenance by day by the shore of the river, where he lived upon fish and crabs. The hero-gods constructed an artificial crab which

 

For this purpose they dispatched four messengers in the shape of owls. The brothers accepted the challenge, after a touching farewell with their mother Xmucane, and their sons and nephews, and followed the feathered heralds down the steep incline to Xibalba from the playground at Ninxor Carchah.[1] After an ominous crossing over a river of blood they came to the residence of the kings of Xibalba, where they underwent the mortification of mistaking two wooden figures for the monarchs. Invited to sit on the seat of honour, they discovered it to be a red-hot stone, and the contortions which resulted from their successful trick

 

when pricked. Thus they did not salute the mannikins on their arrival at the Xibalban court, nor did they sit upon the red-hot stone. They even passed scatheless through the first ordeal of the House of Gloom. The Xibalbans were furious, and their wrath was by no means allayed when they found themselves beaten at the game of ball to which they bad challenged the brothers. Then Hun-Came and Vukub-Came ordered the twins to bring them four bouquets of flowers, asking the guards of the royal gardens to watch most carefully, and committed Hun-Ahpu and Xbalanque to the "House of Lances"--the second ordeal--where the lancers were directed to kill them. The brothers, however, had at their beck and call a swarm of ants, which entered the royal gardens on the first errand, and they succeeded in bribing the lancers. The Xibalbans, white with fury, ordered that the owls, the guardians of the gardens, should have their lips split, and otherwise showed their anger at their third defeat.

 

Xmucane, waiting at home for the brothers, was alternately filled with joy and grief as the canes grow green and withered, according to the varying fortunes of her grandsons. These young men were busied at Xibalba with paying fitting funeral honours to their father and uncle, who now mounted to heaven and became the sun and moon, whilst the four hundred youths slain by Zipacna became the stars. Thus concludes the second book.

 

THE THIRD BOOK

 

The beginning of the third book finds the gods once more in council. In the darkness they

 

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commune concerning the creation of man. The Creator and Former made four perfect men. These beings were wholly created from yellow and White maize. Their names were Balam-Quitzé (Tiger with the Sweet Smile), Balam-Agab (Tiger of the Night), Mahucutah (The Distinguished Name), and Iqi-Balam. (Tiger of the Moon). They had neither father nor mother, neither were they made by the ordinary agents in the work of creation. Their creation was a miracle of the Former.[1]

 

But Hurakan was not altogether satisfied with his handiwork. These men were too perfect. They knew overmuch. Therefore the gods took counsel as to how to proceed with man. They must not become as gods (note here the Christian influence). Let us now contract their sight so that they may only be able to see a portion of the earth and be content, said the gods. Then Hurakan breathed a cloud over their eyes, which became partially veiled. Then the four men slept, and four women were made, Caha-Paluma (Falling Water), Choimha (Beautiful Water), Tzununiha (house of the Water), and Cakixa (Water of Aras or Parrots ), who became the wives of the men in their respective order as mentioned above.

 

Biblical cosmogony the original myth would appear to be the sum of more than one native creation-story. We have here a number of beings, each of whom appear in some manner to exercise the function of a creator, and it might be gathered from this that the account now before us was produced by the fusion and reconciliation of more than one legend connected with the creation-a reconciliation of early rival faiths. We have to guide us in this the proved facts of a composite Peruvian cosmogony. The ruling Inca caste skilfully welded together no less than four early creation-myths, reserving for their own divine ancestors the headship of the heavens. And it is not unreasonable to believe that the diverse ethnological elements of which the Maya-Kiché people were undoubtedly composed possessed divergent cosmogonies, which were reconciled to one another in the later traditional versions of the "Popol Vuh."

A large pipe of polished red stone was continually circulating, everyone smoking except the children. The pipe always started from Mad Wolf, who first blew four whiffs to the Sun and four to the Earth, then it was passed to Blessed Weasel on his left, who handed it to me, stem first. After smoking I passed it on to Morning Plume. On its return I handed it to Blessed Weasel, stem first as before, but was corrected by him, with the explanation that, in going towards Mad Wolf, the pipe should have been handed bowl first. No one else seemed to notice this infraction of one of their customs. I was often impressed, in gatherings of the Blackfeet, by the dignified courtesy and genuine nobility of manners on the part of their head men, in passing over, without remark, or notice, any unwitting breach of social or ceremonial observance. 

 He blew four whiffs to the North, South, East and West, and then, holding the pipe towards the Sun, prayed to the Great Spirit in the Sun for the recovery of his sick

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The coyote trotted to the summit of a butte near by, and howled four times to the north, south, east and west. Before long another coyote appeared. Then another came running up to

 

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him, and they kept on coming, until Menepoka found himself surrounded by them.

FOUR WOMEN REPEAT FOUR TIMES- FOUR TIMES- FOUR MEN- FOURTH TIME DIFFERENT- FOUR WOMEN FOUR DANCERS FOUR WOMEN- FOUR OTTER SONGS

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Mad Wolf's summer camp on the plains.—Preparations for the ceremonial.—Maka's joke.—Mad Wolf begins the ceremonial with seven chants—The buffalo song.—Distribution of the rattles to the priests.—Mad Wolf bids me join in the ceremonial.—Prayers made by visiting Indians.—Animal songs.—Mad Wolf dances with the Sacred Pipe.—Pipe Dancing songs.—The Root Digger is brought forth.—Opening the sacred Beaver Bundle.—Dance of four women representing beavers.—Two weasel skins are taken from the Bundle.—The Head Chief gives me the Indian name A-pe-ech-eken (White Weasel Moccasin).—A medicine man decorates me with the sacred paint.—Mad Wolf continues the ceremonial.—I take part in the buffalo dance.—Ceremonial closes with a feast.

 

Bear Child arose and with a forked stick, covered with sacred paint, selected a live coal from the fire and placed it in front of Mad Wolf. He took dried sweet grass from a small buckskin bag and, holding it aloft to command attention, and as a signal that he was ready to begin the ceremonial, placed it upon the hot coal. When the rising smoke filled the lodge with a pleasing fragrance, Mad Wolf began with seven songs, which were chanted in unison, each song being repeated four times. The first was to Napi (Sun Power, not referring to Old Man).

 

The Rattle songs came next, all uniting in the song, "The rattles I hold are good." This was repeated four times. The priests then grasped the rattles and beat rhythmically upon the buffalo raw hide, singing in unison "I now take the rattles." I watched every movement Mad Wolf made and when he grasped the rattles and began beating, I did likewise and also joined vigorously

 

In the Moose song four men came forth imitating, with their heads, the movements of moose rubbing their horns.

 

The two sacred women knelt beside the Bundle, imitating the actions of the buffalo and representing the buffalo bull, or chief, slowly approaching the Beaver Bundle. He stopped three times before reaching it. At the fourth time, the women imitated the Buffalo Chief, hooking at the Bundle with his horns. Mad Wolf chanted the Hurrying song and then the String song, as the women untied the strings and removed the outside cover, revealing a beautiful beaver skin called in their ceremonial "His Robe." The song was changed to a solemn chant led by Mad Wolf, while

 

Two women arose and knelt with Gives-to-the-Sun and Natokema in front of the Medicine Bundle. The four women together imitated a beaver's movements. They covered their heads with blankets to represent the beaver hidden in his lodge, all the time moving their bodies in time with the chanting of the

 

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priests and the rhythmical beating. Then they came forth to work on their beaver-dams, the women representing beavers rising to the surface by uncovering their heads, and holding sticks in their mouths like beavers carrying branches, imitating also the swimming motions with their hands. Suddenly the beavers dived under the water, and at this point Mad Wolf slowly lifted the sacred Beaver Skin, while the four dancers

 

WOMEN PRAYING WHILE HOLDING BEAVER SKIN.

Click to enlarge

WOMEN PRAYING WHILE HOLDING BEAVER SKIN.

 

continued their mysterious and symbolic movements. Then the dancers imitated the beavers coming to the surface and swimming across the river. They went out for a dance upon the shore, sitting upright, wiping their faces with their hands, and looking carefully in all directions after the manner of beavers guarding against danger. The four women arose and stood in single file, with Gives-to-the-Sun at the head of the line as the wife of the Beaver Chief. They danced around the fire with their hands crossed upon their breasts, turning to

 

Four Otter songs were sung and then the Mink song. After these were the following Women songs, Prairie Dog, Lizard, Sitting and Tobacco. It was now time to fill the sacred Pipe. Mad Wolf held the pipe bowl close to the tobacco. He slowly picked up the stone used as a stopper and placed it in the bowl, leading a chant in which all joined:

FOUR TIMES- FOUR TIMES FOUR TRIALS

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"Little Beaver told Akaiyan that, before he parted with them, his father, the Beaver Chief, would offer him a present and would allow him to choose anything within the lodge. Little Beaver also advised him, saying, 'When my father asks you for your choice, say that you will take your little brother. He will not be willing to part with me, for he prizes me above everything he owns. He will ask you four times to choose something else, but take me with you, for I will have more power to help you than any of the others.'

 

choose anything in my lodge to take away with you.' Then Akaiyan, remembering the advice of Little Beaver, asked for his youngest child. The Beaver Chief made many excuses and endeavoured to persuade him to take something else, but Akaiyan would have no other gift. After the fourth trial, the Beaver Chief said, 'My son, you show your wisdom in selecting your little brother to go with you. I am sorry to part with him, because he is the best worker and the wisest of my children, but, because of my promise, I now give him to you.'

FOUR CHANTS TO CARDINAL DIRECTIONS- FOUR HORSE SONGS- FOUR PIPES FOUR MORE FOUR DAYS

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"If you neglect to do this you will be sure to lose something. If you invite anyone to smoke, you must always furnish tobacco for four pipes. If you are not satisfied then, you must smoke four more. If you have not time for four, explain this to your guest and let him smoke alone. Never light your pipe with willow—always use cottonwood, or sarvis berry. As a member of the Society, the Pipe must be handed to you bowl first. You must always take hold of it with both hands, just as the bear does. Never smoke with a woman, nor with anyone who presses the tobacco into the pipe bowl with his fingers. A special stick must always be used for this purpose. If anyone seeks to borrow tobacco, or asks you four times for a pipe, he runs the risk of your turning the Medicine Pipe over to him. It must then be transferred with the ceremonial and paid for by him, just as if it had been taken because of a vow. The Medicine Pipe must not be opened in winter, while the snows are deep. But, in the spring, at the time of the first thunder, the Pipe should be opened and held before the people, and the tobacco changed in the Bundle."

 

The ceremonial and instruction by Lone Chief continued through four days. During this period Mu-koi-sa-po and Eton] o-waki learned the ceremonial prayers, chants and dances. They also fasted, that they might have dreams by night.

 

 

Bird and Animal dances.—The Grizzly Bear dance.—Many varieties of songs.—The Woman's Pipe.—Four chants towards the cardinal points.—Rules governing ownership of the Pipe.—Care of the Pipe a heavy burden.—The Indian firmly held in mental slavery by his medicine superstitions.

 

During the singing of the Crane song, the dancers imitated the motions of flying Cranes and gave the crane call. There were no dances for water birds, but the people remained seated, while songs were sung for the ducks and geese. Mu-koi-sa-po and his wife were painted, during the four Horse songs, sometimes called Resting songs. It was necessary to sing all the words and notes of these four songs accurately, because, if anyone made a mistake, misfortune would surely come to his horses. After a short rest, during which a pipe was passed around for a smoke, seven Owl songs were sung. They were followed by seven Buffalo songs, in honour of the power that went with the band of sacred white buffalo skin, which was to be worn around the head of the Pipe owner. Seven songs were also sung to a water bird called Good Rusher, because it runs so fast along the surface of the water and is believed to possess great power. It is said to drown people by dragging them beneath the water. The muskrat skin was used

 

At sunset, Lone Chief led Mu-koi-sa-po and his wife, Etomo-waki, from the lodge and, facing in turn the four directions, chanted first towards the West,

 

"Over there are the mountains. May you see them as long as you live, for from them you must receive your sweet pine as incense";

 

then towards the North,

 

"Strength will come from the North. May you look for many years upon 'the star that never moves'" (North Star);

 

then towards the East,

 

"Old age will come from below (East) where lies the light of the sun";

 

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then towards the South,

 

May the warm winds of the South bring you success in securing food."

 

There were many rules in which Lone Chief and his wife—the former owners, must instruct Mu-koi-sa-po and his wife, when transferring the Pipe. The long category of musts and must nots taxed both their memories and consciences to carry the burden of their observance. If not obeyed to the smallest detail, misfortune would come upon them and their family. They were as follows:

SING FOUR SONGS- UNCOVER SWEAT LODGE FOUR TIMES- FOUR CAMPS FOUR SIDES- FOUR PAINTED BLACK FOUR GREY- FOUR EAGLE FEATHERS - STRIKE TREE FOUR TIMES

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Spotted Eagle stuffed the grass into the nose and ears of the buffalo skull and tied it around the horns, symbolising the feeding of the buffalo. The Soyotoiyis (Carex Nebraskensis praevia) was the favourite food of the buffalo. Those inside the sweat lodge waited until they saw smoke rising from the sweet grass burning

 

PRIESTS WALKING AROUND SWEAT LODGE.

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PRIESTS WALKING AROUND SWEAT LODGE.

 

outside, a sign that the stones were fully heated. They then sang four songs, the fourth being,

 

"This spot is a holy place,"

and handed out the buffalo skull to the Brave Dogs, who reversed the head, pointing the nose towards the east, and laid it upon the pile of earth, which represented the underground animals. One by one the heated stones were passed into the sweat-lodge and dried sweet grass laid upon the stones. Mad Wolf placed his hands in

 

The Mad Dogs uncovered the sweat lodge four times, that those inside, dripping with perspiration, might cool off. Each time it was closed, water was thrown upon the hot stones. While the priests inhaled the vapour, they chanted and prayed to the Sun, Moon and Morning Star, that their children might live to be old, and always have plenty of food. When the Mad Dogs

 

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uncovered the sweat lodge the fourth time, the priests came out. They were given meat, but before eating, a blessing was asked upon the food, each breaking off a small piece and, with a prayer, planting it in the ground. The ceremonial was finished, when the Mad

 

A sweat lodge had been built in each of the four camps, made previous to the large encampment, in which the Sun-lodge was constructed. In the first camp, it was built on the east side; in the second, south; in the third, west and in the fourth, on the north side, following the course of the sun through the sky in summer.

 

Four of the dancers were painted black. Four others, as gray wolves, were covered with white clay, and had black streaks painted under their eyes, also a black circle on the back. They carried long spears painted white, with four eagle feathers attached to them at regular intervals. They circled around the other dancers imitating wolves driving together a herd of buffalo. Two other dancers sat in a hole, near the door, representing grizzly bears in their den. Their bodies were painted red and they had black streaks downward across the eyes. Whenever the wolves herded their band together, the grizzly bears jumped from their den, and pushing to the centre of the throng, drove the dancers out and scattered them. The bears returned to their den, while the wolves again began herding. After the dance was finished, the Mutsaix marched through the camp, singing their society song and calling out, "Let everyone be quiet to-night, because the sacred woman is going through her ceremonial and should not be disturbed. Let all rest well, for to-morrow we will build the Sun lodge." After completing the circle of the camp they separated.

 

The labour of securing poles and branches for the Sun-lodge had been evenly distributed among the tribe. Each clan was required to furnish and put

 

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its share in place. Women mounted on horseback carried the poles to camp, riding on either side of them and holding them up from the ground with lariats fastened to their saddles. The men also walked beside the poles, as an extra precaution to prevent their touching the ground, which was considered unlucky. Followed by a large crowd, singing war songs and with the Mad Dogs shooting their rifles, they entered camp from the north, south, east and west, carrying the poles to the place chosen for the Sun-lodge. Mad Wolf selected the tree to be cut for the Centre Pole. He struck the tree four times, and then handed the axe, which was painted red, to Gives-to-the-Sun. While she chopped, she prayed,

FOUR LARGE CROSSES OF LIGHT- THAT IS A QUADRANT MODEL 16 SQUARES- WHEN A GREAT CHIEF IS ABOUT TO DIE FOUR LARGE CROSSES OF LIGHT APPEAR ABOUT THE MOON- THAT IS 16 SQUARES

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Mad Wolf died, May 28, 1902, during the moon, when the grass is green. Just before his death, four large crosses of light appeared about the moon, the sign a great chief is about to die.

THERE WERE THREE PINE TREES- BUT THE MAN WAS TURNED INTO A PINE TREE MAKING A FOURTH- THERE ARE NOW FOUR--- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT

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The Chief Woman

 

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was very angry. She returned to camp and instructed the other women to pass by Old Man in their choosing. She dressed in her best clothes and returned again to the men. This time Old Man liked her appearance so much, that he kept getting in her way, seeking to be chosen. But she selected another mate. When the other women selected their mates, Old Man was left out. The Chief Woman then changed him into a pine tree.

 

"There were formerly three pine trees beside the Women's Piskun. There is now a fourth, which we call Old Man."

 

Old Man Steals the Magical Fire-leggings.

THE FOURTH TIME IS DIFFERENT THAN THE PREVIOUS THREE- KILLED FOUR STEERS- THE NUMBER FOUR DOMINATES EVERY MYTH IN EVERY CULTURE THE QUADRANT PATTERN IS THE ORGANIZING PRINCIPAL- OTHER NUMBERS ARE MENTIONED YES BUT THE FOUR IS DOMINANT AND THE QUADRANT PATTERN IS THE ORGANIZING PRINCIPAL

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"On the following night, Old Man made another attempt to carry off the leggings, but morning found

 

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him back again in the lodge where the leggings belonged. The owner then told Old Man that, if he wanted the leggings so badly he would give them to him. He warned him, however, not to make use of them more than three times. Old Man was so proud of the fire-leggings, that he put them on to show off in every camp he entered and paid no heed to the warning of the owner. He used them three times successfully, but the fourth time he put them on he set fire to the grass, wherever he stepped. The grass burned so fiercely that Old Man became frightened and started to run. The fire followed him, wherever he went, burning his clothes and his hair, until he was compelled to jump into a river. But the magical leggings were burned up."

THE NUMBER MENTIONED THE SECOND MOST IS THREE AND IT IS MENTIONED TWICE- FOUR IS MENTIONED MANY TIMES

DANCE FOUR NIGHTS FOUR TIMES- FOUR TIMES FOUR FEINTS- FOUR TIMES FOUR BLOWS
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porcupine quills, but had no ankle-tops. Each man carried a knife, bow and a big quiver filled with arrows. Next morning, when camp was broken, we went around the deserted circle, and ate food that was left behind, just like dogs. Then we followed the tribe slowly, always coming in after the people had their lodges pitched and were settled. We first went to the head chief's tipi, where we danced four times, and then we

BUCKSKIN SHIRT FRINGED AND DECORATED WITH COLOURED PORCUPINE QUILLS.
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BUCKSKIN SHIRT FRINGED AND DECORATED WITH COLOURED PORCUPINE QUILLS.

went to the centre of camp, and curled upon the ground to sleep. We did this for four successive nights. On the fourth morning, all of the Brave Dogs returned to their own lodges, where we painted, dressed in our best clothes, ate good food, and acted like dogs no more, until our next dance. While we were giving our dance, we stole anything we wanted, even food, while it was cooking, just as dogs do. Sometimes we danced at the lodges of prosperous chiefs. If they gave us clothes as presents, we could not wear them until after our dance,

p. 461

so we gave them meanwhile into the care of our wives.

They always did as they pleased, lying lazily in their den, covered with robes. When the spectators, eager to see them dance, threw things at them, they pretended four times that they were going to begin. After the fourth feint, they stood up, holding their hands hanging down, just as bears hold their paws. While dancing, they carried their bows and arrows, pretending to aim at the dancers. The Brave Dogs kept going around in a circle, just like a dog looking for a place to lie down. When we had danced four times, the bears held the sharp pointed arrows ready to shoot, but, changing them quickly to two painted arrows without points, they took aim at the crowd, as if to shoot them, but the arrows were sent high over their heads. The rest of us ran off over the prairie, following in the direction the arrows flew, and throwing our moccasins into the air as we ran. Many boys followed us to pick them up, for we wore finely decorated dance-moccasins, but no one was allowed to pick up the two painted arrows, which the Grizzly Bears

danger, ran through camp, imploring someone to drive her son back, but no one was willing. When the Pend d’Oreilles caught sight of him and began shooting, she ran out herself. She had to run in front of him, and strike him four times in the face with a switch, before he could turn. After her fourth blow, he ran for the brush like a dog, and they both escaped in safety. Because of this brave deed, the Piegans changed his name from 'Nose' to 'Brave Dog.'

THE ONLY OTHER NUMBER MENTIONED IS TWO AND IT IS MENTIONED ONCE--- THE CHIEF OF THE ALLEGEWI SAID THAT FOUR IS THE CHIEF OF ALL OF THE NUMBERS BUT HE ALSO SAID THAT ONE IS IMPORTANT BUT THE FOUR IS ONE THAT IS WHY ISRAEL SAYS "THE TETRAGRAMMATON IS ONE"

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FOUR DAYS FOUR SWEAT LODGES

 

"You lie," said Wolf Tail, and he pushed the tree over the cliff. He looked over and saw his brother fall into the water, and he did not come up again. Then Wolf Tail went home and took down his lodge, and went to the main camp. When his father saw him coming with only his wives, he said to him, "Where is your young brother?" And Wolf Tail replied: "He went hunting and did not come back. We waited four days for him. I think the bears must have killed him."

 

Now the old man's daughters were swimming about in the evening, and they found Bull Turns Round lying on the shoal, dead, and they went home and told their father, and begged him to bring the person to life, and give him to them for a husband. "Go, my daughters," he said, "and make four sweat lodges, and I will bring the person." He went and got Bull Turns Round, and when the sweat lodges were finished, the old man took him into one of them, and when he had sprinkled water on the hot rocks, he scraped a great quantity of sand off Bull Turns Round. Then he took him into another lodge and did the same thing, and when he had taken him into the fourth sweat lodge and scraped all the sand off him, Bull Turns Round came to life, and the old man led him out and gave him to his daughters. And the old man gave his son-in-law a new lodge and bows and arrows, and many good presents.

FOURTH DAY- FOUR POINTS- SHOT AT EACH OTHER FOUR TIMES- SHOT HIM FOUR TIMES AND HE DIED- THE MAN EATER COOKED HIM FOUR TIMES- only other number mentioned really is two

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Now on the fourth day the child spoke, and said, "Lash me in turn to each one of these lodge poles, and when I get to the last one, I will fall out of my lashing and be grown up." The old woman did so, and as she lashed him to each lodge pole he could be seen to grow, and finally when they lashed

 

"Father," said Kŭt-o´-yis, "have you no arrows?" "No, my son," he replied; "but I have yet four stone points."

 

had seen the son-in-law coming, Kŭt-o´-yis had lain down and hidden himself behind the buffalo's carcass. He told the old man to say to his son-in-law, "You had better take your last look, for I am going to kill you, right now." The old man said this. "Ah!" said the son-in-law, "you make me angrier still, by talking back to me." He put an arrow to his bow and shot at the old man, but did not hit him. Kŭt-o´-yis told the old man to pick up the arrow and shoot it back at him, and he did so. Now they shot at each other four times, and then the old man said to Kŭt-o´-yis: "I am afraid now. Get up and help me." So Kŭt-o´-yis got up on his feet and said: "Here, what are you doing? I think you have been badly treating this old man for a long time."

 

Then Kŭt-o´-yis said: "You lie. I am going to kill you now." He shot him four times, and the man died. Then Kŭt-o´-yis told the old man to go and bring down the daughter who had acted badly toward him. He did so, and Kŭt-o´-yis killed her. Then he went up to the lodges and said to the younger woman, "Perhaps you loved your husband." "Yes," she said, "I love him." So he killed her, too. Then he said to the old people: "Go over there now, and live in that lodge. There is plenty there to eat, and when it is gone I will kill more. As for myself, I will make a journey around about. Where are there any people? In what direction?" "Well," said the old man, "up above here on Badger Creek and Two Medicine, where the pis´kun is, there are some people."

 

When the man-eater had cooked him four times, he again went into the lodge, and, seizing the man-eater, he threw him into the boiling kettle, and his wives and children too, and boiled them to death.

NO NUMBER MENTIONED OTHER THAN FOUR (one is always mentioned)- FOURTH NIGHT FOUR NIGHTS- FOUR DAYS FOURTH DAY

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He travelled toward the Sand Hills. The fourth night out he had a dream. He dreamed that he went into a little lodge, in which lived an old woman. This old woman said to him, "Why are you here, my son?" He said: "I am mourning day and night, crying all the while. My little son, who is the only one left me, also mourns." "Well," said the old woman, "for whom are you mourning?" He said: "I am mourning for my wife. She died some time ago. I am looking for her." "Oh!" said the old woman, "I saw her. She passed this way. I myself am not powerful medicine, but over by that far butte lives another old woman. Go to her, and she will give you power to enable

 

Now this chief ghost said to him: "You will stay here four nights, and you will see your wife; but you must be very careful or you will never go back. You will die right here."

 

The ghosts consulted among themselves, and one said to the person, "Yes, you will stay here four nights; then we will give you a medicine pipe, the Worm Pipe, and we will give you back your wife, and you may return to your home."

 

Now, after the third night, the chief ghost called together all the people, and they came, the man's wife with them. One of them came beating a drum; and following him was another ghost, who carried the Worm Pipe, which they gave to him. Then said the chief ghost: "Now, be very careful. Tomorrow you and your wife will start on your homeward journey. Your wife will carry the medicine pipe, and some of your relations are going along with you for four days. During this time, you must not open your eyes, or you will return here and be a ghost forever. You see that your wife is not now a person; but in the middle of the fourth day you will be told to look, and when you have opened your eyes, you will see that your wife has become a person, and that your ghost relations have disappeared."

THE FOUR BLACKFEET AGAINST THE CREES

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A long time ago there were four Blackfeet, who went to war against the Crees. They travelled a long way, and at last their horses gave out, and they started back toward their homes. As they were going along they came to the Sand Hills; and while they were passing through them, they saw in the sand a fresh travois trail, where people had been travelling.

HE WAS TOLD TO NOT LET HIS EYES OUT OF HIS HEAD "MORE THAN THREE TIMES OR HE WILL BE SORRY"- BUT HE DOES IT FOUR TIMES- THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT- HE COULD NOT CALL HIS EYES BACK WHEN HE DID IT THE FOURTH TIME

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"If I show you how to do that," replied the bird, "you must not let your eyes go out of your head more than three times a day. If you do, you will be sorry."

 

"Just as you say, Little Brother. The trick is yours, and I will listen to you."

 

When the bird had taught Old Man how to do it, he was very glad, and did it three times right away. Then he stopped. "That bird has no sense," he said. "Why did he tell me to do it only three times? I will do it again, anyhow." So he made his eyes go out a fourth time; but now he could not call them back. Then he called to the bird, "Oh Little Brother, come help me get back my eyes." The little bird did not answer him. It had flown away. Then Old Man felt all over the trees with his hands, but he could not find his eyes; and he wandered about for a long time, crying and calling the animals to help him.

FOUR SWEAT LODGES ABCD
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Before the Medicine Lodge is erected, four large sweat lodges are built, all in a line, fronting to the east or toward 
MEDICINE LODGE.
the rising sun. Two stand in front of the Medicine Lodge, and two behind it. The two nearest the Medicine Lodge are built one day, and the others on the day following. The sticks for the framework of these lodges are cut only by renowned warriors, each warrior cutting one, and, as he brings it in and lays it down, he counts a coup, which must be of some especially brave deed. The old men then take the sticks and erect the lodges, placing on top of each a buffalo skull, one half of which is painted red, the other black, to represent day and night, or rather the sun and the moon. When the lodges are finished and the stones heated, the warriors go in to sweat, and with them the medicine pipe men, who offer up prayers.

FOUR COUPS FOUR WHIFFS TO THE SKY FOUR TO THE GROUND FOUR ON THE MEDICIEN PIPE STEM- DANCE FOUR TIMES

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"After this, the pipe was handed to a man on the right of the semi-circle. Another warrior took a lighted brand from the fire, and counted four coups, at the end of each coup touching the pipe bowl with the brand. When he had counted the fourth coup, the pipe was lighted. It was then smoked in turn around the circle, each one, as he received it, repeating a short prayer before he put the stem to his lips. When it was smoked out, a hole was dug in the ground, the ashes were knocked into it and carefully covered over, and the thunder ceremony was ended."

 

"The medicine man now took a common pipe which had been lighted, and blew four whiffs of smoke toward the sky, four toward the ground, and four on the medicine pipe stem, and prayed to the Sun, Old Man, and all medicine animals, to pity the people and give them long life. The drums were then produced, the war song commenced, and the old man, with a rattle in each hand, danced four times to the door-way and back. He stooped slightly, kept all his limbs very rigid, extending his arms like one giving a benediction, and danced in time to the drumming and singing with quick, sudden steps. This is the medicine pipe dance, which no one but a pipe-owner is allowed to perform. Afterward, he picked up the pipe stem, and, holding it aloft in front of him, went through the same performance. At the conclusion of the dance, the pipe stem was passed from one to another of the guests, and each one in turn held it aloft and repeated a short prayer. The man on my right prayed for the health of his children, the one on my left for success in a proposed war expedition. This concluded the ceremony."

ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED IS FOUR- FOUR LARGE WHITE BIRDS FOUR PURE WOMEN- FOUR SONS KILLED BY THE BIRDS
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In the morning before leaving the lodge, the Sun called the young men to him and said, "My children, do not go near that lodge by the river, for in it live four large white birds with long bills with which they pluck out people's hearts. I have had four other sons, but they have all been killed by these birds." Then he left them.

After they had gone some distance, they stopped. Sun Dog said: "Soon we will have to part, but first I must tell you what the Sun has commanded you to do. If there are any sick or dying among your people, in order to make them well you must build the Medicine Lodge. First you must get one hundred buffalo tongues. Select four pure women of your tribe to help. Let one woman make the medicine, another cut thin and dry the tongues, and the other two boil the tongues. Go into the tall brush and clear a place for the Medicine Lodge. When everything is ready, call the people together to take part in the dance. Let each take a piece of the tongue, and let all say together, 'Great Sun, let us eat together, and grant to us that our people may recover.' If the women you select to make the medicine and to cut and boil the tongue are pure women, the sick and the dying

THE ONLY OTHER NUMBER MENTIONED IS TWO

FOUR NIGHTS- FOURTH DAY- FOUR STEPS FOURTH TIME FOURTH HUNT

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For several days the little family travelled eastward along the valley of the evergrowing stream, but found no buffalo. Then they turned northeast, and after four nights on the wide prairie saw before them another valley

 

The fourth day after the young couple were married and had moved into the new lodge, the stranger arose early, and after a hurried meal told Plover Call that he intended to go hunting. His wife was pleased, and said that he must bring in a deer, for she wished to tan the skin and make him some moccasins.

 

They learned the next day that he made no tracks. When he started out they watched him; he took four steps from the lodge door, and then suddenly vanished, the thunder beginning again and rumbling away into the distance. As he disappeared, a strange-looking bird was seen flying the way the thunder was muttering. Then they knew that this person was really the thunder bird, and their hearts were filled with a great fear.

 

Four times the strange husband went hunting, always disappearing at the lodge door in his mysterious way, always accompanied by thunder, going and coming, never leaving any footprints beyond the lodge. Yet when at home he was just like any other young man, light-hearted, sociable, and kind to his .wife. The morning after his fourth hunt he said that he must go and visit his people.

THREE MENTIONED ONCE ONLY OTHER NUMBER MENTIONED TWO

FOUR TIMES- FOUR SWEAT LODGES---- HE SAYS "FOUR TIMES YOU HAVE ASKED FOR THE OLD CUTTING, AND WHEN THAT SACRED NUMBER IS REACHED I CANNOT REFUSE"--- HE CALLS FOUR THE SACRED NUMBER

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"O-e-ai!" cried the old man in despair. "Four times you have asked for the old cutting, and when that sacred number is reached I cannot refuse. Take the cutting, my son. It is the most valuable and powerful of all my medicines. It is really a beaver which, at will, you can change to the simple cutting as it appears to be."

 

returned from strange adventures, and with a powerful medicine. "Ask him," he said, "to have four sweat lodges built for me, in a row from east to west, and when the stones are heated to let me know."

 

The young men returned to the camp, and in a little while came back to say that all was ready. New Robe told them to walk ahead and warn the people to keep away from him, and, as they all stood in a big crowd on each side of his path, he came to the first sweat lodge and entered it. Sprinkling the water on the hot stones, he began the sacred songs that the old man beaver had taught him, and, as he sang, some of the fur with which his body had been gradually covered during the winter fell to the ground. Soon he left this sweat lodge and went into the next one, and the people crowded around the one he had left, looking with wonder at the little heap of shed fur. So he went into the four sweat lodges, one after the other.

 

When he came out of the fourth sweat lodge, New Robe had shed the last of his beaver fur, and was so changed that no one recognized him. He was a beautiful, clear-eyed, longhaired young man. He went straight to Raven

HE CALLS FOUR "THE SACRED NUMBER"- HE SAYS "FOUR TIMES YOU HAVE ASKED FOR THE OLD CUTTINGm AND WHEN THAT SACRED NUMBER (FOUR) IS REACHED I CANNOT REFUSE)

 

THREE MENTIONED ONCE ONLY OTHER NUMBER MENTIONED TWO

FOUR TIMES- FOUR SWEAT LODGES---- HE SAYS "FOUR TIMES YOU HAVE ASKED FOR THE OLD CUTTING, AND WHEN THAT SACRED NUMBER IS REACHED I CANNOT REFUSE"--- HE CALLS FOUR THE SACRED NUMBER

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"O-e-ai!" cried the old man in despair. "Four times you have asked for the old cutting, and when that sacred number is reached I cannot refuse. Take the cutting, my son. It is the most valuable and powerful of all my medicines. It is really a beaver which, at will, you can change to the simple cutting as it appears to be."

 

returned from strange adventures, and with a powerful medicine. "Ask him," he said, "to have four sweat lodges built for me, in a row from east to west, and when the stones are heated to let me know."

 

The young men returned to the camp, and in a little while came back to say that all was ready. New Robe told them to walk ahead and warn the people to keep away from him, and, as they all stood in a big crowd on each side of his path, he came to the first sweat lodge and entered it. Sprinkling the water on the hot stones, he began the sacred songs that the old man beaver had taught him, and, as he sang, some of the fur with which his body had been gradually covered during the winter fell to the ground. Soon he left this sweat lodge and went into the next one, and the people crowded around the one he had left, looking with wonder at the little heap of shed fur. So he went into the four sweat lodges, one after the other.

 

When he came out of the fourth sweat lodge, New Robe had shed the last of his beaver fur, and was so changed that no one recognized him. He was a beautiful, clear-eyed, longhaired young man. He went straight to Raven

OTHER NUMBERS NOT MENTIONED- IN THE FOOTNOTES IT REFERS TO THE "CONTINUOUS USE OF THE NUMBER FOUR"

APACHE FOUR GIRLS- FOUR LADDERS- FOUR COLORS- FOUR PARALLEL TRAILS FOUR CHIEFS FOUR MEN- FOUR BANDS- FOUR MOUNTAINS FOUR COLORS- FOUR NIGHTS- FOUR HORNS- AGAIN THIS IS AN ORIGINS MYTH AND THEY ARE SEEN BY MYTHOLOGISTS AS THE MOST IMPORTANT AND ALMOST EVERY LINE IS FOUR

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In the beginning, the people were coming up. He 2 made a mountain that continued to increase in height. Then he caused reeds to stand vertically in the center. The people were gathered about the mountain, watching. When the reeds were approaching the sky, four girls went up the mountain and twisted them. They went down and left them in this condition. The people tried in vain to make the reeds grow. "Go up and see what has happened to them," he told someone. This person, on ascending the mountain, found the reeds were twisted and that those who had done it had gone down. The messenger, when he came down, said, "The reeds are twisted."

 

Then four ladders were made and placed in position: 3 one black, one blue, one yellow, and one variegated. Then whirlwind went to the world above and looked. When he came back he reported that there was much water there. 4

 

Then the people moved away towards the east along four parallel trails under four chiefs. Those who went by the first road had fighting. Those going along the second road were fortunate and came back without having had a fight. The people who had gone by the third road, having had a fight, returned. The fourth man came back without having had any trouble. The leadership of the chief of the first band was unfortunate, that of the second band fortunate, that of the third band unfortunate, and that of the fourth band fortunate. They moved back to their own country near Taos.

 

193:1 This account is much abbreviated, Mooney's version speaks of four mountains of the four colors; and explains that the girls were picking berries and flowers and that their mere presence caused the mountains to stop growing. He mentions, Polecat, Crow (Raven), in addition to Beaver and Badger as messengers sent. In each case peculiar markings resulted. Mooney, (a). p. 197.

 

Russell tells that the mountains grew during four nights; that the girls who caused them to stop growing became rabbits; that Badger and Turkey were the messengers; that the whirlwind dried up the water; and that one old woman remained behind from choice. Russell, (a), p. 254.

 

193:3 It was explained that two of the ladders were made of elkhorns with four horns on each side for rails and separate horns for the, rounds. The other two ladders were of buffalo horn.

 

The continual reoccurrence of the number four, the objects or incidents being usually associated with the cardinal points and their appropriate colors is characteristic of the myths and ceremonies of the southern Athapascan.

 

193:4 Black Whirlwind caused the water to dry up.

 

194:1 These two are the rulers of the world of the dead which the ghosts reached through the place of emergence. They pass down easily but cannot return because the ladders are worn out. This place is said to be situated somewhere many miles north of Taos and is reached by four trails. Compare, Russell, (a), p. 255.

FOUR DIRECTIONS-FOUR LICE- FOUR TIMES- FOUR DAYS- FOUR MEN FOUR CHIEFS- FOUR MEN SELECTED- AGAIN THE APACHE ARE A VERY FAMOUS VERY POPULAR WELL KNOWN AMERINDIAN TRIBE- THEY REPEAT THE NUMBER FOUR IN ALMOST EVERY SENTENCE

The people moved away in four directions but they could not sleep.

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[paragraph continues] The old couple of the lower world to whom they came back gave them four lice, two of which were placed in their hair, and two in their clothes., When they lay down they were all very sleepy. It was the biting of the lice that made them sleep. 1

 

The wounded chief sent word to the one who had shot him asking him to come quickly and take the arrow out. When he refused, he sent to him again, saving "Hurry, come and take the arrow out." Neither this, nor a third message to the same effect, had any result. The fourth time he instructed the messenger to say, "Do not be afraid, come to me, and bring some medicine." Then IndakadigaLn quickly took up his medicine bag, looked inside, and selected the required herb. When he came to the wounded man he found the arm badly swollen. "My grandchild, I did not intend to shoot you." He then cut into the outside of the arm, took out the arrow, and applied the medicine. "The swelling will be gone in four days," he told him. He was well in four days and became the grandson of the chief who had shot him.

 

Having moved the camp to the east side of the river, IndakadigaLdn, brought together five hundred men and started away to fight with the enemy. He took along ten horses for his own use in battle. When they came to the enemy and were surrounded by them, the chief said, "Wait until to-morrow and you will have some fun. Keep away from me." The next morning, the chief said, "Now, we are ready." There were many arrows ready for his use. He selected four men, who, remaining out of the battle, should carry home the report of the outcome.

 

 

The four men who had been selected for the purpose went back to their country and reported, "Our people are all dead." When Indayedittsitdn had received the message he cut off his hair saying, "My grandson has been killed, I will mourn for him properly."

APACHE FOUR TIMES FOUR TIMES FOUR TIMES- FOUR TAKE CHARGE FOUR COME- SELECT FOUR PRETTY GIRLS- GOPHER MAKES FOUR TUNNELS

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Naiyenesgani went to him, made motions four times, and then shot him. He hid in one of the holes that his partner had made. The elk broke out the uppermost hole. Naiyenesgani went into the next hole. The elk broke that out also. He then went into mother which Elk also broke out.

 

Naiyenesgani came up to them holding the horn in his hand. "When your father comes home, on what rock does he sit?" he asked. "He sits on yonder point of rock," one of them told him. Naiyenesgani sat there with eagle's children until the father came again bringing with him a pretty dead girl which he threw down. Making motions four times, Naiyenesgani struck him and he fell into the canyon. He heard him burst as he struck. "When your mother comes back, where does she sit?" he asked. "She sit, here," one of them said. The mother came back. Naiyenesgani making motions four times, struck her, throwing her into the canyon. Then he said to the young eagles, "You will be just as large as you are now. People will like your feathers." "Those who take them will have their muscles draw up." "You shall not talk," he said. Then they ceased talking.

 

"Four of you take charge of your people," he said. "Do not go close in among the houses." Then four of them came there. Now pick out

 

Naiyenesgani was sitting there. "I just speak to you," he said, "select for me four pretty girls. I wish to go with them." Then he went away with them toward the west. At Kagodjae he left one; at Tsosbai, another; and at Becdelkai, the third. With the other one he went to the west where they remain forever.

 

198:1 Mooney gives this incident with greater detail, (a), p. 204. The one who assisted was Gopher, who made four tunnels one above the other in which Naiyenesgani hid in succession. In Russell's version Lizard plays a part, (a), p. 256.

AGAIN FOUR IS IN ALMOST EVERY LINE OF APACHE MYTHS- OTHER NUMBERS ARE NOT MENTIONED

FOUR MOTIONS- ONE BLACK HOOP ONE BLUE ONE YELLOW AND ONE HOOPE A MIX OF BLACK BLUE AND YELLOW (THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT TRANSCENDENT YET CONTAINS THE PREVIOUS THREE)- FOUR TIMES THREW- FOUR MOTIONS WITH THE YELLOW HOOP FOUR MOTIONS WITH THE MIXED HOOP FOUR MOTIONS WITH THE BLUE HOOP- FOUR DOORS

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He then went to the sinking place. He made a black hoop, a blue one, a yellow one, and one of mixed colors. He came to the place where there was much water standing. In this lake there lived a monster which sucked in the Pueblo people. Standing at the east, he made four motions with

 

the black hoop, and then threw it in. The water opened out at the center of the lake. He then stood at the south and making motions four times threw in the blue hoop. The water receded from the center. He stood at the west, made motions four times with the yellow hoop, and threw it in. The water moved still further from the center. Finally, he stood at the north with the hoop of mixed colors. He made motions four times and threw it in. The water came together and vanished.

 

the black hoop, and then threw it in. The water opened out at the center of the lake. He then stood at the south and making motions four times threw in the blue hoop. The water receded from the center. He stood at the west, made motions four times with the yellow hoop, and threw it in. The water moved still further from the center. Finally, he stood at the north with the hoop of mixed colors. He made motions four times and threw it in. The water came together and vanished.

 

In the center of the place where the water had stood, the top of a ladder was sticking up. When Naiyenesgani started to go there a crane which was on guard was about to give warning. He gave him a red stone for a present and the crane did not make a noise. When Naiyenesgani came near him, YeLagôLtsôde, the monster, held him by the sole of his foot. He kicked and the monster fell. When he went in, he saw an old man and an old woman lying there, human beings. "I have come to visit you. I do not see any of the people," he said. "I am going to burn you up." Then Naiyenesgani took the firedrill and twirled it until the place was full of smoke. "Now, go out," he said to the captives. From each of four doors two people passed out. "There are no other people," said the monster. "Are these all?" he asked. "There are innumerable people," one replied. "All of you go out," he told the people, and again he. filled the place with smoke. "Hurry go out with it," he told them. More people came out. "Are these all?" he asked again. Those who had come out said, "There are still people there." Then he filled the place with smoke again by means of the firedrill. "Go out with it," he said. "All of you go out." He asked again if there were no more inside. They had all come out. Then he sent the old man and old woman into the water. The Pueblo Indians followed him about. He sent them to their homes and they went off one by one.

APACHE- FOUR IS THE ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED

GO INTO MUD FOUR TIMES FOURTH DIFFERENT MAKE MOTIONS FOUR TIMES

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When some children were playing one of them said, "I will be a bear." He made a pile of dirt which the other children carried away in their hands until it was all gone. In their absence, he made claws for himself of hide fleshers and muscles of the larger hide dresser. With these, he dug a deep hole into which he went so far that he could not be seen. When he came out, he was covered with hair to his elbows and knees. He went in again and came out with hair to his shoulders and hips. When he came out the third time, his body was nearly covered, and the fourth time completely covered with hair.

 

Naiyenesgani went to the Navajo country carrying his war club. The bear, seeing the danger, started to run to the place where his heart lay. Naiyenesgani ran after him and came to the heart first. As he came near it be heard the oak leaves lying over it, making a noise like "ca a ca a". It was the beating of the heart that made them move. Naiyenesgani, making motions four times, struck the heart, and the bear, running close behind, fell dead.

FOUR ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED- FOUR OF THEM FOUR STEPS

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"Now I will go and look for other bad things," Naiyenesgani said. "Wait for me, my friend." Then four of them started away toward the east. They climbed one of the sacred mountains and looked around without finding anything. After that, they came to Balgai, another mountain, which they climbed. When they had looked about without finding anything, Naiyenesgani said, "There are no bad things. Now, we will go back. He

 

threw all the yucca stalks back of him, saying, "People will live on you right here." 1 The name of this mountain will be Balgai." Then they started back and taking only four steps, they reached Taos.

AGAIN IN THE APACHE MYTHS FOUR IS THE ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED- OTHER NUMBERS ARE NOT MENTIONED AND FOUR IS MENTIONED CONTINUOUSLY- JUST ABOUT EVERYBODY KNOWS ABOUT THE APACHE TRIBE IT IS NO COINCIDENCE THEY REPEAT THE NUMBER FOUR ALL THE TIME AND THE QUADRANT PATTERN IN THEIR MYTHS

GOD MADE MOTIONS FOUR TIMES BIRDS WENT FOUR TIMES IN THE FOUR DIRECTIONS- FOUR BAD PLACES FOUR TIMES GOD PUT THE LOG- FOUR DAYS- FOUR DAYS FOURTH DIFFERENT- FOUR CIGARETTES

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god. am going down the river by means of it," he said. The god made motions four times and felled it. He cut off a length just long enough for a man to lie in. He put back the remainder of the tree on the stump and it came together again as if it had never been cut.

 

"My friend, get all the birds that peck trees to hollow it out for you." Then all the birds came together and pecked at the inside of it, going through the tree. The man tried to get inside but it was not yet big enough. The birds went through it four times again in each direction. The hole was now large enough to receive his body. Then he distributed the beads among the birds that had worked for him.

 

Then the god came again to help him. He used the foam on the water to smooth the log. Spider closed both ends of the log for him. "It's ready, my child," said the god. "There are four bad places in succession," he told him. Making motions four times the god put the log with the man inside of it into the water. It floated down stream with him. It came down to the place where the whirlpool is and the log began to spin around. It went on down stream from there with him until it came to the waterfall where it stuck. The god got it loose for him and it floated down to a place where the Pueblo Indians were pulling out driftwood. They pulled the log out but the god put it back. It went on down until it came where there was much driftwood floating. It floated down with him from there. When it landed he tried in vain to get out. After a while, he succeeded.

 

As he walked along beside the river he began to wish he had something to plant. He caught a lot of ducks, and pulled out their feathers which he used for a bed. He ate the birds but saved the sinew from their legs and used it for making arrows. When he had been there four days and the sun was setting he saw his turkey silhouetted against the sky. He came toward him. They walked together along the river. As they walked along he said he wished he had seeds to plant.

 

He planted all the different kinds of corn. When it had been planted one day, it commenced to come up. After the second day, the corn had two leaves. On the third day, it was quite high. On the fourth day, it had brown tassels. The turkey went around gobbling.

 

The turkey was going around a little way off, he was afraid of him. That evening the man went back again carrying four cigarettes. The old man smoked them, saying they were good. The next morning the woman went back with him. They both walked across the river on top of the water. They gathered much corn and tobacco. The woman started home. When she came to the river, she took off her moccasins and waded through. She brought the corn to her people. "It is good," he said, "to eat with deer meat." He gave his father-in-law the corn. The father-in-law, in return, gave him the deer which he possessed. 2

THE ONLY OTHER NUMBER MENTIONED IN THIS APACHE MYTH IS THE NUMBER TWO AND TWO IS MENTIONED THREE TIMES- THE NUMBER FOUR IS MENTIONED ALMOST IN EVERY PARAGRAPH OVER AND OVER AGAIN

FOUR BAD PLACES- FOUR EARS OF CORN- MADE MOTIONS FOUR TIMES- MADE MOTIONS FOUR TIMES AND SHOT ARROW- FOUR DAYS- FOUR CAME BACK- FOUR TIMES- NEXT DAY FOUR CAME BACK AGAIN

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They tell of a man who went about accompanied by a small turkey. The two went down the Rio Grande. There were four bad places for them to pass. When they had gone down the stream, they sat by the bank.

 

He went back to his little home. His turkey was afraid of him and would not come near him. "You smell, my father. You do not smell as you used to," the turkey said. 1 The man broke off four ears of corn and gave them to the girl's father. He liked them very much. He passed his tobacco bag to him. He drew on the pipe but once.

 

The woman went home with the man and returned bringing much corn with her. The young man then became her husband. They were satisfied. "We, too, have some property," said the father-in-law, "Go and hunt with him." His brother-in-law placed him by a black screen or blind. Something ran toward him and passed. It was a fox. Then he placed him by a blue blind and a wolf rain by him. "Do not shoot it," his monitor told him. 2 Then he sat by a yellow blind and a large panther ran by him. Finally, he placed him by a variegated blind. "Now, make motions four times when it runs towards you." Then he made motions four times, and shot it. "It ran off that way," he said. It fell with its head backward. When he came to it he turned its head toward the sun and then he butchered it. He killed it for his brother-in-law to whom he gave the hide. His brother-in-law's wife carried it home. 3

 

Then the old man, his father-in-law, felt happy. "Now come with me and look at my property," he said. They two went in together where the tame deer were kept. There were very many fawns there which he had raised. He gave all these to his son-in-law, saying, "Now these deer are all your property, take charge of them. All the people living upon the earth will live upon deer." The man and his wife went away and commenced living on a hill. The woman built a fire there. All the deer gathered about her and by the next morning had eaten all the leaves from the brush shelter. The woman did not like it and drove them away. They came back to her, however. This continued for four days. The woman, not liking it, took up the poker and struck the deer with it. They had scattered the ashes all about. She drove them far away saying, "I am tired of you." They came back to her nevertheless. Then she was angry and hit them above the nose with the poker. "Deer will always have a sense of smell," she said. She drove them far away but they came back to her.

 

[paragraph continues] "My mother, do not hit me, we belong to you. To what other one can we go?" one of them said to her. "I like you my children," she said. Then two fawns came back to her. "The time is at hand when I shall turn you loose," she said. Nevertheless, four came back to her. "Four times, you have destroyed my fence for me. That is why I am going to send you away she said. "Now, my children, I send you off." The next day four of them came back to her again. "To-day, I am turning you loose. Go as far as you wish toward the South. I have made you red in the summertime, blue in the fall, black in the middle of the winter, and brown in the spring. I have made your hoofs and the ends of your noses black. I have made your horns, your ears, your face, your teeth, your gait, your tails, your white hips, all very pretty for you. I have made your eyes of coals, for you to see with. Now, all I have given you looks very well." 1

APACHE ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED NUMBER FOUR

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When he came there he found his wife, Coyote being away hunting. When Coyote came back bringing a deer the man said, "Get some small stones and put them in the fire." When the stones were hot he directed that some fat be heated also. When everything was ready, he took a stone out of the fire, wrapped it in fat, and said to Coyote, "Swallow it." Coyote swallowed it. Then he took another stone from the fire, put it in the fat and said to Coyote, "Swallow this too." He swallowed it. He prepared a third stone in the same manner and Coyote swallowed that. When Coyote had swallowed the fourth one, he said, "I thought you were doing something to me." When he had sat there for some time, he said, "Waw," and started to run. He fell dead while he was running.

APACHE NO OTHER NUMBER MENTIONED ONLY FOUR

FOUR MEN FOUR DIRECTIONS

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Long ago, four men lived at Taos lying on a shade. 1 They went about with their minds but their bodies remained at Taos. One of them went east looking for the enemy and found their camp. The four men came

 

p. 240

 

there and took their stand facing inward from the four directions. They killed the enemy, driving them in toward the center. They killed the enemy but burned up their property. After this they would come back to Taos and lie on the shade.

 

He went there where they were eating and they gave him some meat. The four men were sitting eating. "Go again and get water," they told him. He went there again and borrowed a water basket with which he brought them water. When they had drunk they said, "Carry the water basket back to your enemy." He carried it back.

 

The four men lay down. The others came about daybreak the next morning. They moved toward the enemy who had their camp on either side of an arroyo. The next day the men stood facing from the four directions. The enemy discovered them. They began to kill the enemy with their war clubs. They had no arrows but just clubs for weapons. On the other side of the arroyo they were not fighting. They fought with those on the one side until they were all killed. They went among those who had not fought, saying, "These are my folks," and stroked their hair as a sign of friendship. They gathered up all the personal property and the horses. "Now, Old-woman-white-hands, tell your people to stand in line on the other side," one of them told the governor. They distributed the goods among them.

 

Then he said to those of the enemy with whom he had made friends, "Pick out your horses." They picked them out.

 

"Now, Old-woman-white-hands, give the other horses to your people," he told the governor. When the horses had been given out be said to the governor, "Now, Old-woman-white-hands, you may camp after us as short marches as you wish. You have become a rich man. Go back as slowly as you wish." The four men went back from there in one day and climbed up to the top of their shade.

 

Footnotes

 

239:1 The common four-posted raised platform on which food is stored and under which the family often sits.

APACHE ONLY FOUR MENTIONED IN MYTH- OTHER NUMBERS NOT MENTIONED-

FOUR HORSES FOUR DAYS

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They began to fight again, the Ute driving the enemy forward. They captured four horses from the enemy. The Ute, mounted, rode on both sides of the enemy who were on foot, pursuing them some distance. When the Ute turned back, the enemy followed them. They sang as they marched along. When the enemy came again within shooting distance, the Ute dismounted and without moving from their position, killed all their enemies and took their scalps. They immediately broke camp and set out for Cimarron which they reached in four days. They established their camp there and held the dance.

ONLY NUMBER FOUR MENTIONED- THE FOUR NATIONS WENT AFTER THE ENEMY

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It was at Cimarron also that they started off with Gidi (Kit Carson) after the enemy. There were Ute, Apache, soldiers, and Mexicans. Four different nations went with him after the enemy. They went down the Canadian River to HweLdibade (Mexican name?) where they found the enemy. There were many tipis there. At evening, when they were approaching the camp of the enemy, men were sent out to observe. There their camp was lying some way off. The party moved on until nearly day when they saw the campfires. The horsemen, leaving the others, rode forward. There were two camps of the enemy, one above the other. All the Apache rode together and commenced to fight. They drove them from the upper camp and pursued them to the lower camp where they fought with them. Taking away their horses they fought with them until night. Many of the soldiers were killed. One Apache was killed and one was wounded in the foot. A spent ball entered his foot but did not pass through it. Another Apache received an arrow under his arm through his clothing. Many of the enemy were killed and all their tents and goods were brought home on wagons. The enemy drove them away from their lower camp. They came back to Cimarron where they danced until they were tired. 1

APACHE ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED FOUR- PUT MEDICINE IN MOUTH FOUR TIMES

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The enemy, coming from the east, met him and he commenced to fight with them although he was alone. The Apache and the Ute knew it although they were drinking whisky. His people came to him where they were fighting on the Canadian River. Just as they came there, he was shot through the chest. He caught hold of the horse's neck and fell. Someone untied his medicine which he was wearing across his chest. The Ute spit blood and sat up. They put the medicine in his mouth four times with a spear of grama grass.

THE NUMBER THREE IS MENTIONED ONCE THE NUMBER FIVE IS MENTIONED ONCE- FOUR MANY TIMES

FOUR TIPIS- SHOT FOUR OF THEM- FOUR DAYS

After that time I started to hunt on the top of a mountain. There were four tipis of us. Vicientito, Luna, myself, Victor, Juan Jose, so many there were of us. We started away hunting deer. I went in advance with two of the young men and went up to the head of the canyon at Ensenada. We had only one gun. Each boy had a horse. They found a cow and a calf which they killed and brought back to me in the evening. I killed a fawn which I brought home.

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all the elk ran back. Without hiding I ran straight toward them. When I was near them, half way up the hill, a big elk ran after me. They stopped right there, and I shot. That one did not move and I shot again at another, the biggest one, firing at his hip. He turned back and ran toward me, one of his hind legs swinging about. Brush about four feet high was standing on both sides. I stood there with him coming right at me. When he jumped I shot him in the shoulder. As I jumped sidewise, he landed right where I had been sitting. As he passed by, the blood was flowing from his shoulder. Then the elk went toward the east where Luna was sitting. It was pretty steep right in front of him. He commenced to shoot and hit four of them. Seven of the elk ran off through the thick brush. We all came together there and commenced to butcher the elk. When we had finished butchering, we built a fire and ate some of the meat.

 

We went home and the next day moved our camp near that place on the edge of the mountain. We brought up all the meat and the bones. Having remained there four days, the others went to hunt along the river but I remained at home. Luna killed seven which they brought to camp. We dried much meat and carried it home with us to Tierra Amarilla. We started away immediately to Cuchilla where they were to hold a feast. For that purpose we all came there. The Pueblo Indians brought fruits there and the Mexicans came with wagons and on horseback. They had a rooster race. After the feast was over we moved camp back again to Tierra Amarilla where we and the Ute remained in separate camps.

FOUR ONLY MENTIONED- APACHE FOUR NIGHTS FOURTH TIME DIFFERENT- four tc'actcini

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Having made the fence about the dancing grounds, they spread a buffalo hide over a basket in the back of the tipi where a hole had been dug. They took the moccasins of the three sick men and tied them together. With these they beat upon the basket which had been turned over the hole in the back of the tent and covered with a buffalo hide. The singer uses a rattle made from buffalo tail and the tails of rattlesnakes. While a strong man is beating on the basket with the moccasins, the singer shakes the rattles and sings. This is done for four nights.

 

they were rubbing sticks. They danced until morning. The masked men put corn, cherries and the seed of the amole into a hole in the ground. They also put the tail of a rabbit in a clay pot. When they came in the fourth time the amole and cherries were ripe and the corn was already hard. Where they had thrown the rabbit's tail in the pot a live rabbit jumped out. One of them cut an arrow across and they shot another with it without killing him.

 

263:1 There are four tc'actcini who have their bodies including their legs, arms and faces, painted with horizontal black stripes on a background of white clay. Their hair is worn projecting from the sides of their heads like horns. The ts'anat'î, usually twelve in number, have their bodies and faces covered with white clay. They wear bands of yucca leaves about their necks, waists, elbows, wrists, knees, and ankles. They have two eagle feathers in their hair. Neither of them wear masks as do the Navajo.

FOUR ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED IN APACHE MYTH AND RITUAL- SINGS FOUR TIMES

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82. CEREMONY FOR BUFFALO.

 

They bring the medicineman buffalo manure. He makes a level place on the ground. The men being called, come together. Then he scatters down some pollen and strews L'ectcîc toward it and prays. He sings four times and then stops. From over there the buffalo bellow. The buffalo manure stands on edge and moves itself and shakes off the L'ectcîc. All the people believe it is true and pray, saying, "May the buffalo be near us. May we camp there among them. May there be much there to eat. With plenty of meat may we move our camp back to our own country."

 

This is the way they do when there are no buffalo. From there they go back, carrying the meat with them to their own country. This is the way they do.

ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED REALLY FOUR

FOUR THINGS NECESSARY FOR VITALIZING- INVOKE THE FOUR WINDS- FOUR SIDES OF EQUAL LENGTH ALTAR- SIDES AT THE FOUR DIRECITONS NO LESS THAN FOUR HAND BREADTHS- FOUR FORMS OF THE SUN DANCE- TWO SETS OF FOUR RULES THAT ARE INSTRUCTED

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The equipment necessary for vitalizing is:--

 

1. Heated stones.

2. Water.

3. A pipe.

4. Smoking material.

 

When he enters the cleared space, he should invoke the Four Winds in order that they may not bring inclement weather upon him. Then he should await a vision, meditating continuously upon his quest

 

This space must be square, for the altar must have four sides of equal length, because each side pertains to one of the Four Winds and each of these must receive equal consideration in every respect.

 

The sides of the altar should be toward the west, the north, the east, and the south, so that one side will be toward the tipi of each of the Four Winds. The sides should measure not less than four hand breadths, nor more than the height of a man, They may vary anywhere between these extremes. The smallest altars should be made in tipis and the largest in the Sun Dance Lodge. At each angle of this square, a pointed space should project halfway between two of the directions. These are the horns of the altar that guard it against all malevolent beings. The square space and horns should be dug to the depth of a finger length and the loosened soil removed and freed from everything. Then it should be pulverized, replaced, level. The one who replaces and levels the soil should utter an and made appropriate invocation, or sing an appropriate song, or both, for in this manner the altar is consecrated to the purposes for which it is made. The Mentor should place on the altar in the tipi of the Candidate, a buffalo skull with the horns attached, so that the nostril cavities will face towards the place of honor. He should then decorate this skull with stripes of red paint, one across the forehead and one lengthwise on each side of the skull; at the same time, he should paint a red stripe across the forehead of the Candidate. The stripes across the forehead indicate that the Buffalo God has adopted the Candidate as a hunka, or relative by ceremony. The red stripes on the sides of the skull indicate that the Buffalo God will give especial protection to the Candidate. The horns of the skull should be adorned with any ornaments that the Candidate may apply. Then the Mentor should

 

Then the Shaman should paint in red on the chest of the Candidate a design which he has devised and instruct him that if he completes his undertaking, this design will become his insignum indicating that he has danced, the second, third, or fourth form of the Sun Dance to completion; and that he will be entitled to place it on his person or property and use it as his signature. When the person of the Candidate has been thus consecrated, his clothing, implements, and utensils should be incensed with sage while the Shaman utters or sings an appropriate invocation which will consecrate them. The things thus consecrated must be used by none other than the Candidate until after the Sun Dance is danced.

 

When these consecrations are completed, the Mentor should teach the Candidate the invariable rules that should govern a Candidate to dance the second, third, or fourth form of the Sun Dance. These are:--

 

1. He must subordinate himself to his Mentor.

2. He must mediate continually upon his undertaking.

3. He must speak little with others than his Mentor.

4. He must use only his consecrated implements and utensils.

 

 

1. He must not become angry.

2. He must not hear ribald speech.

3. He must not go into the water.

4. He must not have sexual intercourse.

THE ONLY NUMBER REALLY MENTIONED IS FOUR

THE OGLALA SHAMANS TEACH FOUR VIRTUES- FOUR CLASSES OF GODS EACH WITH FOUR INDIVIDUALS (16 IN ALL THE QUADRANT MODEL)- THE FOUR ASSOCIATE GODS- THE FOUR SUBORDINATE GODS- THE FOUR GODS- LIKE- THE CHIEF GOD IS MADE UP OF FOUR INDIVIDUALS BUT HE IS STILL CONSIDERED ONLY ONE (LIKE THE TETRAGRAMMATON IS ONE BUT FOUR PARTS)- THE GREAT SPIRIT IS FOUR INDIVIDUALS ACCORDING TO THIS BUT CONSIDERED ONLY ONE- THE CREATOR GOD IS FOUR INDIVIDUALS BUT CONSIDERED ONLY ONE- THE EXECUTIVE GOD IS FOUR INDIVIDUALS BUT CONSIDERED ONLY ONE- FOUR WINDS FOUR GREAT VIRTUES- THE FOUR SUPERIOR GODS ARE FOUR COLORS FOUR WINDS FOUR TIMES FOUR SEASONS- EACH WING HAS FOUR JOINTS- AKAN IS ONE GOD BUT FOUR INDIVIDUALS- FOUR SONS

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The Shamans should teach these doctrines to the people and exhort them to practise the four great virtues which, named in the order of their importance, are:--

 

1. Bravery.

2. Fortitude.

3. Generosity.

4. Fidelity.

 

Each of these four classes consists of four individuals as follows:

 

The individuals of the Superior Gods:--

Wi, the Sun, the Chief of the Gods.

Skan, the Sky, the Great Spirit.

Maka, the Earth, the All-mother.

Inyan, the Rock, the All-father.

 

The individuals of the Associate Gods:--

 

Hanwi, the Moon, the Associate of Wi.

Tate, the Wind, the Associate of Skan.

Wohpe, the Feminine, the Associate of Maka.

Wakinyan, the Winged God, the Associate of Inyan.

 

The individuals of the Subordinate Gods:

 

Tatanka, the Buffalo God.

Hunonpa, the Bear God.

Tatetob, the Four Winds.

Yumni, the Whirlwind.

 

The individuals of the Gods-like:--

 

Nagi, the Spirit.

Niya, the Ghost.

Nagila, the Spirit-like.

Sicun, the imparted Supernatural Potency.

 

The following are four individuals, but they should be considered as only one, the Chief God:

 

The Sun.

The Moon.

The Buffalo.

The Spirit.

 

 

The following are four individuals, but they should be considered as only one, the Great Spirit:--

 

The Sky.

The Wind.

The Bear.

The Ghost.

 

The following are four individuals, but they should be considered as only one, the Creator God:

 

The Earth.

The Feminine.

The Four Winds.

The Spirit-like.

 

The following are four individuals, but they should bc considered as only one, the Executive God:--

 

The Rock.

The Winged.

The Whirlwind.

The Potency.

 

WAKAN TANKA THE GREAT MYSTERIOUS IS FOUR INDIVIDUALS BUT CONSIDERED ONLY ONE

 

The following are but as one, and that One is Wakan Tanka, the Great Mysterious:--

 

The Chief God.

The Great Spirit.

The Creator.

The Executive.

 

Except for the Four Winds, They had no beginning, though some were before others and some bear the relation of parent and offspring. This is akan, for no one of mankind can comprehend it. They will have no end.

 

The Sun is a material God whose substance is always visible and He ranks first among the Superior Gods, though the other three were before He was. He may be addressed as the Great God, the Revered One, or Our Father. His domain is the spirit world and the regions under the world. His will prevails though the Wind thwart his purposes. The Sky gave Him His power and can withhold it, but he is more powerful than the Sky. Daily He makes His journey above the domain of the Sky and at night He rests with His people in the regions under the World and there communes with his comrade, the Buffalo. He is the patron of the four great virtues, but is indifferent to small affairs. His favor may be secured by appropriate offerings and ceremonies and He may grant a communication to one who dances the Sun Dance. His potency abides in fire and cannot be imparted to any other thing. His symbolic color is red and because He is the Chief of the Gods, red is the sacred color.

 

 

The Rock is a material God whose substance may always be seen. He ranks fourth of the Superior Gods, but existed first of all. He is most often addressed as the All-father, for He is the ancestor of all things and all the Gods. The All-father and the All-mother never were related as husband and wife and neither has a child by the other. The Rock is the father of Iktomi, whose other parent is the Winged God, and the father of Iya, or Ibom, the Great God of Evil, whose other parent is an Unktehi, or one of the Monsters.

 

The domain of the Rock is the mountains; but His authority extends through all the domain of the Earth. He is the patron of authority and vengeance, of construction and destruction, and of implements and utensils. His potency can be imparted to anything that is hard as stone. His symbolic color is yellow.

 

The symbolic colors of the four Superior Gods, red, blue, green, and yellow, are sacred, when applied by a Shaman with ceremony and each symbolizes the God to which it pertains. If red alone is ceremonially applied, it signifies consecration. Black is also a ceremonial color, its significance being intensity of emotion or firmness of purpose.

 

 

as a Spirit. He is the father of the Four Winds whose mother is Anog Ite. He governs the fourth time, which is a year, and the coming and going of the four seasons. He abides at the entrance of the spirit trail and hides it from mankind. He admits or excludes spirits from this entrance, according to the judgment of the Great Spirit, Skan. He cannot be influenced by sacrifice or ceremony and His potency cannot be imparted to anything.

 

Wakinyan is a material God whose substance is visible only when He so wills. His properties are akan and anti-natural. He abides in his lodge on the top of the mountain at the edge of the world where the Sun goes down to the regions under the world. He is many, but they are as only one; he is shapeless, but has wings with four joints each; be has no feet, yet he has huge talons; be has no head, yet has a huge beak with rows of teeth in it, like the teeth of the wolf; his voice is the thunder clap and rolling thunder is caused by the beating of His wings on the clouds; he has an eye, and its glance is lightning. In a great cedar tree beside His lodge He has His nest made of dry bones, and in it is an enormous egg from which His young continuously issue. He devours His young and they each become one of His many selves. He had issue by the Rock and it was Iktomi, the oldest son of the Rock. He flies through all the domain of the Sky, hidden in a robe of clouds, and if one of mankind sees His substance he is thereby made a heyoka, and must ever afterwards speak and act clownishly in an anti-natural manner. Yet, if He so wills, He may appear to mankind in the form of a giant man, and if so, He is then the God, Heyoka. One who looks upon the God, Heyoka, is not thereby made a heyoka. The potency of the Winged God cannot be imparted to anything. His functions are to cleanse the world from filth and to fight the Monsters who defile the waters and to cause all increase by growth from the ground.

 

The acceptable manner of addressing Him is by taunt and villification, the opposite of the intent of the address. He may be visualized as a bird whose wings have four joints. His symbol is a zigzag red line forked at

 

 

The Four Winds is an immaterial God, whose substance is never visible. He is akan and therefore no one of mankind can comprehend him. While He is one God, He is four individuals:--

 

He may be addressed as the Four, or, the Four Quarters, or, as the Wind of the Four Directions, or as the Sons. They are the sons of Tate and their mother is Anog Ite. They were born at one birth, but Yata came first. Eya, the second-born, displaced Yata and holds the birthright of the firstborn. Yanpa was third born and Okaga the last-born son. They have their tipis at the edge of the world, that of Eya on the mountain beside the lodge of the Winged God; that of Yata under the stars that never come down to the edge of the world; that of Yanpa where the Sun begins His daily journey over the world; that of Okaga is under where the Sun pauses at midday when His journey is half done. They do not abide in these tipis, for they are continually traveling on the trail that circles the edge of the world, and where they are, or whence they may come, no man can tell. In ceremonies, they should be addressed as the one God, the Four Winds, and have precedence over all the Gods, except Wohpe, the Feminine. They are jealous of their precedence and of that among themselves. In every ceremony of importance they should be invoked after the Feminine, in the following manner:--

 

1. Eya, the West Wind.

2. Yata, the North Wind.

3. Yanpa, the Wind.

4. Okaga, the South Wind.

 

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Anog Ite is the daughter of Wazi and Kanka. She was the wife of Tate and gave Him four sons at one birth. She was the most beautiful of womankind, but was vain. When she was again with child she was incited by the scheming of her mother and Iktomi, to attempt an intrigue with the Sun; and thus desecrated the seat of the Moon and brought shame upon Tate. Because of this the Great Spirit doomed her to abide on the world forever and to have two faces, one enticingly beautiful, the other so horrible that one seeing it would either flee from her or go mad; to give forth heir child without birth, so that it would always be little; and that her children should know her no more as a mother. Having sat in the seat of a God she thereby gained occult powers and so abides on the world. She became ruthless and vindictive and vents her spite on mankind. With her beautiful face she lures men to embrace her and then shows them her horrid features and drives them to distraction. She foments scandal and jealousies and torments pregnant women; she plagues babes with pains and fears; she promotes illicit love affairs and adultery; she is afraid of old men and old women and abhors the bark and twigs of the cottonwood, for they will fend against her scheming. The Shamans should oppose her, for with the aid of their Fetishes they can overcome her and her works.

THERE ARE FOUR FORMS OF DANCE IN THE SUNDANCE- FOUR STRONG THONGS- FOUR SHAPR POINTED STICKS--- OTHER THAN FOUR TWO IS THE ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED AND IT IS MENTIONED TWICE

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DUTIES OF THE PEOPLE.

 

In the meantime, the people should do their part of the first condition for the ceremony. In addition to providing for the feasts, offerings, and presents, they should provide the necessary equipment. Thus, there should

 

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be provided for each Candidate who is to dance the second, third, or fourth form of the dance:--

 

A robe.

A dried buffalo tail attached to a long wooden handle.

Two or four strong thongs.

Two or four sharp-pointed sticks made of ash.

OGALA FOUR ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED- FOUR DAYS- EVERY FOURTH DISTANCE MAGISTRATE SMOKES OUT OF PIPE FOUR HANDS BREADTH- FOUR WINDS FOUR SIGNALS- FOUR DAYS FOUR HEADS

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so that it will be completed not less than four days before the ceremonial camp ought to be established. From the time this journey begins, until the band locates its camp after leaving the place where the ceremony is performed, each day is a holiday for the band. Then the potency of the Whirlwind pervades the movements and encampments and all are bent on pleasure. The people jest and have sports that all may be merry; the old men sound their rattles to ward against Iktomi and his pranks; the young men woo; and the old women make incense of twigs or bark of cottonwood to foil Anog Ite.

 

Before beginning each day's journey, the magistrate, the marshals of movement, and the scouts should go apart from the people, and the magistrate should offer smoke to the Four Winds and pray to him for good weather; and to the Sky and pray for His care while the band is moving. When all are ready, the magistrate should send the scouts ahead on the route he has chosen and the marshals of the movement back to the people. Then the ordinary organization of the camp is in abeyance until the people are again encamped. The magistrate should lead the movement of the band and the marshals should maintain compliant with the Oglala customs that govern such movements. The movement of the band should not be faster than the slowest member of the band can travel and it may be as leisurely as the distance will permit. At the end of each fourth of the distance to be traveled in a day the magistrate should sit and light his pipe. This is the signal for all to unburden for rest and refreshment. When the fourth signal is given the people should encamp. When the tipis are set up, the ordinary organization of the camp is resumed.

 

During the journey and until they enter the Sacred Lodge, the Candidates should keep aloof from the people and have no part in their levities. All who intend to participate in the ceremony should complete this, journey so as to coalesce with the other bands on the day when the Moon is four hands' breadth above the edge of the world, when the Sun goes down out of sight, for on that day the preliminary Sun Dance camp should be established, its council lodge erected, and a council fire built. The preliminary camp is for the purpose of completing the organization to take effect at dawn of the day when the ceremonial camp is to be established. The duration of the preliminary camp should be four days preceding the establishment of the ceremonial camp and during these four days the people

 

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may spend their time in social intercourse and merry-making. Then young women should seek spears of grama grass that bear four heads, for their possession insures good luck in love affairs.

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NO OTHER NUMBER IS MENTIONED OTHER THAN FOUR- OGALA

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There should be four drummers, four rattlers, and a choir of as many men and women as the Superior sees fit to appoint. The escort should be as many reputable brave men as the Superior chooses to appoint; preferably, they should be members of the various societies represented in the camp. Their functions are to escort the Superior and Mentors when they go in procession to perform rites pertaining to the ceremony and to lead in the battles against the Malevolent Gods and beings to be fought on the site of the ceremonial camp.

THERE ARE 16 STAKES- NO NUMBER IS MENTIONED OTHER THAN FOUR AND 16- 16 IS THE SQUARES OF THE QUADRANT MODEL

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NO NUMBERS OTHER THAN FOUR MENTIONED

THE SUNDANCE IS DIVIDED INTO TWO FOUR DAY PERIODS- THE SECOND FOUR DAYS ARE THE "FOUR HOLY DAYS OF MIDSUMMER"- FOUR WINDS

 

THE SECOND FOUR DAY PERIOD.

 

The next four days, when the final ceremonial camp should be maintained, are the four holy days of midsummer, when it is meet to perform ceremonies that pertain to the Gods. Then the Earth has caused the ground to bring forth the grass to fatten the buffalo and the fruits for the benefit of mankind and all things that grow from the ground. The Winged God has caused these things to grow and ripen. Skan, Tate, and Okaga pervade all above the world, and Wi smiles upon all. Therefore, the Oglala should rejoice and show happiness by having ceremonies in honor of the Gods.

 

When the red herald has made these proclamations the people should quickly prepare for the rites to be performed on this day and the Superior, Mentors, and Candidates should go in procession so as to be on top of a nearby hill when the Sun begins His daily journey. If His face is hidden they should return to the people and the red herald should proclaim the command of the Superior that the unworthy withdraw from the camp. The red marshals should seek the cause of offense and if they find it, they should expel it from the camp. Then the Superior should offer the lighted pipe to the Four Winds and pray Him to give a blue day, that is, a day of sunshine that is neither too cold nor too hot for comfort. When this is done all should wait until the Sun shows His face. When He does so, the Superior in the presence of the Mentors and the Candidates; should extend the mouthpiece of a lighted pipe toward Him, and pray the Wakan Tanka

 

While the people are establishing the ceremonial camp circle the Superior should locate the Sacred Lodge in the following manner. He should begin at the Sacred Spot and walk four paces toward the entrance of the camp circle and there pause. The digger should drive into the ground where the Superior paused one of the stakes provided with the equipment. Then the Superior should go four paces in the same direction, and again pause. There the digger should drive another stake. This should be repeated until the digger has driven all sixteen of the stakes provided with the equipment, so that they will be on a straight line from the Sacred Spot to the entrance. These stakes mark the Sun Trail of the camp. When the trail is so marked no one should walk on or across it, except when necessary in the performance of duties. The last stake driven locates the door of the Sacred Lodge which should open toward the south.

THE BUFFALO FEAST- NO NUMBER MENTIONED OTHER THAN FOUR- MOVE FOUR TIMES AROUND- FOUR HEADED SPEAR- AFTER THE FOURTH TIME DISPERSE (THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT)

 

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When the Candidates have occupied the Sacred Lodge, the Superior should order the red herald to proclaim that the buffalo Procession will be formed. It should be formed near the council lodge with the Superior and Mentors at the head, followed by the escort, and then by all the people who are not otherwise occupied in preparation for the ceremony. The procession should move four times around the inside of the camp circle. This is to propitiate the Buffalo God and the Whirlwind God, for it is meet to please these Gods on the first holy day, because They are the patrons of domestic affairs and of love-making. Therefore, families march together in this procession, though young men and young women may walk side by side. The people should shout and sing in praise of these Gods and call aloud sentiments appropriate to the occasion. The young men and young women may make love and if one of them has a four-headed spear of grama grass it should be openly shown while marching. When the procession arrives at the council lodge the fourth time it should disperse.

AGAIN ONLY THE NUMBER FOUR IS MENTIONED- OGALA

REPEATED FOUR TIMES- PERFORMING ACTS AT FOURTHS- HIT FOUR TIMES WITH FETISH- REPEAT FOUR TIMES ALOUD THE NAME OF A REPUTABLE MAN- STRIKE SACRED TREE FOUR TIMES ON THE WEST SIDE- FOUR MEN SHOULD STRIKE THE TREE- EACH FOUR TIMES MAKING 16 TIMES- PERFORM AT FOURTHS- FOUR RELAYS

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as if looking for signs of an enemy. Soon they should return and report to the Superior that no signs of an enemy have been found. The Superior should command them to go and search again, and they should do as before. This is repeated until the fourth time, when the escort finds the Sacred Tree. They should surround it, jeering and taunting it, and then rush upon it, strike it, and bind a thong about it.

 

At about one fourth the distance to the Sacred Tree, the Superior should halt and light a pipe and all should wait until he has smoked a few whiffs. Then the procession should move on until one half the distance is covered; there again the Superior should halt as before, and if there is running water there he should strike it four times with his Fetish, to drive from it the Mini Watu, or evil water creatures that can infect the people. Again, at three fourths the distance all should halt as before. Then the procession should go to the tree and surround it. Now the Superior may harangue the people and should proclaim aloud four times the name of some reputable man, preferably one who is renowned for war deeds. The one so named should come forward and take the chopper and may recite the deeds that make him eligible to strike the Sacred Tree. When he has done so, he should strike the Sacred Tree on the west side four times with the chopper, and if he can do so, leave the chopper sticking in the tree. This should be repeated until four men have struck the tree, each four times, first on the west, then the north, then the east, and then on the south. The nagila of the tree is thus subdued and made subservient to the people.

 

After the Superior pronounces the pole Sacred, it should not be touched by hands that are not painted red. Then it should be carried to the camp in the following manner:--A sufficient number of carrying sticks should be placed under it and the carriers should lift it on these without touching it with their hands and carry it, butt forward, toward the camp. When about one fourth the distance to be carried, the carriers should halt and lay the Sacred Pole on the ground. Then they should howl like wolves, for this is the cry of returning warriors who come bringing a captive. Then another relay of carriers should lift and carry the pole in the same manner to half the distance, where they should lay it down and howl as did the first relay. Then another relay should carry it in the same manner as before, to three fourths the distance, where they should lay it down and howl.

 

After the race of the messengers the fourth relay of carriers should lift and carry the pole as before, taking it through the entrance to the camp circle and into the Dance Lodge, where they should lay it down with the forked end toward the east and the butt at the hole prepared for its erection. It should be so placed that when it is erected it will follow the course of the Sun. When the Sacred Pole is laid in the Dance Lodge the people may disperse, but the Superior and Mentors should then mix the paints and fats supplied with the equipment, and they, or others, whose hands are painted red, should paint the Sacred Pole, so that its west side will be red, its north blue, its east green, and its south side yellow.

AGAIN ONLY FOUR MENTIONED- CIRCLE FOUR TIMES AT FOURTH TIME WHEN REACH STARTING PLACE DISPERSE

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From dawn on the third holy day until the Sun shows His face, the same rites should be performed as on the preceding day. Then the herald should call the people to form the procession of sex in which children take no part. It should form near the council lodge, the women in front and the men behind, with an interval between the sexes. This procession should march around inside the camp circle four times, the women with song and speech lauding the Earth and the Feminine, while the men in the same manner laud the Sky and the Wind. When this procession returns to the starting place the fourth time, it should disperse, and then the Superior and Mentors should go to the Sacred Lodge, and remind the Candidates that they may drink, but take no food on that day.

AGAIN NO OTHER NUMBER IS MENTIONED OTHER THAN FOUR

FOUR TIMES FOUR WANDS- FOUR ARMS LENGTH FOUR HANDS BREADTH- PERFORMANCES AT INTERVALS OF FOURTHS LIKE ONE FOURTH AND THREE FOURTHS

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They should then go in procession on the Sun Trail to the Dance Lodge and enter it. There the Superior should prepare the Fetish of the Sun Dance, making it of four times four wands of chokecherry wood and enclosing in it a wisp of sage, one of sweetgrass, and a tuft of shed buffalo hair. He may also enclose in it such trinkets or ornaments as the people give for that purpose. When this bundle is securely bound, the Superior, assisted by such Shamans as he may select, should, with the aid of his Fetish and by proper ceremony, impart to it the potency of the Buffalo God so that when it is elevated the Buffalo God will prevail in the camp.

 

Then he should securely bind this Fetish to one fork of the Sacred Pole. When he has done this, he should prepare the banner of the Shamans, making it of some red material that will wave. It should be four arms' length long and four hands' breadth wide, with a wand at one end to keep it spread. This end of the banner should be securely fastened to the fork of the Sacred Pole other than that to which the Fetish is bound. The Fetish and banner should be so securely fastened that they will not be loosened by blows or shooting with arrows.

 

While the Superior is preparing the Fetish and banner, men whose hands are painted red should prepare the Sacred Pole for erection by tying to it thongs with which to pull it erect. Then a heyoka to whom the Winged God has granted a communication should loosely tie to each fork of the Sacred Pole the black images of a man and a buffalo, so that when the pole is erect they will be above the Fetish and the banner, and so that they can be brought down by blows or shooting with arrows.

 

Then at the command of the Superior the men with red hands should lift the Sacred Pole to about one fourth the distance to the perpendicular and pause, holding it there while the herald proclaims that the Sacred Pole is going up. The people should assemble about the Dance Lodge, men and women grouped apart. At the command of the Superior the men with red hands should lift the pole half way to the perpendicular and pause. During this pause those who wish to do so should make offerings to the Earth by placing the articles offered in the hole at the Sacred Spot. When these offerings are made the Superior should again command the red-handed men to lift the pole and they should raise it to about three-fourths of perpendicular and there pause. Then the herald should proclaim that the Gods elevated on the Sacred Pole must prevail in the camp. Then the Superior should command the men to raise the Sacred Pole erect and they should lift and pull it so with its butt in the hole at the Sacred Spot. When the pole

"THE OGLALA REGARD THE FOURTH HOLY DAY ABOVE ALL OTHER DAYS"- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS TRANSCENDENT- DANCE FOUR TIMES AROUND

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ONLY FOUR MENTIONED NO OTHER NUMBER MENTIONED

 

The Oglala regard the fourth holy day above all other days, for it is the mid-year day.

 

The braves should form in line near the chief place of the camp and at a signal run to, and four times around, the Dance Lodge. They should repeat this from the north, east, and south sides of the areas. Then the people should assemble on both sides of the Sun Trail and the Superior and Mentors should go in procession from the council lodge to the Sacred Lodge, each intoning prayers to his Fetish as he marches.

ONLY THE NUMBER FOUR MENTIONED

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GO AROUND FOUR TIMES- FOUR FORMS- FOUR TIMES ALTAR FOURTH TIME PLACE BUFFALO HEAD ON ALTAR

 

When they arrive at the Sacred Lodge they should go around it four times, enter, and array the Candidates for the dance. Each Mentor should paint his candidate's feet and hands red: Then he should place the symbolic color of the Sky on him so as to indicate the form of the dance lie is to do. If lie is to dance the second form, a stripe of blue should be painted across his shoulders; if the third form, across his shoulders and chest; if the fourth form, across his chest and forehead. Then he should paint on the person of the Candidate the design he devised to be the Candidate's totem. Then he should fasten about the Candidate's waist the red skirt, place around his shoulders the otterskin cape, oil his arms the buffalo hair armlets, around his ankles the rabbitskin anklets, and then place such insignia as the Candidate is entitled to wear. He should then place on the Candidate's head, a wreathe of sage and in his, right hand a wisp of sage.

 

When the procession arrives at the Dance Lodge it should pause at the entrance and the Candidates should face the Sun and wail. Then the procession should pass four times around the Dance Lodge, pausing each time it comes to the entrance, and each time the Candidates should wail as before. Then the procession should enter the Dance Lodge and go on the left side to the place of honor. The leader should make three feints at placing the ornamented buffalo head on the altar, and at the fourth, should place it there so that it will face the Sacred Pole. The attendants should place the robes of the Candidates, that of the leader beside the place of honor, and the others toward the entrance on the left covered space.

ONLY NUMBER FOUR MENTIONED- FOUR FORMS- FOUR EQUAL PARTS- FOUR WINDS

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will be harmonized with the potency of the Buffalo God that should prevail during the ceremony. Then the Superior should command the Candidates to stand and be made dancers. They should stand, and the Mentors should each give the whistle to his Candidate and tell him that when he is dancing he must continually sound the whistle and gaze at the Sun. If the Candidate is to dance the fourth form for the purpose of becoming a Shaman, his Mentor should place in his right hand a small hoop that should be bound with thongs so as to divide its enclosure into four equal parts and it may be ornamented in any manner. The Mentor should inform the Candidate in a harangue that the people can hear that this hoop is an emblem of the Sky, of the Four Winds, of time, of all things that grow, and of all things that the Lakota make that are circular; that only those who are renowned are entitled to wear, or place the hoops on their tipis; and that if he dances the Sun Dance to its completion he will be entitled to this insignum.

AGAIN ONLY THE NUMBER FOUR IS MENTIONED AND IT IS CONSTANTLY CONSISTANTLY REPEATED- two is mentioned there is two dances each divided into four periods

BUFFALO DANCE HAS FOUR PERIODS- SUN GAZING DANCE HAS FOUR PERIODS- FOR EACH PERIOD THE SONG IS REPEATED FOUR TIMES- THERE ARE FOUR FORMS OF THE DANCE- BUFFFALO HEAD IS FEIGNED TO BE PUT ON THE ALTAR THREE TIMES BUT FINALLY ON THE FOURTH TIME IT IS PUT ON- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT

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The remaining rites are the dances, of which there must be two, though there may be others. These two are the Buffalo Dance and the Sun-Gazing Dance. These dances are divided into periods. The Buffalo Dance has four periods and the Sun-Gazing Dance must have four and may have an indefinite number of periods. A period consists of the dance proper and the intermission. The (lancing must take place while the music is sounded; an intermission is the interval between the (lancing. The leader should give the signal for the musicians to begin sounding the music for each period and the musicians should repeat the song for each period four times.

 

The Buffalo Dance should be danced only by those who are to dance the second, third, or the fourth form of the Sun Dance and by those who have danced this dance on some former occasion. It is danced as follows:--The leader should go to the altar and feign three times to lift the ornamented buffalo head; the fourth time he should lift it and place it on the uncovered

THE ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED IS FOUR--- THERE ARE FOUR INTERMISSIONS- FOUR ACTS- AND FOUR FORMS OF THE SUN GAZE DANCE- THE ACTS ARE CAPTURE TORTURE CAPTIVITY AND ESCAPE (THE FOURTH IS TRANSCENDENT)- FOUR STRONG THONGS- FOUR POSTS- FOURTH FORM TRANSCENDENT- FOURTH ACT TRANSCENDENT

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When this rite is over, the fourth intermission of the Buffalo Dance is completed and the buffalo men should return to their robes. The Sun-Gaze Dance should immediately follow. There are four acts in this dance: the capture, the torture, the captivity, and the escape, which should be performed in the order named. The leader should give the signal for the beginning of the first act, when the buffalo men should stand, and in rapid succession announce the name of those chosen to be captors. When practicable, the one so chosen should be a buffalo man and be notified in advance so that he may be prepared to do his part. When his name is announced he should stand beside the one who chose him and relate the deeds that make him eligible. Thus, at one time there may be several captors haranguing, creating or augmenting the enthusiasm of the people. When the harangues are over the captors should come together a short distance from the dancers and feign discovery of the dancers as enemies. They should shout the war cry and rush upon the dancers, each grasp his dancer about the waist, wrestle with him, throw him prone, and loudly announce that he has captured an enemy. When all the dancers are thus made captive, their captors should feign to consult together, and determine to torture the captives. This ends the first act.

 

of the captive's breast, draw them out as far as possible, and pierce through the flesh, making a wound that will permit the sharp-pointed stick to pass through it; then be should make a like wound through the flesh of the captive's other breast; then he should turn the captive so that he will be face down and make like wounds on the back over each shoulder blade. If he is to dance the fourth form, the Captor should in like manner make wounds through each of the captive's breasts. When the wounds have been made, the captors should thrust through each wound one of the pointed sticks provided with the equipment and this concludes the second act. During this act, the maidens should stand beside the captives and encourage them to bear the torture without flinching and to smile and sing a song of defiance.

 

The act of captivity opens the Sun-Gaze Dance which begins with the binding of the captives, each according to the form he is to dance. If for the first form, the captor should bind to the sticks through the wounds with strong thongs as many of the buffalo heads provided as the captives chooses; if for the third form, the captor should bind to the sticks thrust through the wounds four strong thongs securely fastened to four posts, so that the dancer will be in the midst of the posts; if for the fourth form, the captor should bind the sticks through the wounds with strong thongs that are securely fastened to the Sacred Pole; or if the dancer is to dance actually suspended, the thongs bound to the sticks should pass through the fork of the Sacred Pole so that the dancer can be drawn from the ground or lowered to it. The thongs should be those provided with the equipment and should be so securely fastened that the most violent movement of the dancers will not loosen them, for if they become loosened while the dancers are dancing it is a sign that Iktomi has played his tricks to make the ceremony ridiculous.

 

When the captives are all bound, the leader should give the signal for the dance to begin and then the dancers who are to dance the first form should come upon the uncovered space and those who are to dance the fourth form actually suspended should be hoisted by the thongs until they cannot touch the ground with their feet. Then the leader should signal the musicians and they should sing the first song. The dancers should dance during the first period with a slow and gentle step, the captives, except those suspended, feigning to try their bonds. The female relatives may wail and ululate and the people may shout and encourage them to attempt an escape.

 

At the signal of the leader to begin the second period, the attendants should place the buffalo tails in the hands of the captives, and the captors should feign to discover that the captives are buffalo men whom they should befriend. Then they should rush to the captives and protest that they are friends who will help them to escape from captivity. After this they are called the friends and each should remain by his dancer while he dances and should give him such aid to free him from his bonds as the rite will permit. At the signal of the leader the musicians should begin the second song and the dancers should dance as they did during the first period, but more vigorously. But they should not attempt to free themselves from their bonds until during, or after, the fourth period. The music and dancing should increase in vigor with each period and the enthusiasm of the people will probably increase in proportion until it becomes tumultuous.

 

The third period should be similar to the second, and the fourth similar to the third, except that while dancing during the fourth period the dancers should pull and jerk violently against their bonds and try to tear themselves free. During each of the following periods, the dancing should be similar to that during the fourth period. During each intermission, the attendants, the maidens, and the female attendants should minister to the comfort of the dancers. A dancer should dance during each period until he escapes

AGAIN ONLY FOUR IS MENTIONED- WHEN THE SONG IS SUNG FOUR TIMES IT IS FINISHED

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During any period anyone who has danced the Sun Dance to its completion may cause blood to flow from a wound on his person, lay a suitable offering to the Sun on the altar and join the dancers, dancing the first form for as many periods as he wishes. Anyone may join the singing of the songs by the musicians. During the intermission the Superior may permit haranguing, or the performance of anything not inconsistent with the Sun Dance. During the fourth intermission the Scalp-Staff dance should be given in the following manner:--Only tried warriors should dance this dance and it should be conducted by one who carries a scalp-staff.

 

When the song is sung four times this dance is finished.

ONLY FOUR MENTIONED

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MOVE PIPE IN CIRCLE FOUR TIMES FOUR DIRECTIONS- FOUR WINDS- FOUR MEN- GO INTO TIPI- THE FOUR AGREED THAT TWO OF THEM SHOULD HAVE THE WAND AND TWO OF THEM SHOULD HAVE THE RATTLE

 

After the feast , they sat in a tipi around a fire of burning coals and the older man, being a Shaman, filled and lighted a pipe in a formal manner, moving it in circles four times over the fire and said, "Spirit Pipe we smoke this pipe to you. Let your power come to it so that the spirit in the smoke may go to the Taku Wakan." First he, and then the others, smoked in communion, each before smoking, moving the pipe in a circle four times over the fire, and invoking one or another of the Four Winds to grant a good day for the Hunka ceremony. Then the Shaman moved the mouthpiece in a circle, first pointing towards the west, then the north, east, south, and back towards the west again, and then upwards, said, "Tate, we offered smoke to your sons. Command them to give us a good day for the Hunka ceremony." The four then agreed upon the time and place for the performance of the ceremony and chose an old Shaman to conduct it.

 

A short time after this, the four went to the tipi of the old Shaman and there agreed upon the following organization for the ceremony. The old Shaman, by virtue of their choice, became the Walowan, or Conductor. He appointed a Wowasi, or Assistant, a Patapaowa, or Register, and the four agreed upon two men to have charge of the wands, two to have charge of the rattles, one to have charge of the ear of corn, and a drummer. They discussed as to whom invitation wands should be sent and such other matters relative to the ceremony as occurred to them. Soon thereafter the younger man sent invitation wands to such as were to be considered honored guests. All who wished might attend such ceremonies and would be welcomed, but only such as had received wands would be considered invited guests. In this case, the older man had little means, so the younger man

THE PROCESSION GOES FOUR TIME- SING SONG FOUR TIMES

ONLY THE NUMBER FOUR IS MENTIONED

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When the procession began, the younger man and his two friends entered the preparation tipi, pulling down and tying the flap. When the procession bad gone the fourth time around the circle, the Conductor said, "My friends, we have gone around the world. Yata has closed the door on Wakinyan. Iktomi has gone to the home of Iya. Tatanka is in the lodge." This speech was a metaphor meaning that by the formal march in every direction immunity from lightning was secured; Iktomi, the imp of mischief and disturber of ceremonies, was driven away; and the Buffalo, the patron God of Ceremonies, prevailed in the camp. The Conductor then went to the preparation tipi and said, "The enemy is in this tipi. Who will help me take him?" The older man who was to be made Hunka said, "I will."

 

He repeated this song four times. Like all the ceremonial songs of the shamans, this is figurative. It is explained as follows: To the Lakota, the meadow lark is the symbol of fidelity, just as among English-speaking people the dove is the symbol of peace. By claiming relationship to the lark the Shaman claimed power to influence for fidelity. By saying, "A voice is in the air," he implied that the influence for fidelity pervaded the camp. Such vague and indefinite expressions were common among the Lakota and though they are difficult of interpretation, they were comprehended by them.

THE ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED IS THE NUMBER FOUR- THE SACRED BROTHERS ARE THE FOUR BROTHERS AND THE FOUR WINDS

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The Conductor reëntered the lodge and sitting at the catku sang this song:

 

"Kindred sacred are coming,

They come toward me.

 

Kindred sacred are coming,

They come from the west."

 

An interpretation of this song is that the influences of the relationship of Hunkaya were coming to the Shaman from the west. The doctrine is that quite all that are sacred come from the west. As he sang, most of the people resumed the places they had occupied during the preceding rites and then the Conductor filled and lighted the ceremonial pipe as before and the Assistant made incense of sweetgrass. When he had smoked and emptied the pipe the Conductor said, "The smoke of the pipe goes to our sacred brothers and they will carry it to the Buffalo God who will be pleased with the odor of the sweetgrass." The sacred brothers here spoken of are the Four Brothers, the Four Winds, who are the messengers of the Gods.

THE ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED IS THE NUMBER FOUR- THE SACRED BROTHERS ARE THE FOUR BROTHERS AND THE FOUR WINDS

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The Conductor reëntered the lodge and sitting at the catku sang this song:

 

"Kindred sacred are coming,

They come toward me.

 

Kindred sacred are coming,

They come from the west."

 

An interpretation of this song is that the influences of the relationship of Hunkaya were coming to the Shaman from the west. The doctrine is that quite all that are sacred come from the west. As he sang, most of the people resumed the places they had occupied during the preceding rites and then the Conductor filled and lighted the ceremonial pipe as before and the Assistant made incense of sweetgrass. When he had smoked and emptied the pipe the Conductor said, "The smoke of the pipe goes to our sacred brothers and they will carry it to the Buffalo God who will be pleased with the odor of the sweetgrass." The sacred brothers here spoken of are the Four Brothers, the Four Winds, who are the messengers of the Gods.

AGAIN ONLY FOUR IS MENTIONED- IT SAYS THERE IS MANY OF THESE BEINGS BUT ALL ARE FOUR KINDS- NO OTHER NUMBERS MENTIONED

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Wakan comes from the wakan beings. These wakan beings are greater than mankind in the same way that mankind is greater than animals. They are never born and never die. They can do many things that mankind cannot do. Mankind can pray to the wakan beings for help. There are many of these beings but all are of four kinds. The word Wakan Tanka means all of the wakan beings because they are all as if one. Wakan Tanka Kin signifies the chief or leading Wakan being which is the Sun. However, the most powerful of the Wakan beings is Nagi Tanka, the Great Spirit who is also Taku Skanskan; Taku Skanskan signifies the Blue, in other words, the Sky.

16 SQUARES QMR- NO OTHER NUMBER IS MENTIONED IN THE OGLALA MYTHS AND RITUALS BUT FOUR REALLY PRETTY MUCH

THE OGLALA HAVE A "SECRET OF THE SHAMANS" WHICH IS THAT TOBTOB KIN (THE GODS OF THE OGLALA THERE ARE FOUR TIMES FOUR GODS (THAT IS SIXTEEN GODS)- TOB KIN IS ONLY THE FOUR WINDS- THEN THE SHAMANS MENTION THE 16 GODS

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I DESCRIBED HOW THE SHAMAN OF THE ALLEGEWI SAID THERE IS 16 GODS IN THE UPPER WORLD AND 16 IN THE LOWER WORLD AND HE DIVIDED EVERYTHING IN QUADRANTS IF YOU LOOK AT THE BOOK THERE IS PAGES OF HIS QUADRANTS

 

THE

 

When Wakan Tanka wishes one of mankind to do something he makes his wishes known either in a vision or through a shaman.. . . The shaman addresses Wakan Tanka as Tobtob Kin. This is part of the secret language of the shamans.. . . . Tobtob Kin are four times four gods while Tob Kin is only the four winds. The four winds is a god and is the akicita or messenger of all the other gods. The four times four are: Wikan and Hanwikan; Taku Skanskan and Tatekan and Tob Kin and Yumnikan; Makakan and Wohpe; Inyankan and Wakinyan; Tatankakan; Hunonpakan; Wanagi; Waniya; Nagila; and Wasicunpi. These are the names of the good Gods as they are known to the people.

AGAIN ONLY MENTION FOUR- NO OTHER NUMBERS MENTIONED- FOUR QUARTERS FOUR WINDS

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"Friend of Wakinyan, I pass the pipe to you first. Circling I pass to you who dwell with the Father. Circling pass to beginning day. Circling pass to the beautiful one. Circling I complete the four quarters and the time. I pass the pipe to the Father with the Sky. I smoke with the Great Spirit. Let us have a blue day."

 

The Four Winds are the akicita or messengers of the gods and in all ceremonies they have precedence over all other gods and for this reason should be the first addressed.

 

When the offering has been made to the South Wind the Shaman should move the pipe in the same manner until the mouthpiece again points toward the west, and say, "Circling I complete the four quarters and the time." He should do this because the Four Winds are the four quarters of the circle and mankind knows not where they may be or whence they may come and the pipe should be offered directly toward them. The four quarters embrace all that are on the world and all that are in the sky. Therefore, by circling the pipe, the offering is made to all the gods. The circle is the symbol of time, for the daytime, the night time, and the moon time are circles above the world, and the year time is a circle around the border of the world. Therefore, the lighted pipe moved in a complete circle is an offering to all the times.

 

When the Shaman has completed the four quarters and the time he should point the mouthpiece of the pipe toward the sky and say, "I pass the pipe to the father with the sky." This is an offering to the Wind, for when the Four Winds left the lodge of their father, the Wind, he went from it. and dwells with the sky. He controls the seasons and the weather, and he should he propitiated when good weather is desired,

THERE IS ACTUALLY A CHAPTER CALLED "THE NUMBER FOUR"

 

THE NUMBER FOUR.- IT SAYS- "THE LAKOTA GROUPED ALL OF THIER ACTIVITIES BY FOURS---- FOUR DIRECITIONS FOUR DIVISIOSN OF TIME- FOUR PARTS TO EVERYTHING THAT GROWS- FOUR KINDS OF THINGS THAT BREATHE- FOUR THINGS ABOVE THE WORLD FOUR PERIODS OF HUMAN LIFE- FOUR FINGERS ON EACH HAND FOUR TOES ON EACH FOOT AND THE THUMBS AND THE GREAT TOES OF EACH TAKEN TOGETHER ARE FOUR--- "SINCE THE GREAT SPIRIT CAUSED EVERYTHING TO BE IN FOURS, MANKIND SHOULD DO EVERYTHING POSSIBLE IN FOURS"

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(By Tyon.)

 

In former times the Lakota grouped all their activities by four's. This was because they recognized four directions: the west, the north, the east, and the south; four divisions of time: the day, the night, the moon, and the year; four parts to everything that grows from the ground: the roots, the stem, the leaves, and the fruit; four kinds of things that breathe: those that crawl, those that fly, those that

 

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walk on four legs, and those that walk on two legs; four things above the world: the sun, the moon, the sky, and the stars; four kinds of gods: the great, the associates of the great, the gods below them, and the spirit kind; four periods of human life: babyhood, childhood, adulthood, and old age; and finally, mankind had four fingers on each hand, four toes on each foot, and the thumbs and the great toes of each taken together are four. Since the Great Spirit caused everything to be in four's, mankind should do everything possible in four's.

AGAIN ONLY FOUR IS MENTIONED--- THE FOUR WINDS- FOUR PARTS OF CIRCLE FOUR COLORS

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It is also the symbol of the circle that marks the edge of the world and therefore of the four winds that travel there. Consequently, it is also the symbol of a year. The day, the night, and the moon go in a circle above the sky. Therefore the circle is a symbol of these divisions of time and hence the symbol of all time.

 

For these reasons the Oglala make their tipis circular, their camp circle circular, and sit in a circle in all ceremonies. The circle is also the symbol of the tipi and of shelter. If one makes a circle for an ornament and it is not divided in any way, it should be understood as the symbol of the world and of time. If, however, the circle be filled with red, it is the symbol of the sun; if filled with blue, it is the symbol of the sky. If the circle is divided into four parts, it is the symbol of the four winds; if it is divided into more than four parts, it is the symbol of a vision of some kind. If a half circle is filled with red it represents a day; filled with black, the night; filled with yellow, a moon or month. On the other hand, if a half circle is filled with many colors, it symbolizes a rainbow.

 

One may paint or otherwise represent a circle on his tipi or his shield or his robe The mouth of a pipe should always be moved about in a circle before the pipe is formally smoked.

AGAIN FOUR THE ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED- NO OTHER NUMBER IS MENTIONED

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GAVE BIRTH TO FOUR SONS AT ONE TIME- FOUR PERIODS OF TIME

 

Wazi was chief of the people who dwell under the world, and his woman, Kanka, was a seer. Their daughter, Ite, the wife of Tate, was the most beautiful of women. She gave birth -to four sons at one time which proved these children to be gods. Yet Wazi was not content, for he wished to have powers like a god. Iktomi knew this and he schemed to have Wazi play his pranks. He told Wazi that he should have the powers he wished for if he would help make others ridiculous. Wazi was afraid, but he told Kanka what Iktomi had said. She said that if they had the power of the gods no one could take it from them and then they could laugh at Iktomi. Iktomi, lurking near, heard her say this and smiled.

 

Then Tate blackened his face and with his four sons sat before Skan. Skan called him his comrade and asked him what he wished. Tate told Skan to look upon his f ace and the faces of his little children that were blackened because their mother was taken from them forever. He said Ite was but a woman and that others stronger than she had caused her to forget the woman's place, that though his sons were gods, they were little children and wept for their mother's care. He begged Skan to let him bear the punishment of Ite and let her remain with her children.

 

Skan told Tate that because of his love for Anog Ite he could dwell near her until the fourth period of time and then he could do with the woman as he wished, that he could send a token to Tate and then Tate would send four sons to establish the directions on the world and they would make the fourth period of time.

FOUR ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED IN LAKOTA MYTHS- FOUR BROTHERS- FOUR BEDS FOUR PERIODS- FOUR DAYS FOUR TIMES

 

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FOUR SONS

 

 

Before the directions were given to the world Tate with his four sons and his little son dwelt in his round lodge beyond the region of the pines. At midday the sun looked through the door of the lodge toward the place of honor to see that all was well with Tate. The seat of Tate was the place of honor and that of his oldest son, Yata, was beside him. The seat of the second-born son, Eya, was at the right side of the lodge, and that of the third-born son, Yanpa, was at the left side, while that of the youngest son, Okaga, was beside the door. His little son, Yum, had no birth; therefore, he had no seat in the lodge, but sat where he chose.

 

Tate did the woman's work in the lodge. Each morning his four sons set out to travel over the world. Sometimes Yum traveled with Okaga. One time when all the sons were away something shining fell near the lodge and Tate went to look at it. It was a woman wearing a soft white dress. She carried a queer pouch that was marked with strange symbols. He asked her whence she came and she said she came from the stars. He asked her whither she would go. She replied that her father had sent her to find friends on the earth. He asked who was her father; she said that the sky was her father. Then Tate told her to come with him to live in his lodge. He bade her tell his sons nothing of who she was or whence she came. He gave her the woman's seat in the lodge. When he began to make a robe of tanned skin she said she would do the woman's work in the lodge, so he gave her the skin.

 

When the four brothers were seated, all silently gazed at the ground though Yum continued to gaze at the woman's eyes. Tate gazed at the fire and smiled as if something pleased him.

 

When it was time to lie down to sleep the four brothers went out of the lodge and found a new tipi near by. They lifted the door flap and inside they saw four beds, one at the place of honor, one on the right, and one on the left side, and one near the door. Yata said it must be the witch. Eya said the witch had treated them well. Yanpa said he wished the witch would always prepare their food. Then the three brothers went inside the tipi. Each lay down on his bed to sleep, but Okaga sat beside the water, and played on his flute. The music was as soft as a whisper, but the woman heard it, and she smiled. Yum asked her why she smiled and she said because he was always to be her little brother. Far into the night, Okaga sat by the water and gazed at the stars.

 

In the morning Okaga rose early as was his wont, to bring wood and water for his father, but when he came to the door of the lodge he found much wood and the water bag was full. The fire burned with hot stones in it and the cooking bag had food in it. The woman was astir but she did not look at Okaga. The father called his sons and all came and each sat in his place. The woman served them with food and it was good. When all had eaten the father told his sons that the time appointed by the Great Spirit was completed and now there would be the fourth period of time. First, he told them, they must fix the directions on the world, but when they returned to his lodge it would be the fourth period; that since they were four brothers they should fix a direction for each of them, and thus there would be four directions; that they should go to the trail around on the edge of the world and travel together until they came to the place for each direction, and there they should pile a great heap of stones to mark the direction forever. He said Yata was the oldest son and entitled to the first direction which must be where the shadows are longest at midday. The direction for Eya must be where the sun goes over the mountain and down under the world when his day's journey is done. The direction for Yanpa must be Where the sun comes up by the edge of the world to begin his daily journey. The direction for Okaga must be under the sun at midday. He told them that the journey must be long, that it would be some moons before they returned to his lodge, and that there would be as many moons in the fourth time as had passed from the time they left the lodge until their return. He told them to prepare for four days and start on their journey on the fifth day.

 

For four days they prepared; on the morning of the fifth they went from their father's lodge. When they had gone, Tate mourned for them as for the dead, for he knew they would abide in his lodge no more.

FOUR IS THE ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED IN LAKOTA MYTHS THEY SAY ACCORDING TO THE ARTICLE "THE GREAT SPIRIT ORGANIZED EVERYTHING IN FOURS SO THEY TRY TO DO EVEYRTHING IN FOURS"

FOUR WINDS FOUR DIRECTIONS- FOUR BROTHERS THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT- FOUR ROWS OF SHARP TEETH- FOUR JOINTED WINGS

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The Four Winds fixed the four directions on the world. They were told to fix the direction of the North Wind first, but Wazi deceived them so that they came first to the place of the West Wind and fixed that first. Thus the West Wind is the first in all things. When they came near the edge of the world, they were at the base of a high mountain and Wazi told them to go over the mountain the next day.

 

As Okaga cautiously approached the lodge, a voice bellowed to him and asked who it was that dared approach the lodge of the Winged God. He replied that the Great Spirit had sent him and his three brothers, the Four Winds, to fix the four directions on the world, and that his name was Okaga, the South Wind. The voice told him to pass on and do his work. Then the South Wind called to his brothers to come. He passed on over and down the mountain. When the three brothers reached the top of the mountain, they hesitated, but a voice in the lodge bellowed at

 

In the beak were four rows of sharp teeth like those of a wolf. It had an eye and its glance was the lightning. Its voice was the thunder. It had four-jointed wings.

AGAIN FOUR IS THE ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED IN LAKOTA MYTHS- SO FAR I HAVE SEEN FIVE MENTIONED ABOUT ONCE IN ALL OF THE MYTHS PRETTY MUCH NO THREES NO SEVENS ONLY FOUR- FOUR IS DOMINANT

 

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THE FOUR WAKAN TANKA

When Wohpe came to stay with Tate he gave a feast to Taku Wakan. He consulted with his sons as to whom he should invite. They first chose the Wakan Tanka. Wi was the first chosen because be was Wakan Tanka. Hanwi, his wife, was the second chosen because she was Wakan Tanks. Wakan-skan was the third chosen because he was Wakan Tanks. Inyan was the fourth because he was Wakan Tanks. These four were chosen because they were Wakan Tanka.

 

These four, with Tate, were the chiefs of Taku Wakan and formed the council. They made the rules by which all things should be governed. Then others were invited: the Unktehi who are the Wakan of the waters, the Unkhcegila who are the Wakan of the lands, the Wakinyan who are the Wakan of the air; the Tunkan who is the Wakan of the rocks, the Tatanka who is the Wakan of the buffalo; the Can Oti who are the Wakan of the forests; the Hohnogica who are the Wakans of the tipis; the Nagi because they are the Wakan of the shadows. These Tate told his sons to invite.

THE ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED IN LAKOTA MYTHS IS FOUR- LAKOTA SAY ACCORDING TO THIS THAT "GOD ORGANIZED EVERYTHING IN FOURS'"

FIVE IS MENTIONED ONCE IN THIS MYTH- FOUR MANY TIMES- NO OTHER NUMBERS- FOUR CHERRY BUSHES- FOUR SISTERS FOUR FLAP DOORS- CHOSE FOUR OF THE BEST OF THEM- FOUR ARROWS FOUR LARGE BIRDS- FOUR ARROWS FOUR COLORS - FOUR OLD BUFFALO FOUR OLD MEN

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He then got four long willow withes and trimmed them so that they were like spears.

 

The father said that he would go after them. So he put on his leggings and moccasins and quiver and was ready to go when his yellow-haired wife told him to go with her to the timber. When they got to the timber, she cut four cherry bushes and trimmed them so that they were slender and straight. She then told him to ask his father for the crow quills and sinews and white paint he had. He did so and his father gave them to him. She then made arrows of the cherry wood and fastened the web from the crow quills to the arrows with the sinews, and painted them white with the paint and gave them to her husband and told him that whatever he shot with the arrows, they would kill.

 

When the cow and the calf were again transformed, the woman put a robe over her head, for she was ashamed, but the boy came to his father and told him that the woman had said he would follow them into the mud and die there. Then the boy told his father that they were nearly at the place that his mother had started for, and that he should follow them; that his mother had three sisters that were exactly like her so that no one could tell the one from the other; that his mother's mother was a very wicked old woman and would try to find some excuse for killing him; that when they got to his grandmother's place she would send the four sisters to come to her tipi with him, and if he should come with one that was not his woman, the old woman would kill him; and that he would come out of the tipi and play about when his mother was sent to bring him in. The boy said that if he came to the tipi, the old woman would tell him to lay his bow and arrows on his woman's things and if he should lay them on the things of one of the women who was not his, the old woman would kill him; and that he would play with his mother's things so that he would know which were hers. Then he said the old woman would tell him to sit with his woman and he would stick a straw in the hair of his mother so that he might know which was she, for if he sat with one who was not his woman the old woman would kill him.

 

That night they slept together. The next morning the boy and his mother went ahead and the man followed a long distance behind. He came to the top of a hill and saw a valley with a great camp in it and all the people were buffaloes. In the center of the camp wag a lodge with four flap doors. He saw his woman go in at one of these doors. So he sat on the hill to watch and an ugly old woman came out of the lodge with a woman who looked like his woman. The old woman was scolding the other, and told her to go and bring her man to the lodge and give him something to eat. So the woman came to him and told him her mother was cross because she had not brought him to the tipi and asked him to come with her and get something to eat. He did not see his boy playing so he told the woman to go back and he would come.

 

Then the old woman was afraid and told him to take the bushes out of the lodge because they would cause her death if they were kept there. He took them out of the lodge and told his boy to choose four of the best of them. When he did so he made four arrows and gave them to his boy and told him to hang them in the lodge, which he did. At daybreak, the next morning, the old woman was raging and

 

In the nests he saw four large birds, fully plumaged, which he killed with the white arrows and threw down to the ground. Then the whirlwind lifted him by the plume and placed him on the ground. When he got to the ground, he saw a small cloud coming up very fast. It grew and came quickly so that it covered the sky and made it dark and the lightning flashed and thunder sounded so that it shook the earth. Then the wind blew hard and large hailstones fell and he got under one of the nests for shelter. Then he heard a voice which said, "You are hiding under the love of children. Come out of this shelter or you will be killed." But he stayed under the shelter and was not killed. Then the storm passed and the plume took him to the ground. When he got to the ground, the hail was very deep and piled in great drifts. The wind and hail had destroyed the trees and brush and many tipis at the camp of the buffalo.

 

The mysterious buffalo started for the place where the game was being played; he bellowed loud and long and threw up clouds of dust and dirt so that all the buffaloes were afraid and ran away but the man did not run. The old woman asked the man to protect them. Then the mysterious buffalo charged upon the man and just as he was about to toss the man with his horns, the plume lifted the man out of danger. He shot a white arrow which went through the mysterious buffalo's body from side to side. The buffalo charged him again and the plume lifted him above all danger. He shot another white arrow which went through the buffalo's body from end to end. The buffalo charged him again and the plume lifted him out of danger. He shot the buffalo with another white arrow which went through the body from side to side. Then the buffalo was weak and staggering and the old woman cried out that the man would kill the buffalo, and called the other buffaloes to help the mysterious buffalo, but they would not. Then the buffalo charged the man again. He was lifted out of danger by the plume and shot the buffalo with a fourth white arrow which went through the body from end to end and the buffalo fell down and died.

 

Then the boy said to the man, "You have killed my grandfather and I will kill my grandmother." So he took the four arrows which his father had made from the mysterious cherry wood and feathered with the feathers of the Thunderbirds and shot them into his grandmother. The old woman fell down and died.

 

He chose four old buffaloes, like four old men, with canes, who had a large progeny. They agreed to take their progeny east for the benefit of the people. (This was the coming of the buffalo). He said, "These four will travel the trails for the water that is red (chokecherries mixed with water), for the pipe, for the eagle plume, and for the red tanned skins for clothing." (The origin of the buffalo ceremony.) Men will do this in the future to commemorate what you have done. These old buffalo were to travel in the early morning in the mist of their breath. At each creek where they camped for the night, the cows would drop milk where they nourished their calves and this would be nourishment for children. The man said, "How," and all the buffalo people said, "How."

FOUR ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED AND IT IS CONTINUOUSLY CONSTANTLY MENTIONED- IT KEEPS REPEATING THE FOUR BROTHERS- FOUR MAIDENS- FOUR YOUNG WOMEN- FOUR MEN

 

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The Four Brothers lived together without any woman, so they did the woman's work. One time as the oldest was gathering wood, after nightfall, something ran into his big toe. This pained him but little and he soon forgot it, but his toe began to swell and was soon as big as his head. Then he cut it open and found something

 

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in it. He did not know what it was, but his brothers washed it and found that it was a little girl baby.

 

The Four Brothers kept the baby and gave it good food and fine clothes so that it grew to be a beautiful young woman. She could do a woman's work well and quickly and never allowed anyone to leave their tipi cold or hungry. She could dress skins so that they were white and soft and from them make good clothing, upon which she put beautiful ornaments and each ornament meant something.

 

Many young men tried to induce her to live with them, but she would not leave the Four Brothers. They told her that they would always keep her as their sister and they did everything to please her. The oldest Brother said, "I will go and hunt deer so that our sister may have the skins to make clothing for herself." He went away and did not return. Then the next oldest Brother said, "I will go and hunt buffalo so that our sister may have the skins to make robes for herself." He went away and did not return. Then the next youngest brother said, "I win go and hunt elk so that our sister may have meat for herself." He too went away and did not return. Then the youngest brother said, "Sister, our Brothers have gone away and have not returned. I will go and find them." So he went away and did not return.

 

When the youngest Brother had been gone one moon, the young woman went to the top of a high hill to mourn, and to seek a vision. While she was mourning she saw a pebble which she looked at for a long time, for it was very smooth and white and then she put it in her mouth to keep from being thirsty. She fell asleep with the pebble in her mouth and swallowed it. While she slept the vision came to her in the form of the great beast, which told her that the Four Brothers were kept by a stone and that a stone would find them and bring them back to her.

 

She told this vision to a Shaman and asked him to tell her what it meant. The shaman told her to marry and name her son The Stone. But she would not live with any man for she remembered how good and kind the Four Brothers were, and she wished to live for them only.

 

Soon she grew big with child and gave birth to a boy baby. The flesh of this baby was as hard as stone and she knew that it was mysterious (Wakan) and came from the pebble she had swallowed. She went far away and lived alone with her son. She taught him all the games and songs and all about roots and plants and animals and birds, so that he was cunning and wise. She gave him fine clothes and good food so that he grew up strong and brave though his flesh was as hard as stone. She would not allow him to hunt or join a war party for she was afraid he would go away and never return like the Four Brothers.

 

Each moon she went to the top of a hill to mourn. When her son had grown to be a man he asked her why she went to mourn each moon and she said to him, "My son, you are now a man, and I will tell you why I mourn." So she told him the story of the Four Brothers, of her coming to them, of how they went away and did not return, of his own birth, and the vision of the great beast.

 

She made a great feast and invited a wise Shaman, a wise old woman, a great brave, a great hunter, and four maidens as the chief guests, and all the people as common guests. She placed the people as they belonged according to the bands with her son among the chief guests. When all were satisfied with eating she stood before the people and told the story of the Four Brothers; of her coming to them, of their going, of her vision, and of the birth and life of her son. She then told them to examine her son that they might know that he was mysterious (Wakan). The people all examined the young man and when they found that his flesh was hard like stone they said he was indeed mysterious and that he was the Stone Boy. She then told them that her son was to go in quest of the Four Brothers and she had prepared this feast that the people might have a good heart towards him and she had invited the chief guests so that they would help her to prepare her son with magic for his quest.

 

The chief guests agreed to do what she should ask of them. The Shaman gave the Stone Boy a charm (Pajuta-wakan-rea) that would keep all harm from him. The old woman gave him a robe on which she had painted a dream which made the robe magical and made anyone who wore it invisible. The warrior gave him a magical spear that would pierce anything, a magical shield that would ward off anything, and a magical club that would break anything. The hunter showed him how to find anything he wanted. His mother made his clothes of good deerskins and the young women put ornaments on them. While ornamenting his clothing, they sang love songs and the Shaman conjured the ornaments, (Ca hina Wakan kaga) so that they were magical. On the sides of his moccasins they put mountains so that he could step from hill to hill without touching the valleys; on the tops they put dragon flies so that he could escape all danger; on his leggings they put wolf tracks so that he would never grow weary; on his shirt they put the tipi circle so that he would find shelter everywhere.

 

He stood before the people, clothed in his magical garments, his shield on his back and his spear and club in his hands. His face was towards the rising sun. Before him was his mother, on one side the Shaman, warrior, and hunter, and on the other, the old woman and the four young women. He said to his mother, "I will bring the Four Brothers back to you." To the young women, "When I return I will take you four as my women." To the men, "What you have taught me I will use to release the Four Brothers." Then turning his face towards the setting sun he said to the old woman, "I go."

 

Then the old woman threw the robe about him and he was seen no more, but there was a wind as if the thunderbird flew towards the setting sun. His mother fell on her face as one dead, but the people heard a voice high in the air, clear and loud like the voices of the cranes when they fly towards the region of the pines, and this is what it said, "A stone shall free the Four Brothers."

 

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When the Stone Boy went from the people he stepped from hill to hill more swiftly than the stars (meteors) fall at night. From each hill he looked carefully into the valley so that he saw all there was in every valley, but he saw nothing of the Four Brothers until he came to the high hills far towards the setting sun.

 

In the valley there was much game of every kind and in one of them he found a stone knife that he knew belonged to the oldest Brother. In another valley he found a stone arrow-head that he knew belonged to the next to the oldest Brother. In a third, he found a stone ax that he knew belonged to the next to the youngest Brother, and in a fourth he found a stone bone breaker that he knew belonged to the youngest Brother. Then he knew he was on the right road to find the Brothers, and looked carefully into each valley.

 

"We often heard of the four men who lived alone and did a woman's work and who never did evil to anyone, so that I could not torment them. But they would not hunt or go on the warpath and we thought they would never come within our power. So I determined to get a woman into their tipi that they might do some evil but I could not get an ordinary woman among them. Then I tried to break off a branch from my daughter, the snake tree, and put it into their tipi, but the branches would not break and the only way I could get a part of my daughter was by digging out a part of the heart of the tree. This I did and placed it near the tipi of the four men so that when one of them went to get wood he would step on it and stick it into his toe. These men were so good that when they cared for this child it grew up a good woman as they were men, but I waited patiently for when she grew to be a woman I knew they would not live as they had before. When she was a woman they came to hunt for her and the bear enticed them and they were caught and flattened and are now tormented on my tipi poles.

 

Then the Stone Boy told them the story of the four men, of the birth of his mother and how the four men went away and never came back. Then the men said, "We are those four men." The Stone Boy knew that they were his mother's brothers so he told them the story of his own birth and they said, "We believe you, because we know of the birth of your mother." Then he told them of his preparations to come for them, of his coming and his fight with the bear, the coyote, the stone, and the snake tree, and how he was master of Iya. They said, "We believe you because the bear did entice us and the coyote did jump up and down and the snake did bite us and the stone did roll over us and make us flat like skins and the old woman did spread us on her tipi and we were in torment."

FOUR MOCCASINS- FOUR PIECES- FOUR ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED IN MYTH

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The young man went westward; the weather was warm and there was no snow. He saw another young man going westward and soon overtook him. This young man asked him where he was going and why he traveled so fast. The young man did not answer and continued to travel. The stranger traveled with him and as fast as he did, asking many questions, but the young man would not speak. Then the stranger said he could tell how the young man could travel still faster. When the young man asked how that could be done, he said that his two moccasin soles made him travel fast, but that if he had four moccasin soles he would travel twice as fast. The young man asked how he could have four moccasin soles, and the stranger said

 

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it was easy to make four moccasin soles from the two, for if the two soles were cut into halves, there would be four moccasins. The young man cut across his moccasin soles and made four pieces of them; but when he put his moccasins on, the soles would not spring, and he could travel no faster than he could before he had the magical moccasins. Then the stranger laughed loudly and long. When the young man asked him who he was, he said he was Iktomi, and that when the people told about the young man who went to get meat for the children they would laugh because he cut the soles of his moccasins.

LAKOTA MYTHS FOUR IS THE ONLY NUMBER THEY MENTION

IT STARTS OFF WITH THREE MEN BUT THEN THEY COME ACROSS A FOURTH AND THE FOURTH JOINS MAKING FOUR MEN- THE FOURTH IS ALWAYS DIFFERENT- FOUR FRIENDS

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So the three traveled together. Soon they came to a man who was throwing

 

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dust and sand into the air and blowing on it so that it whirled about. They asked him why he did this and he told them that he was a magician who could control the winds and he did this to cool the earth. While they talked with him, they told him that they were going on a visit and asked if he would go with them and he agreed to do so. They asked what his name was and he told them he was called West Wind.

 

As these four men traveled together they agreed to go to the camp where the old woman lived who could run so fast and do such strange things, for they knew that she was a witch. When they got there, they found the people outside the camp watching the witch performing her antics. She would run very swiftly and then jump high in the air and prance about in a ludicrous manner and she twitted the men and dared them to run against her.

 

The next morning four men came to the Chief and his friends and told them that the old woman was a witch and advised them not to contest against her for she might do some harm to them. But the Runner said he would run and risk her harming him.

 

Then all the people went out to see the race. When they came there, the four friends saw that it was Waziya who was to ran and they feared some trick. Waziya was fat and wheezed when he breathed and he was clothed in a thick robe made of down of birds. They agreed to go to the hills and run from there to the people. They started from the hills and ran side by side. Soon the Witch saw that Waziya was too fat to run so she pulled off his robe of down and threw it in front of West Wind intending to trip him, but he stepped on it and it disappeared. They ran on till they came near the people so that Waziya's breath was cold on them, but he got out of breath before he came to them. West Wind ran up to them and then ran on and back to them and said, "I have beaten the North Wind and I will always do so."

THREE IS MENTIONED ONCE- FIVE IS MENTIONED ONCE- FOUR IS MENTIONED MANY TIMES- THIS IS THE SAME FOR HOLY TEXTS EVERYWHERE IN THE WORLD- FOUR PEYOTE- FOUR DIRECTIONS- FOUR SONGS- FOUR SONGS FOUR THINGS ARE BROUGHT ABOUT FOUR KINDS OF FOOD- FOUR HELPERS

 

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After they have eaten these he passes four peyote in turn to those on his left until the peyote comes to the one sitting nearest the door. Four peyote are given to the one nearest the door that he, in turn, may pass them to those on the other side of the door and so on until the leader is reached again. Before the peyote is eaten, the leader gets up and talks. He instructs the people as to the nature of the meeting and tells them that those who wish to go out must do so after the midnight water is drunk and not until after the leader returns from outside. No one is to go out while anyone is singing, praying, or eating peyote. He then speaks of the special prayers that are to be offered up and asks them to offer general prayers for all nonmembers and even for their enemies. After that the leader again offers up a prayer and smokes all the objects he had spread before his seat. Then the songs are to start, all, however, first eating peyote.

 

The purpose of going to the four directions and blowing the flute is to announce the birth of Christ to all the world.

 

When the leader has finished his four songs, he lays down his staff, etc., and, taking some cedar needles, offers up a prayer of thanks, and as he finishes he throws the cedar into the fire and sits down while the woman gathers the smoke toward her in the same way as the fireman had done on the previous night. Then the leader takes a drinking cup and sends it toward the woman. The

 

Finally the leader takes his singing staff and sings four songs. When these songs are finished, the woman places some food just outside the door. The fireman goes outside and brings in this food, placing it in a line between the fire and the door. Four things are brought in—water, corn with sweetened water, fruit, and meat. When the food is brought in the leader puts away all the objects he had spread out before him, which the fireman takes out of the lodge. The leader then offers up a prayer of thanks and says grace. The four kinds of food are passed around the lodge, beginning with the entrance, from left to right. After they are returned they are placed in line again, only in the reverse order from that used before. The fireman then takes them outside. While the people are eating the door remains open.

 

The above descriptions represent the Peyote cult as it was given between 1908 and 1913. It is quite clear that a definite organization exists consisting of a unit of five positions occupied by the leader and four helpers. No specific requirements, with the exception, of course, of that of being a peyote eater, are associated with the right to occupy these positions.

 

No specialized features have become associated with the positions of the four helpers. As indicated before, John Rave is always the leader when he is present, but the position of leadership can be delegated to others. This is always of a temporary nature. It may be significant to note that whenever delegated the leadership is always delegated to men who have been among the first of the converts, outside of Rave's immediate family, and who were leaders in the old

13. He gave the fish, he gave the turtles, he gave the beasts, he gave the birds.

 

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quadrant

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quadrant

FOUR ATTENDANTS FOUR DAYS- FOUR TIMES FOUR YOUNG MEN- FOUR DAYS- FOUR CANES

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THE NUMBER THREE IS MENTIONED ONE TIME- THAT IS THE ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED OTHER THAN FOUR- FOUR IS MENTIONED OVER AND OVER AGAIN CONTINUOUSLY- KWAKIUTL MYTHS

 

 

Then his attendants became angry on account of what he was doing, and his four attendants planned that they would kill the chief. One of them said that they would follow him and push him down from the place where he

 

Then the tribe came and hid him there below. Now the chief was dead. After the chief had been hidden for four days, an Owl came. He spoke, and said, "O friend Potlatch-Giver! arise and try this owl mask of Gwêgwaâ'?ya?wa'." Thus he said. Immediately Potlatch-Giver arose, and he was given the owl mask. Then the Owl said, "Put this on, for people, when they are dead, always come to me."

 

Then Potlatch-Giver walked, and went to the place where he had been hidden. As soon as he arrived at the place where he had been hidden, he was dead. For four days he staid at the place where he was hidden. Then he again heard some one speaking. The (voice) said, "O friend Potlatch-Giver! I invite you for Spouting-at-Mouth-of-River." Thus it said. Immediately he arose and followed the man. Then he was taken down to the beach, and he went aboard a war-canoe which was on the beach. As soon as the one who had been invited was aboard the war-canoe, those who had been sent to invite him paddled away. They were going to the other side of the point. There Potlatch-Giver saw many houses. Then he was met by (the people).

 

 

Immediately a small hunting-canoe was brought, and was put down at the [mouth of the] beach. Then Potlatch-Giver was asked to go aboard the small canoe. As soon as he was aboard the small canoe, the small canoe became a killer-whale. Then Potlatch-Giver was told to try to spout. In vain he tried to spout. He would just fall down flat or he would move about on his back. In vain he tried four times. Then he gave it up. He was a bad hand at it. Then he was asked to get out of his small canoe. Then one of the men spoke, and said, "O friend Potlatch-Giver! listen! I am Spouting-at-Mouth-of-River,

 

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to whom the dead of all the tribes of your common men come. You are a bad hand at it. Now just go back again to your grave at Cave." Thus he said, while he sent four young men to carry Potlatch-Giver back to Cave. Now he was taken back to Cave.

 

 

After four days he again heard some one saying, "I invite you, Potlatch-Giver, for Place-of-staying-away." Thus (the voice) said. Immediately he arose and followed those who invited him. Then he saw a canoe on the beach. The man went towards it, and Potlatch-Giver also went along and went aboard that canoe. As soon as Potlatch-Giver was aboard the canoe, the man pushed off, and he paddled and steered towards Steel-Head-Salmon-Body. They arrived there. Then he saw many houses there, and there was much noise. They arrived, and he was met by many men. Then they called Potlatch-Giver, and immediately Potlatch-Giver went to the door of the house. Then one man spoke, and said, "Oh, my dear! take care! don't turn your face towards the naked women when they call you, else you will not return home. Just walk towards the right side of the house, and sit down in the rear of the house, and don't eat what will be given to you by them." Thus he said.

 

Then those who were beating time heard the noise of breaking canoes; and it was not long before he came dragging the bows of four canoes, which he put on the fire in the middle of the Time-beating-House. Then he stood again in front of the fire.

 

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Thus the ancestors of the Divided tribe discovered that Potlatch-Giver had obtained these supernatural gifts. He was the first of the shamans of the Divided tribe. He was paid by the ancestors of the Divided tribe for (curing) sick people. He was paid sea-otters and slaves, and also the princesses of the chiefs of the Divided tribe. Now Potlatch-Giver was really the foremost chief of the Divided tribe on account of this, and he was all the time giving potlatches to his tribe; and Going-from-One-Side-of-the-Door-to-the-Other also was always breaking canoes, because when he went the first time to break the four canoes, and when those who had beaten time went out, the canoes were whole again.

 

 

And so one chief of the ancestors of the Divided tribe came to be jealous of the excessive greatness of the chief. One whose name was Leaving invited his tribe, and he asked his tribe to spoil (the power that was destroying and repairing) the canoes. Then an old man spoke, and said, "O chief! let Potlatch-Woman sit in a canoe this night, for she is menstruating." Thus he said. When night came, Potlatch-Woman went to the place where the canoes were, and she sat down in the first one she came to; and she had not been sitting in the canoe long when she went out of it into another one, and she went again into another one, and she sat down in all the canoes. Then she went home again. Then Potlatch-Giver again called his tribe. As soon as they were all in, the attendant namely, Going-from-One-Side-of-the-Door-to-the-Other jumped out of the house and broke the canoes, and he came in again dragging the bows of the canoes. After the feast was ended, all the men went out. Then they looked at the four canoes, and they were not whole again. It was spoiled on account of the menstrual blood

ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED NUMBER FOUR KWAKIUTL- FOUR MEN AND WOMEN- FOUR ALDER TREE PERSONS- FOUR BOYS AND GIRLS

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noise on the other side of the salmon-weir; and it was heard by Surpassing what they said when they made a noise. "Oh, if Surpassing would come and have mercy on us and pull us out!" Thus (the voices) said. Immediately Surpassing ran to look for the sound, and he saw a man sticking with his back to an alder-tree. He saw four men and women. Then Surpassing went and pulled the man off from the alder-tree, and the men came off easily from the alder-tree. As soon as he, got them all off, Surpassing asked the two men and the two women to go and roll stones together, so that they should also make a salmon-trap. Immediately the two alder-tree men and the women rolled stones together, and each had a salmon-trap of his own.

 

Then Surpassing went to purify himself in the river. As soon as he had finished purifying himself, he started to take home the four alder-tree persons to his house. As soon as the men had entered, Surpassing left. He was going to find blankets for the four alder-tree persons. He saw one old man, and an old woman, his wife. As soon as the old people saw Surpassing approaching them, they arose at once and danced. He did not hear a sound. As soon as Surpassing came nearer, he questioned them, and said, "O old people! why are you dancing?" Thus he said. Then the old man spoke, and said, "O child! we do this because we thought you had lost your way in the woods." Thus he said. Then Surpassing questioned the old mail, and said, "O friend! what is your name,

 

Then he gave the deer-skin and the goose-skin to his tribe for blankets; and Surpassing questioned the old people, that married couple, and he said, "O old people! how many children have you, and where are they?" Thus he said. Immediately they replied to him, and said they had four boys and four girls who had died. They had

 

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eaten clams at the place Gê'g*äqê. Now no clams from that place are eaten. The clams of Gê'g*äqê are poisonous. That is the reason why the clams are not eaten, and now they have the xô'los for their crest, and they have the geese for their dance. That is the end.

KWAKIUTL REALLY ONLY MENTION THE NUMBER FOUR

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FIVE IS MENTIONED ONE TIME THREE IS MENTIONED ONE TIME- FOUR IS MENTIONED MANY MANY TIMES- FOUR HEAD RINGS FOUR NECK RINGS FOUR DAYS

 

FOUR MEN FOUR ARROWS- FOUR CHILDREN- FOUR TIMES FOUR BROTHERS- FOUR TIMES FOUR CHILDREN- FOUR DOGS FOUR YOUNG MEN

 

Now, the SE'mxôlidxu were really few, and they were really hungry; and the four men, the sons of Wisest-One, took their bows and each four arrows, and they were ready to go mountain-goat hunting, The grandmother of Wisest-One was sitting in the corner of the house of her grandson. Then she called the eldest one of her great-grandsons,

 

Immediately the four children went out. They started, and went into the woods behind their village site. They came to the foot of the mountain of SE'mxôl. Then they went up; they went up upon it, and they arrived on the top of the large mountain. Then they went down behind it. Then they came to a pretty place. Then the eldest brother discovered the rainbow smoke of the house at the foot of a large mountain. At once the second brother spoke to the eldest one. "Let us go and look at it!" Thus he said. At once all the brothers agreed to what he had said. They forgot the words that their father had said to them. They had not been walking long when they arrived at the house. The eldest one led when they entered the house.

 

As soon as their sister, Treated-Like-a-Chief, the wife of Cannibal-at-North-End-of-World, had discovered that her brothers had run away, she arose, went out of the house, and shouted aloud. She said, "Come, Cannibal-at-North-End-of-World! In vain meat came to you, Cannibal-at-North-End-of-World!" Thus she said four times. Then the young men heard Cannibal-at-North-End-of-World crying "Hap!" on top of the large mountain named Supernatural-Face-Mountain, and they heard his whistles sounding. Then the four brothers were really running, and Cannibal-at-North-End-of-World was coming near quickly. They were not halfway up the mountain when Cannibal-at-North-End-of-World nearly caught up with them.

 

Then True-Fool shouted to his father, Wisest-One, and said, "Wisest-One, tie (ropes) around your house, for we are pursued by this Cannibal-at-North-End-of-World." Thus he said. Therefore Wisest-One at once tied up his house with cedar ropes; and when he had finished, his children came in. Then he barred the door; and as soon as he had finished, Cannibal-at-North-End-of-World came and went around the house. Four times he went around it; then he went up to the roof of the house. He opened the roof and he put his head through. Then Wisest-One spoke, and said to him, "Oh, my dear! I invite you and your wife and your child to come to-morrow morning and eat for your breakfast my four children." Thus he said to him. Immediately Cannibal-at-North-End-of-World drew back his head which he had put through, and went home to his house.

 

In the morning, when day came, (Wisest-One) requested his children to kill four dogs; and as soon as the children had killed the four dogs, he cut them open, and they took out the intestines. Then they put the intestines on a mat. They hid the bodies of the dogs. Then he gave instructions to his children. "As soon as you hear the cries of Cannibal-at-North-End-of-World, lie down on your backs on the right-hand side of the door of our house, and pretend to be dead, and you shall have on your stomachs the intestines of the dogs." Thus he said. As soon as he stopped speaking, they heard the sound of whistles, and there was the sound "Hap!" Immediately the four young men went and lay down on their backs in the corner of the house. Then Wisest-One took the intestines of the four dogs and put one on the stomach of each of his sons, and they pretended to be cut open.

 

In the morning, when day came, they started, and they arrived there at noon. At once the one rooted to the floor began to speak, and said to Wisest-One, "Oh, my dear! I knew already that Cannibal-at-North-End-of-World was dead. Go and get the box containing his magic power. Now you have the Cannibal dance." Thus she said. At once he entered the sacred room, and opened a large, long box. He took out the Hô'xuhoku Cannibal-head-mask, and the Raven Cannibal-head-mask, and the Crooked-Beak Cannibal-head-mask, and the Hô'xuhoku-on-Top Cannibal-head-mask, and also many whistles, and also four head-rings of red cedar-bark, and four neck-rings of red cedar-bark. He took them out and put them at the place where the woman rooted to the floor was sitting.

 

Then the woman rooted to the floor advised him what to do with them; and the brothers gathered the dried goat-meat and carried it on their backs; and the wife of Cannibal-at-North-End-of-World, Treated-Like-a-Chief, requested (of) her father, Wisest-One, that one of his children should disappear; "that he should take the place of Cannibal-at-North-End-of-World; and should be Cannibal-Dancer." As soon as True-Fool had disappeared, the three younger brothers carried the goat-meat on their backs. They were carrying it for four days. Then Wisest-One tried in vain to dig out the roots of the one rooted to the floor. The roots of her rump only grew larger. He only gave it up. He just carried on his back the cannibal masks when the Cannibal was caught. Treated-Like-a-Chief, the wife of Cannibal-at-North-End-of-World, taught them the ways of her dead husband and his songs. Then Wisest-One

ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED NUMBER FOUR FOUR BROTHERS

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/nw/kt/kt72.htm

Now, let us talk about the four brothers of Nä'dExwomat, the wife of that man. When the woman started to go with her husband, her four brothers went out paddling, for they were sea-hunters. They had gone to harpoon seals at the island in front of Pentlatch, which is named K*!ô'la. In the evening the four brothers of Nä'dExwomat came to the place Shelter Point when it was really calm. Then the youngest one heard something saying, "Listen, brothers, I have been sitting for a long time in the forked top of this tree, brothers, and I am beginning to be weak on account of the heat." Thus said what was heard by them.

ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED KWAKIUTL IS FOUR

FOUR SONGS FOUR FINGERS FOUR DAYS DIVED FOUR TIMES- FOUR DIVES FOUR SONGS FOUR VIRGINS

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/nw/kt/kt73.htm

Immediately Ya'x*st!al uttered the Cannibal cry and climbed up, and climbed the spruce-tree. He almost reached the branch, and came down. As soon as he stood on the ground, Mouse-Woman requested Ya'x*st!al to go again into the water of the lake. Immediately Ya'x*st!al obeyed her word. He went into the lake, and dived four times in the lake. Then he came out again. As soon as he came to the place where Mouse-Woman was standing, Mouse-Woman spoke to him, and said, "Now watch me really! for when I come down, I shall take you and swallow you whole, and you will go through me, and you will remain alive; and that will be the way that will be done to you by Cannibal-at-North-End-of-World when he will show you this; and you will also do the same to me when you go up; and do not be afraid!" Thus Mouse-Woman said, and uttered the Cannibal cry.

 

Then Cannibal-at-North-End-of-World spoke, and said, "Oh, my dear! now you have obtained my dance. Only take care! Don't hurt it, else you will stay with me." Then he invited Ya'x*st!al into his house to teach him his four songs. It did not take long before he knew the four songs. Then Cannibal-at-North-End-of-World warned Ya'x*st!al (and told him) to take care; and (he told him) to swallow one man of his own tribe every fourth day. "If you do not do as I told you, you will stay with me, for I shall know what you are doing." Thus he said.

 

 

Then Cannibal-at-North-End-of-World called Ya'x*st!al out of the house, after he had put red cedar-bark and a neck-ring on him; and they went to the place where the Cannibal pole was standing. Then Cannibal-at-North-End-of-World pulled out the Cannibal pole, and he slapped it all along its whole length. Then it became thin; and then he slapped its ends with his right hand, and the Cannibal pole at once became short. Now it was the length of four of our fingers, and its thickness was that of our little finger. Then Cannibal-at-North-End-of-World tucked it in the cross neck-piece of the red cedar-bark head-ring of Ya'x*st!al. After he had done this, Ya'x*st!al

 

p. 439

 

was sent to go home. Ya'x*st!al came at once, walking,--Now he was wild with his cannibalism: therefore he did not know how long he was walking. Then he saw his uncles looking for him at the river of Steelhead-Salmon Place. Immediately Ya'x*st!al took hold of his little uncle and swallowed him whole.

 

Immediately he came, to his senses for a short time. Then he told his two uncles that he had been to the house of Cannibal-at-North-End-of-World, and that therefore he was now a Cannibal, and that he had to eat one man of his tribe every fourth day; "and also if I am not allowed to do so, I shall be taken away by Cannibal-at-North-End-of-World. Go on, clear our house! and after you have cleared our house, ask my father to ask Cooked-in-Water, his slave, to sit outside of the house, on the right-hand side of the door of our house, when I show myself." Thus said Ya'x*st!al. Now his name was Cannibal.

 

Immediately the Cannibal pole was of the right size in thickness and length, and the carvings were on it. Immediately the Cannibal climbed up, climbing the pole. He went to the top and came back, and went through the mouths of the carvings. As soon as he had been up four times, he stopped. Then he himself sang the four songs, for the people did not know the songs of it.

 

 

After four days he was wild again. Then he took a chief of the clan Song-Dancers and swallowed him whole. Spouting-Whale was the name of that chief: therefore the Song-Dancers and the A'waîLEla hate each other up to this day.

 

Now the Cannibal was feared because he always swallowed people of his tribe. Therefore first menstrual flow of four virgins was taken,--their white cedar-bark which was soaked in menstrual blood. Then the Cannibal was taken and was tied to a stake in the rear end of the house. Then one of the pieces of white cedar-bark taken from one of the women was put down at his right side in front, another one at his right side behind him, and another one on the left-hand side in front of him, and one on the left-hand side behind him. Then they were lighted with fire. As soon as they began to burn, they were

 

p. 442

 

blown upon by the four virgins, so that the smoke went towards the Cannibal. As soon as the fire was extinguished, the Cannibal spoke, and said, "Good-by! You have brought me bad luck." Thus he said, and disappeared with the Cannibal pole.

FOUR TIMES THE ONLU NUMBER MENTIONED IN KWAKIUTL MYTH IS FOUR

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/nw/kt/kt76.htm

Song-Dance (Q!a'mtalal), Always-staying-at-Olachen-Place (Dzâ'wadalalîs), Born-to-fly (P!â'Lelag*i?laku), Xa'niatsEmg*i?laku, and Only-One (?nEmô'gwis), the ancestors of the DEna'x*da?xu, came down from the sky. They lived at the upper end of the inlet. Song-Dance (Q!a'mtalal) built a house at the mouth of the river, opposite the house of Always-staying-at-Olachen-Place (Dzâ'wadalalîs). His wife was X*î'nt!alaga. He was a shaman, and wore a head-ring of cedar-bark dyed red, which he had on when he came down from the sky. His house was very long, and the front had four doors. Q!â'nêqê?laku, when he came to meet him, stood behind the house and looked at Song-Dance, who was engaged in driving piles into the river to make an olachen-trap. Q!â'nêqê?laku thought, "Drop it!" and the pile-driver dropped into deep water and went down. Then Song-Dance cried, "Op, op, op, op!" at the same time moving the palms of his hands a little ways upward. Then the pile-driver came floating up again. This was repeated four times. Then Q!â'nêqê?laku went down to meet him, and said, "This is enough. It is true, what I heard; you are a man of supernatural power (nau'alaku). Please give me part of your cedar bark ring. That is the only thing for which I ask you." Song-Dance gave him a piece of the cedar-bark, and put it around his neck. Q!â'nêqê?laku said he was going to show it at the place he was going,--to visit.

FOUR MENTIONED MANY TIMES- THREE IS THE ONLY OTHER NUMBER MENTIONED ONE TIME

FOUR DAUGHTERS SPAT FOUR TIMES- REPEATED FOUR TIMES FOUR DAUGHTERS- FOUR PIECES OF ROTTEN WOOD

 

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/nw/kt/kt77.htm

 

to a pretty place called Lô'gwal?Eldzas. With him came a woman named LêgEkwi'?laku. They had four daughters. The oldest was Wâ'numg*ilayugwa; the second, Gu'ntêlag; the third, Ë'k*!âlalîsEmêg; the fourth, Ë'k*!alalälî?laku. With him came his house, which had a snapping door. The corner-posts of the house-front were grizzly bears. Dzâ'wadalalîs was so famous, that people from all over the world came to see him. The door of his house was open; but whenever a person wanted to enter, it closed. Thus many people were killed. There was a seat in the rear of the house the back of which was stone. On the seat was a mat which was covered all over with sharp stone spikes (tE?na').

 

blind? Those are not roots." They replied, "We cannot see." He called them to come near, and he spat on their eyes and questioned them, and asked whether they could see. They said, "No, we cannot see." He spat on their eyes a second time, and still they said they could not see, although they were immediately able to see, but they desired to have still better eyesight. A third time he spat on their eyes. Then they said they could see a very little. After he had spat on their eyes a fourth time, and when they were not yet content, he said, "Your eyesight is good enough. If you should be able to see still better, you would see all the monsters under water." Then the birds, who were now able to see, asked him, "Where are you going?" He replied, "I am going to marry the daughter of Dzâ'wadalalîs." They said, "He does not live far from here, just above us." Then Q!â'nêqê?laku left his canoe ashore, and continued walking up the inlet. He left two seals there which he had carried along as travelling-provisions.

 

it with your adze. Are you blind?" She said, "I am blind. I cannot see what I am doing." Then he called her and spat on her eyes, and asked, "Can you see now?"--"No," she replied. He spat on her eyes again, and now she was able to see a little. After he had spit on her eyes a third time, she could see still more; and after he had repeated it a fourth time, she could see very well. He said, "Now you can see well enough. If your eyes should be still better, you would be able to see the monsters under water." Then the woman asked, "Where are you going, lord?" He replied, "I am going to marry the daughter of Dzâ'wadalalîs." She said, "I wish you success. Come here!" He went to her, and she rubbed his whole body with sandstone (tE?na') to make it hard. She also gave him juice of alder-bark, bird's-down, an ermine mask, and a wren mask, and told him what to do.

 

Finally he came to a place opposite Dzâ'wadê. There he sat down, and soon the four daughters of Dzâ'wadalalîs came to bathe. When they saw him sitting there, they said, "There is a small man sitting there, probably he is a runaway slave." And the youngest daughter ran back to her father and told him, "We have found a runaway slave." The father asked her to call him into the house, and said that he was to be their messenger and their workman. The youngest daughter went back to where Q!â'nêqê?laku was sitting, and said, "What are you doing here? What do you want?" He replied, "I want to marry the daughter of Dzâ'wadalalîs." Then the girls said, "We are his daughters. Pick out the one whom you want." Then he asked for the youngest one. He went to her, put his finger into her vagina, and the teeth tried to bite him, but he broke them out. Then her sisters were ashamed of her. He lay down with her and made her his wife.

 

Then he assumed the shape of a man, took one half of the cedar-tree on his shoulder, ran down to the beach, and called to Dzâ'wadalalîs, "Why do you leave your work?" and Dzâ'wadalalîs went back to get his son-in-law. Q!â'nêqê?laku took four pieces of rotten wood and told his father-in-law to cross just above the mouth of the river. Then he carved porpoises (hâ'tsawê) out of the rotten wood and threw them into the water. They began to jump against the canoe and frightened Dzâ'wadalalîs. Q!â'nêqê?laku blew and spat on them, and the water became quiet.

NO OTHER NUMBER MENTIONED- FOUR MENTIONED MANY MANY TIMES - DANCED AROUND FIRE FOUR TIMES- FOURTH TIME HE BIT A BYSTANDER- FOUR TIMES IMMITATED CANNIBAL- GAVE HIM FOUR SLAVES TO EAT- WASHED FOUR TIMES- CARRIED HIM ACROSS FOUR TIMES- AROSE AFTER FOUR TIMES

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/nw/kt/kt78.htm

Then he heard the people of Cannibal beating time with their batons. Cannibal said to him, "I shall put you down near the door of my house now. Watch what I am doing; and be careful that you notice everything, that you may be able to imitate it. You shall see everything, and you shall not make a mistake." Then they entered. The people at once began to beat time, and Cannibal went around the fire dancing. He bit his people, and devoured some of them, lapping them up with his tongue. When be had gone around the fire and come back to the man, he said, "Did you see everything? You shall do the same." He continued to go around the fire. Four times he did so; then he said to the man, "Now you shall try." The people began to beat time. The man jumped up, danced around the fire four times,

 

p. 464

 

and the fourth time he bit one of the bystanders. Cannibal asked, "Can't you do any better?" At the same time he took hold of him, pulled his body and twisted it, in order to make him strong. Then he made him try again. The batons were beaten, and again the man danced around the fire. When he made his third circuit, he began to bite people. Now he knew almost everything that Cannibal had done. He tried twice more; and when he danced the fourth time, he imitated Cannibal perfectly. Then Cannibal said, "Now you have obtained my power. You shall be like myself. You have now obtained everything from me. Your names shall be Ba'xubakwâ'lanuku, Lawu'lgês, Tâ'nis, Tâ'nisk*as?ô." Then he sent him back home.

 

There he was heard in the woods in midwinter on top of a mountain. Finally he came down to the village; and the people tried to catch him, but they were unable to do so. Then they made a net and caught him in it. They gave him four slaves to eat. This quieted him, and he staid there. Then the people beat time. Several times he escaped again, and they had to catch him again. They were very much afraid of him, because he devoured people and bit others. They were unable to tame him.

 

had washed four times with the wrappings of dead people, he saw a woman. He stepped up to her and embraced her waist. Then both fell down in a faint. When he came to, he saw that the woman had long hair. She was Crying-Woman (?lE'lgwali'laga). There were deep furrows in her cheeks where the tears used to run down. The woman said to him, "Let me go!" but he only held tighter. "You shall have what I am using." She offered him a harpoon-shaft. "If you point it towards sea-otters, seals, porpoises, or towards mountain-goats, they will fall down dead. Let me go! You shall have this, which enables you to give potlatches all the time (?ma'xusayu or ?ma?xup!êq);" but he only held her tighter. Then she offered him the water of life and the death-bringer, if he would let her go, and the large rattle for taming the cannibal. He was also given the name Life-Maker (Q!wê'q!ulag*ila). Then he let go of her. He took her gifts and put them all into his hair, which was tied together with hemlock-branches. Then he went home.

 

He said, "What is the noise that I am hearing?" His father replied, "Fool I don't you know that your elder sister has died?" The young man replied, "Why did you not tell me so? Where is she?" The father retorted, "On the other side of the river."--"Let us go over there and see her!" Then the father carried him across; and when he got there, he went around the grave, shaking his rattle. When he had done so four times, she revived. He took her down, and they went back to the village.

 

He said to his father, "Where are my elder brothers? What has become of them?" They replied, "Why do you ask?"--"I want to see them," he retorted. Then his father showed them to him. He sprinkled them with the water of life; and when he had done so four times, they all arose.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/America%27s_Four_Gods

America's Four Gods: What We Say about God-- & what that Says about Us is a book published in 2010 by Baylor University professors Paul Froese and Christopher Bader.[1] The book was based on a 2005 survey of religious views and reports that Americans conception of God fall into four different classes.[2] Further, they report, American's views on political, moral and scientific issues are usually tied to their conception of God.[3]

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IN AZTEC MYTHOLOGY FOUR GODS CREATED ALL OF THE OTHER GODS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five_Suns

From the void that was the rest of the universe, the first god, Ometeotl, created itself[citation needed]. Ometeotl was both male and female, good and evil, light and darkness, fire and water, judgment and forgiveness, the god of duality[citation needed]. Ometeotl gave birth to four children, the four Tezcatlipocas, who each preside over one of the four cardinal directions[citation needed]. Over the West presides the White Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl, the god of light, mercy and wind. Over the South presides the Blue Tezcatlipoca, Huitzilopochtli, the god of war. Over the East presides the Red Tezcatlipoca, Xipe Totec, the god of gold, farming and Spring time. And over the North presides the Black Tezcatlipoca, also called simply Tezcatlipoca, the god of judgment, night, deceit, sorcery and the Earth.[1]

 

It was these four gods who eventually created all the other gods and the world we know today, but before they could create they had to destroy, for every time they attempted to create something, it would fall into the water beneath them and be eaten by Cipactli, the giant earth crocodile, who swam through the water with mouths at every one of her joints. The four Tezcatlipocas descended the first people who were giants. They created the other gods, the most important of whom were the water gods: Tlaloc, the god of rain and fertility and Chalchiuhtlicue, the goddess of lakes, rivers and oceans, also the goddess of beauty. To give light, they needed a god to become the sun and the Black Tezcatlipoca was chosen, but either because he had lost a leg or because he was god of the night, he only managed to become half a sun. The world continued on in this way for some time, but a sibling rivalry grew between Quetzalcoatl and his brother the mighty sun, who Quetzalcoatl knocked from the sky with a stone club. With no sun, the world was totally black and in his anger, Tezcatlipoca commanded his jaguars to eat all the people.[2]

IN AZTEC MYTHOLOGY FOUR GODS CREATED THE WORLD

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tezcatlipoca

In later myths, the four gods who created the world, Tezcatlipoca, Quetzalcoatl, Huitzilopochtli and Xipe Totec were referred to respectively as the Black, the White, the Blue and the Red Tezcatlipoca. The four Tezcatlipocas were the sons of Ometecuhtli and Omecihuatl, lady and lord of the duality, and were the creators of all the other gods, as well as the world and all humanity.

MENDE AFRICAN TRIBE- THE DYNAMIC BETWEEN THREE AND FOUR FOUR TRANSCENDENT

https://books.google.com/books?id=uMv0CAAAQBAJ&pg=PT659&lpg=PT659&dq=four+times+four+gods&source=bl&ots=Dca6HFmLGu&sig=k2mVFGN1cAs9g-W9wUqqmRV3SyE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiD3dWhi93TAhVW2mMKHQlgCBI4ChDoAQhCMAk#v=onepage&q=four%20times%20four%20gods&f=false

QUADRANT

 

FOUR DAY WEEK (COMMON IN AFRICAN TRIBES)

NAME AFTER THREE DAYS GIRL FOUR DAYS BOY

WOMEN BATHED THREE TIMES MEN FOUR TIMES PURIFICATION RITUALS

MASSAGE MEDICINAL SALVES THREE TIMES WOMEN FOUR TIMES MEN

DEATH RITUALS THREE DAYS WOMEN FOUR DAYS MEN

MARKINGS ON THE BACK PLACED ON GIRL THIRD DAY BOY FOURTH DAY

 

FOR OTHER TRIBES IT IS REVERSED LIKE THE DOGON USE THREE STRIPS FOR MEN AND FOUR STRIPS FOR WOMEN

THE BOOK GETS CUT OFF

LIKE IN ALL CULTURES- IN AFRICAN TRIBES THE NUMBER FOUR IS THE MOST DOMINANT IT IS THE MOST IMPORTANT CENTRAL NUMBER- (quadrant is organizing principal of reality)

 

THE NGULUS GESTURES DONE FOUR TIMES AND WHEN USING OBJECTS REQUIREMENT TO DO FOUR TIMES

BAZIBAS GOD HAD FOUR SONS- THE FOURTH SON IS DIFFERENT

MOSI GOD MADE FOUR BROTHERS WHO BECAME HEIRS TO THE KINGDOM OF THE EARTH

SONGHAY FOUR MASTERS

SHIKLUK KING CONFINED FOUR DAYS- IMPORTANT CELEBRATION FOUR DAYS

FOUR FON GODS

FALI FOUR WIVES FOUR DAY ROTATION

BALUBAS LULUAS WORLD FOUR PLANES

HUSBANDS HAVE A HOUSE IN THE MIDDLE OF AN X (QUADRANT) PATTERN AND FOUR WIVES AT THE POINTS

KINGS RESIDENCE DIGNATARIES AT THE FOUR POINTS

ASHANTI GOD FOUR SONS

YORUBA FOUR PART UNIVERSE FOUR GODS GOVERNING BODY FOUR CHIEFS

UHAVENDA FOUR CEREMONIES OF INITIATION

UHAVENDA FOUR GODS

SCARIFICATION RITUALS TIV INVOLVE FOUR GENERATIONS OF PARTICIPANTS

WEST AFRICA SYMBOL OF WOMEN IN CHILDLABOR IS FOUR

KUMU PEOPLE DIVIDED INTO FOUR COHORTS

https://books.google.com/books?id=uMv0CAAAQBAJ&pg=PT659&lpg=PT659&dq=four+times+four+gods&source=bl&ots=Dca6HFmLGu&sig=k2mVFGN1cAs9g-W9wUqqmRV3SyE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiD3dWhi93TAhVW2mMKHQlgCBI4ChDoAQhCMAk#v=onepage&q=four%20times%20four%20gods&f=false

QUADRANT

https://books.google.com/books?id=uMv0CAAAQBAJ&pg=PT659&lpg=PT659&dq=four+times+four+gods&source=bl&ots=Dca6HFmLGu&sig=k2mVFGN1cAs9g-W9wUqqmRV3SyE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiD3dWhi93TAhVW2mMKHQlgCBI4ChDoAQhCMAk#v=onepage&q=four&f=false

Quadrant- DOGON

CIRCLE FOUR PARTS FOUR ELEMENTS- FOUR FACES OF GRANARY FOUR IMPORTANT STAR GROUPS- FOUR STAIRCASES FOUR CHAMBERS ON GROUND LEVEL FOUR CHAMBERS ON UPPER LEVEL

HAWAIIANS HAVE FOUR MAJOR DEITIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_figures_in_the_Hawaiian_religion

Kāne - highest of the four major Hawaiian deities, The chief of the Hawaiian trinity, which also consists of his brothers Lono and Ku. In contrast to Lono being the deity of cultivated foods, Kane was the god of wild foods and plants like trees, etc. He was also the god of the forests and jungles with all their gifts like wood, medicinal plants and leaves, etc.

LOOK AT THE REPETITON OF FOURS- FOUR MAIN GODS- FORTY MALE GODS- FOUR HUNDRED GODS AND GODDESSES
https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hawaiian_religion
Hawaiian mythology includes the creation stories and legends about the gods. There are several gods in Hawaiian religion and mythology. The four most important deities are Kāne, Kū, Lono and Kanaloa. The figures in Hawaiian religion consists of several groups. One way of dividing these groups is:[3]

the four gods (ka hā) – Kū, Kāne, Lono, Kanaloa
the forty male gods or aspects of Kāne (ke kanahā)
the four Hundred gods and goddesses (ka lau)
the great Multitude of gods and goddesses (ke kini akua)
the spirits (na ʻunihipili)
the guardians (na ʻaumākua)

HAWAIIAN FOUR PART SERVICE

http://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/hawaiian-religion

A ten-day, four-part luakini service required numerous men and pigs as sacrifices, and additional pigs to feed the highborn worshipers and priests. If kapu -breakers, war captives, or slaves were unavailable to be used as burned sacrifices, large ulua fish (Carangidae ) were substituted.

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THE HAWAIIAN cosmogonic geneology HAS 16 WA- 16 AGAES- IN EACH WA SOMETHING IS BORN- 16 SQUARES QMR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kumulipo

The Kumulipo is a total of 2102 lines long, in honor of Kalaninuiamamao, who created peace for all when he was born. There was a lot of fighting between his ʻI and Keawe family, who were cousins so his birth stopped the two from feuding. The Kumulipo is a cosmogonic genealogy, which means that it relates to the stars and the moon. Out of the 2102 lines, it has 16 "wā" which means era or age. In each wā, something is born whether it is a human, plant, or creature.[3]

THE 16 AGES- 16 WA OF HAWAIIANS- 16 SQUARES QMR- THE SIXTEENTH WA GOES OVER 44 GENERATIONS- REPETITION OF FOURS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kumulipo

Births in each wā[edit]

The births in each age include:[7]

 

In the first wā, the sea urchins and limu (seaweed) were born. The limu was connected through its name to the land ferns. Some of these limu and fern pairs include: ʻEkaha and ʻEkahakaha, Limu ʻAʻalaʻula and ʻalaʻalawainui mint, Limu Manauea and Kalo Maunauea upland taro, Limu Kala and ʻAkala strawberry. These plants were born to protect their sea cousins.

In the second wā, 73 types of fish. Some deep sea fish include Naiʻa (porpoise) and the Mano (shark). Also reef fish, including Moi and Weke. Certain plants that have similar names are related to these fish and are born as protectors of the fish.

In the third wā, 52 types of flying creatures, which include birds of the sea such as ʻIwa (frigate or man-of-war bird), the Lupe, and the Noio (Hawaiian noddy tern). These sea birds have land relatives, such as Io (hawk), Nene (goose), and Pueo (owl). In this wā, insects were also born, such as Peʻelua (caterpillar) and the Pulelehua (butterfly).

In the fourth wā, the creepy and crawly creatures are born. These include Honu (sea turtle), Ula (lobster), Moʻo (lizards), and Opeopeo (jellyfish). Their cousins on land include Kuhonua (maile vine) and ʻOheʻohe bamboo.

In the fifth wā, Kalo (taro) is born.

In the sixth wā, Uku (flea) and the ʻIole (rat) are born.

In the seventh wā, ʻĪlio (dog) and the Peʻapeʻa (bat) are born.

In the eighth wā, the four divinities are born: Laʻilaʻi (Female), Kiʻi (Male), Kane (God), Kanaloa (Octopus), respectively.

In the ninth wā, Laʻilaʻi takes her eldest brother Kiʻi as a mate and the first humans are born from her brain.

In the tenth wā, Laʻilaʻi takes her next brother Kane as a mate after losing interest in Kiʻi, she then had four of Kane's children: Laʻiʻoloʻolo, Kamahaʻina (Male), Kamamule (Male), Kamakalua (Female). Laʻilaʻi soon returned to Kiʻi and three children are born: Haʻi(F), Haliʻa(F), and Hākea(M). Having been born during their mothers being with two men they become "Poʻolua" and claim the lineage of both fathers.

The eleventh wā pays homage to the Moa.

The twelfth wā is very important to Hawaiians because it honors the lineage of Wākea, whose son Hāloa is the ancestor of all people.

The thirteenth wā is also very important to Hawaiians because it honors the lineage of Hāloa's mother Papa.

In the fourteenth wā Liʻaikūhonua mates with Keakahulihonua, and have their child Laka.

The fifteenth wā refers to Haumeanuiʻāiwaiwa and her lineage, it also explains Māui's adventures and siblings.

The sixteenth wā recounts all of Maui's lineage for forty-four generations, all the way down to the Moʻi of Maui, Piʻilani.

THE HAWAIIAN SONG OF CREATION HAS 16 SECTIONS- 16 SQUARES QMR FOUR TIMES FOUR

http://www2.hawaii.edu/~zinner/101/students/PuaKumulipo/kumulipo.html

In the prespective of Pukui along with many other Hawaiians she says,"The Kumulipo as we have it today is popularly known as the Hawaiian "Song of Creation," from its name Kumu(u)li-po, "Beginning-(in)-deep-darkness." It consists in sixteen Sections called wa, a word used for an interval in time or space. The first seven sections fall within a period called the Po, the next nine belong to the Ao, words generally explained as referring to the world of "Night" before the advent of "Day"; to "Darkness" before "Light"; or, as some say, to the "Spirit world" in contrast to the "World of living men," with whom the "World of reason" began. In the first division are "born" (hanau) or "come forth" (puka) species belonging to the plant and animal world, in the second appear gods and men. Of the over two thousand lines that make up the whole chant, more than a thousand are straight genealogies listing by pairs, male and female, the various branches (lala) making up the family lines of descent. Thus, although the whole is strung together within a unified framework, it may in fact consist of a collection of independent family genealogies pieced together with name songs and hymns memorializing the gods venerated by different branches of the ancestral stock.

IT CONSISTS OF FOUR PARTS- GEMATRIA IS FOUR

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magick_(Book_4)

Magick, Liber ABA, Book 4 is widely considered to be the magnum opus of 20th-century occultist Aleister Crowley, the founder of Thelema. It is a lengthy treatise on Magick, his system of Western occult practice, synthesised from many sources, including Eastern Yoga, Hermeticism, medieval grimoires, contemporary magical theories from writers like Eliphas Levi and Helena Blavatsky, and his own original contributions. It consists of four parts: Mysticism, Magick (Elementary Theory), Magick in Theory and Practice, and ΘΕΛΗΜΑ—the Law (The Equinox of The Gods). It also includes numerous appendices presenting many rituals and explicatory papers.

 

Liber ABA refers to this work being a part of Crowley's system of magical works known as libri (Latin for 'books'). In most systems such as gematria where letters are given numerical value, ABA adds up to 4, a number which represents the Four Elements, Stability and so on (thus the name Book 4).

Quartering procedure in the Holy Roman Empire

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dismemberment

Tiradentes Quartered, Pedro Américo (1893)

In the Holy Roman Empire emperor Charles V's 1532 Constitutio Criminalis Carolina specifies how every dismemberment (quartering) should ideally occur:[2]

 

"Concerning quartering: To cut and hack apart his entire body into four pieces, and thus be punished unto death, and such four parts are to be hanged on stakes publicly on four common thorough-fares"

FOUR DAYS OF THE LORD FOUR MOUNTAINS- IMPERSONATE FOUR YEAR BEARERS-FOUR MOUNTAINS FOUR YEAR BEARERS- FOUR NAMED DAYS FOUR NEW YEAR DAYS- FOUR TREES FOUR CARRIERS OF EARTH- SQUARE FOUR DIRECTIONS- TALK ABOUT NINE LAYERS BUT NOT MENTIONED IN POPUL VUH- FOUR WARDS FOUR DEITIES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maya_religion

In the northwestern Maya highlands, the four days, or 'Day Lords', that can start a year are assigned to four mountains. In early-colonial Yucatán, the thirteen katun periods and their deities, mapped onto a landscape conceived as a 'wheel', are said to be successively 'established' in specific towns.

 

Young men, perhaps princes, can impersonate the four deities carrying the earth (Bacabs) while holding the four associated Year Bearer days in their hands[25] or carrying a throne; they may also substitute for the principal rain deity (Chaac). Hieroglyphic expressions of the concept of impersonation involve many other deities as well.[26] In some cases, impersonation may relate to the individual's identity with, or transformation into, a phenomenon of nature.

 

The Maya calendar, connected to networks of sacrificial shrines, is fundamental for ritual life. The rites of the 260-day cycle are treated below ('Sciences of Destiny'). Among the highland Maya, the calendrical rites of the community as a whole relate to the succession of the 365-day years, and to the so-called 'Year Bearers' in particular, that is, the four named days that can serve as new year days. Conceived as divine lords, these Year Bearers were welcomed on the mountain (one of four) which was to be their seat of power, and worshipped at each recurrence of their day in the course of the year.[27]

 

The calendrical rites include the five-day marginal period at the end of the year. In 16th-century Yucatán, a straw puppet called 'grandfather' (mam) was set up and venerated, only to be discarded at the end of the marginal period, or Uayeb (Cogolludo). In this same interval, the incoming patron deity of the year was installed and the outgoing one removed. Through annually shifting procession routes, the calendrical model of the four 'Year Bearers' (New Year days) was projected onto the four quarters of the town.[28] Landa's detailed treatment of the New Year rites – the most important description of a pre-Hispanic Maya ritual complex to have come down to us – corresponds on essential points to the schematic depiction of these rites in the much earlier Dresden Codex.

 

Contemporary healing rituals focus on the retrieval and reincorporation of the lost souls or soul particles imprisoned somewhere by specific deities or ancestors.[32] The procedures can include the sacrifice of fowl treated as the patient's 'substitute' (Tzotzil k'exolil-helolil).[33] The main collection of ancient Yucatec curing rituals is the so-called Ritual of the Bacabs. In these texts, the world with its four trees and four carriers of earth and sky (Bacabs) located at the corners is the theatre of shamanic curing sessions, during which "the four Bacabs" are often addressed to assist the curer in his struggle with disease-causing agents. Many of the features of shamanic curing found in the 'Ritual of the Bacabs' still characterize contemporary curing ritual. Not represented amongst these early ritual texts is black sorcery.

 

Horizontally, the earth is conceived in various ways: as a square with its four directional or, perhaps, solstice points, or as a circle without such fixed points. The square earth is sometimes imagined as a maize field, the circular earth as a turtle floating on the waters. Each direction has its own tree, bird, deity, colour, and aspect, in the highlands also its own mountain. Vertically, the sky is divided into thirteen layers, and Classic period deities are sometimes linked to one of the thirteen skies. By analogy with the 'Nine-God' mentioned together with the 'Thirteen-God' in the Chilam Balam book of Chumayel, the underworld is often assumed to have consisted of nine layers. However, the Popol Vuh does not know such a ninefold division, and Classic period references to layers of the underworld have not been identified.

 

Deities have all sorts of social functions, related to such human activities as agriculture, midwifery, trade, and warfare. Moreover, they can be the patrons of large kin-based or ethnic segments of society, as shown by the four deities presiding over the four wards of Itzamkanac;[86] the Popol Vuh Triad (including Tohil); and possibly also by the Palenque Triad (G[God] I, II, and III) and its Classic Period analogues elsewhere.

Again not many numbers are mentioned three and four are mentioned the most and often it is as "three or four"- the dynamic between three and four
http://sacred-texts.com/nam/sa/lmbg/lmbg3b.htm
Yet to three or four is given
Safety till the floods subside,
For a "komoo" palm (by heaven
Made to grow) surmounts the tide.
All whom that tree does not save
Sink, as rocks, beneath the wave

NO NUMBERS REALLY MENTIONED BUT FOUR AND THREE IN GUINIA BUT WHEN MENTIONED IT IS THE PATTERN WHERE THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT (OFTEN "THREE OR FOUR")- HERE THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT HE ALWAYS STARTS OFF WITH FOUR DOGS BUT THEN HE WOULD ONLY COME BACK WITH THREE-- THE MYTH BEGINS WITH CROSS (QUADRANT)- ALSO CROSS IN SKIES

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/sa/lmbg/lmbg5b.htm

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/sa/lmbg/lmbg5b.htm

HOIST again the red cross! Let us voyage once more

 

Then the young man, beloved of the sorcerer's daughter,

 Would start with four dogs through the forest to roam,

But would come back with three: for the struggle and slaughter

 One never would join in, but always ran home.

 

While, round the cross, shine brilliantly

 The glories of the southern skies.

1 The native ideas respecting the constellations differ widely from ours. For instance, the Southern Cross is supposed, by many clans, to represent a "paui" bird resting on a tree. The star, Beta Centauri, is a hunter stealthily approaching it. Alpha Centauri is the hunter's torch (or firebrand), held behind him, so as not to alarm the bird by its glare. Some call it another hunter, lighting the first. Other constellations have narratives connected with them; of these, "Serikoai," the legend given here, is the most interesting specimen.

CHEROKEE ONE NUMBER MENTIONED FOUR- AND THE FOURTH DAY DIFFERENT- SO FAR IN CHEROKEE MYTHS NO OTHER NUMBER MENTIONED

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi007.htm

It is said that corn was obtained by one of the women of the Tåmålgi clan. 1 She had a number of neighbors and friends, and when they came to her house she would dish some sofki (a native dish made from corn) into an earthen bowl and they would drink it. They found it delicious, but did not know where she got the stuff of which to make it. Finally they noticed that she washed her feet in water and rubbed them, whereupon what came from her feet was corn. She said to them, "You may not like to eat from me in this way, so build a corncrib, put me inside and fasten the door. Don't disturb me, but keep me there for four days, and at the end of the fourth day you can let me out." They did so, and while she was there they heard a great rumbling like distant thunder, but they did not know what it meant. On the fourth day they opened the door as directed and she came out. Then they found that the crib was

 

p. 10

 

well stocked with corn. There was corn for making bread, hard flint corn for making sofki, and other kinds. She instructed them how to plant grains of corn from what she had produced. They did so, the corn grow and reproduced and they have had corn ever since. (Told by Jackson Lewis.)

SO FAR IN CHEROKEE MYTHS FOUR MENTIONED MANY TIMES- NO OTHER NUMBER OTHER THAN FOUR HAS BEEN MENTIONED- FOUR TIMES FISH FOUR TIMES RABBIT

 

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi008.htm

After the youth had gotten home he said to his wife, "Let us go down to the creek. I want to swim. By crossing four times I can poison all of the fish there." His wife told him to do so and, as he was able to accomplish everything which he undertook, he performed this feat also. He killed all of the fish in that stream. Then he told his wife to call all of the townspeople, and they came down in a crowd and had a great meal off of fish.

 

After the youth and his wife had gotten home the former said that since he was feeling happy she must wash her head and comb her hair and part it in the middle. When she had done so, he told her to go into the house and stand perfectly still in a window looking out. Thereupon he seized an ax and struck her in the parting, splitting her into two women who looked just alike.

 

When Rabbit heard what the other man had done, he wanted to imitate him, and said to his wife, "Let us go down to the creek. I want to swim and when I cross four times the fish will come to the surface." "Well, go and do so," she said. So Rabbit swam across four times. When he dived he struck a minnow and stunned it, so that when he came out he found it mulling about as if it had been

NO OTHER NUMBERS MENTIONED IN CHEROKEE MYTH OTHER THAN FOUR- CROSSED FOUR TIMES

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi011.htm

One day he invited the king and his council to go with him to a river near the city. On reaching the stream he quickly cast aside his costume, plunged into the water and dived under and crossed the river four times, when all the fish came to the surface and were killed with arrows and a great feast was enjoyed.

 

Away he ran and the council followed him. In he jumped, casting the costume and flute on the ground, and though he crossed four times under the water not a fish appeared.

AGAIN CHEROKEE HAVE NOT BEEN MENTIONING ANY NUMBER OTHER THAN FOUR MANY TIMES- three mentioned a couple times

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi018.htm

The birds challenged the four-footed animals to a great ball play. It was agreed that all creatures which had teeth should be on one side and all those which had feathers should go on the other side with the birds.

 

The play began and it soon appeared that the birds were winning, as they could catch the ball in the air, where the four-footed animals could not reach it. The Crane was the best player. The animals were in despair, as none of them could fly. The little Bat now flew into the air and caught the ball as the Crane was flapping slowly along. Again and again the Bat caught the ball, and he won the game for the four-footed animals.

SO FAR IN CHEROKEE MYTHS ONLY THE NUMBER FOUR REALLY HAS BEEN MENTIONED

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi022.htm

At first he did not reply, but presently the Tiger added, "I am here. You are not going to die, for I will protect you." Then the man answered, "No, I am not dead." "Well, get up," said the Tiger, but the man remained where he was until the animal lifted him to his feet. But then the man staggered about in a circle four times. The Tiger lapped him all over (or let his saliva run all over him) and said, "Can you stand on your feet?" "No," the man answered.

AGAIN CHEROKEE ONLY REALLY MENTIONING THE NUMBER FOUR- mentioned three a couple times mentioned four many many times- FOUR WHOOPS FOUR SNAKES- THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi026.htm

him to go to his mother and tell her that he had become a snake, but that she must not be afraid and must come and see him. Before he started off the youth told his snake friend that when he returned he would give four whoops as a signal for him to come out of the water. Then he went away. When he came back, along with his companion's mother, he found that the pool had become a big lake. They sat down by the shore of this lake and he uttered four whoops. At first the water in the center of the lake began to rise up, and at the fourth the Snake came right up to his mother. Then they saw that horns had grown upon his head like those of a stag. His friend tried to talk to him but he could not reply. He merely laid his head across his mother's lap. Then the friend tied the Snake's gun across his horns so that it could not slip off, and told him that he should stay there and see what would happen. So he and the Snake's mother started home and the Snake disappeared in the water.

IN THIS STORY OF THE CHEROKEE THERE IS A LOT OF MENTIONS OF FOUR AND THREE- THREE TIMES HE TRIED- ON THE FOURTH ATTEMPT HE ATTAINED IT- THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT- NO OTHER NUMBERS MENTIONED

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi030.htm

He lifted his foot the fourth time and succeeded in ascending the platform and the king invited him to sit by his side. Then the king said to him:

 

"See yonder feather; it is yours," pointing to a plume in the corner of the cave. He approached the plume and extended his hand to seize it, but it eluded his grasp. Three times he made the attempt and three times it escaped him. On the fourth attempt he obtained it.

 

"Yonder tomahawk is yours," said the Tie-snakes' king.

 

He went to the place where the tomahawk was sticking and reached out his hand to take it, but in vain. It rose of itself every time he raised his hand. He tried four times and on the fourth trial it remained still and he succeeded in taking it.

AGAIN THE CHEROKEE ONLY REALLY MENTIONING THE NUMBER FOUR- mentioning the number three sometimes and often it is to contrast the three and the four where the fourth is different- But mentioning four A LOT--- FOUR MEN FOUR BIG BALLS FOUR SWIFT WARRIORS

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi031.htm

The Seminoles have a story about the Turkey, who was once the king of the birds and flew high in the air like the eagle. He would swoop down on the council ground and bear away a man. Then people devised a plan to catch him. Four men were to roll four big balls along the ball ground, so as to attract his attention as he circled in the air above them, and four swift warriors were to watch the Turkey as he came down and seize him. The Turkey was seen flying in the clouds over the council ground and at last down he swooped, having the scalp of his last victim hanging at his breast. All of the warriors were afraid to touch him, but an old dog seized him by the leg and they then killed him.

 

Ever since then the turkeys have been afraid of man, but more alarmed at dogs. The turkey gobbler still wears the scalp lock at his breast as a trophy of his former valor.

SO FAR THE CHEROKEE HAVE ONLY REALLY BEEN MENTIONING THE NUMBER FOUR- IN THIS MYTH THERE IS A MENTION OF THE NUMBER 7- THERE ARE SEVEN MEN- BUT THE FOCUS IS ON THE HUNTING AND FOUR TIMES A CREATURE COMES OUT THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi032.htm

The fourth time, however, there was a great swashing of the water and out came the monster turtle, which also laid his head humbly before them. Then they debated what he might be good for. "He might be good for some purpose," they said, and they divided him up, entrails and all, leaving only the shell. The other parts they took to use as medicine and all returned with them to the town rejoicing. "The medicine they thus got was used with the song of the waters as a kind of revenge."

THE CHEROKEE HAVE SO FAR MENTIONED FOUR MANY MANY TIMES MENTIONED THREE A COUPLE TIMES MOSTLY TO CONTRAST WITH FOUR WHERE THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT AND MENTIONED IN ONE MYTH----

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi032.htm

ACCORDING TO MYTHOLOGISTS THE CHEROEE SAW THE NUMBERS FOUR AND SEVEN AS THEIR SACRED NUMBERS- FOUR REPRESENTED THE FOUR DIRECTIONS AND SEVEN REPRESENTED THE FOUR DIRECTIONS PLUS UP DOWN AND CENTER (STILL THE QUADRANT IS EMPHASIZED) and a four plus three pattern- Four dominant

SANG IT FOUR TIMES

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi037.htm

A woman was beating sofki in a mortar out in her yard when she heard someone calling to her and making fun of her. She stopped and looked around, but saw no one. She began beating the corn again, and again heard the voice ridiculing her. She stopped and searched but in vain. Again she heard the voice, which seemed to come from under the wooden mortar, so she lifted the mortar and there found a Terrapin. As he was the guilty one, she took the pestle and beat him on the back until she broke his shell into little pieces and left him as dead. After she left, the Terrapin began to sing in a faint voice:

 

1. Char-tee-lee-lee (tcatilili)

 

I come together.

 

2. Char-tee-lee-lee

 

I come together.

 

3. Char-tee-lee-lee

 

I come together.

 

4. Char-tee-lee-lee

 

I come together.

 

 

The pieces came together as he sang, but his back always looked scarred, and terrapins have ever since then had checkered backs.

THE RAPA NUI OF EASTER ISLAND HAD FOUR MAIN GODS- THE FOUR MAIN GODS EACH HAD A SERVANT- AND THESE FOUR PAIRS WERE WORSHIPPED

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tangata_manu

In the Rapa Nui mythology, the deity Make-make was the chief god of the birdman cult, and the other three deities associated with it were Hawa-tuu-take-take (the Chief of the eggs, a male god), his wife Vie Hoa, and another female deity named Vie Kanatea. Each of these four also had a servant god who was associated with him/ her. The names of all eight would be chanted by contestants during the various rituals preceding the egg hunt.

ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED IN THE STORIES IS THE NUMBER FOUR REALLY SO FAR- CREEK STORIES

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi046.htm

He went across the great water to the east. He was received gladly, and a great dance was arranged. Then Rabbit entered the dancing circle, gaily dressed, and wearing a peculiar cap on his head into which he had stuck four sticks of rosin.

AGAIN SO FAR IN ALL OF THE CREEK MYTHS ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED (besides two once) IS FOUR- FOUR HILLS

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi061.htm

(FOURTH VERSION)

 

(Tuggle collection)

 

The Terrapin proposed to the Wolf a race, and he scornfully accepted. The race was to begin at the top of one hill and to extend to a fourth hill. That night the Terrapin summoned all his kinsfolk to help him and they were to take their stations all along the route, each to wear a white feather on his head.

 

The time came, the word was given, and when the Wolf reached the top of the second hill he saw a Terrapin ahead of him running down the hill, the white feather waving in the grass. He soon passed him, but, on reaching the third hill, there was the Terrapin still crawling ahead. He ran himself out of breath, but, on reaching the last hilltop, to his mortification there sat a Terrapin, at the stake, his plume waving in triumph.

FOUR TERRAPINS FOUR HILLS SO FAR THE ONLY NUMBER BEING USED IN CREEK MYTHS IS FOUR NO OTHER NUMBERS (found three others making four)

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi060.htm

58. TERRAPIN RACES (57)

 

(THIRD VERSION)

 

(Tuggle collection)

 

A Terrapin dared a Deer to run a race. On the appointed day they met and agreed to race over four hills. The Terrapin wore a white feather in his cap. Then he went off and found three other Terrapins and stationed them on the tops of other hills, one on each hill.

 

When the word was given the Deer ran swiftly down the first hill and up the second hill. Just as he was ascending the second hill he saw the white feather of the second Terrapin disappearing over the second hill. He ran faster but could not see the Terrapin, as he threw away his feather just before the Deer reached him. Deer ran down the second hill and as he ascended the third hill he saw the white feather of the third Terrapin disappear over the crest of the third hill. Then the Deer ran from the track and gave up the race.

FOUR DAYS FOURTH DIFFERENT- CREEK MYTHS THUS FAR NO MENTIONE OF ANY NUMBER BUT FOUR

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi063.htm

Then Dr. Buzzard came in haste and said, "What a sad sight; he must be kept quiet. Carry him to the top of his house and put him in a room where no one can come except his doctor, and in four days you may enter and see him." His orders were obeyed. But soon the Rabbit was heard screaming in agony. Running to the room, the door of which was closed, the wife asked, "Oh, what's the matter?" "Nothing," said the Buzzard, "I'm merely dressing his wound." Again the screams were heard, but fainter, and the Rabbit's wife asked, "What makes him scream so?" "Go away. I'm sewing up the cut in his side." No more screams were heard. After four days the Rabbit's wife opened the door and there lay a few bones and a pile of hair. The Buzzard had eaten the Rabbit.

FOUR CHARACTERS IN STORY FOURTH FIRE DIFFERENT

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi094.htm

1. BEAR, TIGER, RATTLESNAKE, AND FIRE (12)

 

Fire was going to teach Bear, Tiger, 1 and Rattlesnake together while they fasted. 2 While Fire was teaching them, all were to stay in one place, but Bear got tired and ran away. They had said Bear was to receive a rattle, and when he ran away Bear took the rattle with him and disappeared.

 

Next day Fire said, "Bear started off, but did not get far from us; he, is lying asleep near by." The rest had remained together.

 

He taught Tiger, Bear, and Rattlesnake together for three years. Bear, who was to have received the rattle, had it taken away from him, and it was given to Rattlesnake. Fire said to the latter, "You must always carry this." Fire gave him the rattle and to him and the other two all kinds of knowledge.

 

Then Fire went away. He set out fires and scattered the fire. The rain fell to put it out, but could not do so, and it spread. It continued raining, but in vain, and when it stopped all men received fire. The fire was distributed. When the red men received knowledge it is said that it was through the fire that they received it. So it is said.

HITCHITI ONLY MENTIONING ONE NUMBER FOUR- NO OTHER NUMBERS BEING MENTIONED- FOURTH DAY FOUR WOLVES

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi113.htm

We are going to have a big chicken dinner at noon. All of you come and eat with us." The Dogs answered, "All right." Then the Wolves went back and dug a hole in the ground, and they waited until the date fixed upon, which was the fourth day.

 

So the old one went inside, and then one of four Wolves sitting round the door to the hole in the ground stood up and said, "We have been looking for this chance to, get you. You have killed all of our beautiful children, and now we are going to kill all of you." One old Wolf talked in this manner and lay down.

HITCHITI ONLY MENTIONING NUMBER FOUR NO NUMBER HAS BEEN MENTIONED OTHER THAN FOUR REALLY- FOUR HILLS RACES

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi115.htm

Wolf met Terrapin and boasted that he could outrun him. Terrapin said, "I am fast," and Wolf said, "I am fast, too."

 

p. 102

 

Then Terrapin said to Wolf, "Let us run a race." After they had set a day, Terrapin went away and looked for some other terrapin. They had agreed to race across four hills and so Terrapin set one terrapin on each of the hills, but he sat on the last himself. When the time had come, and Wolf had arrived, Terrapin said, "When I whoop I am going to start." Presently he whooped and immediately Wolf ran as fast as he could go until he got up on top of one of the hills. When he came there he saw a terrapin climb the next and sit down upon it. He ran on again and when he got to the top of that hill, he saw a terrapin climb up on the third hill and sit down. Wolf thought he was beaten so he left and went away. On a later day, when Terrapin and Wolf met, Terrapin said, "You said you did not believe me but I beat you."

 

It is told that way.

THE ONLY NUMBER THE HITCHITI HAVE BEEN MENTIONING IS THE NUMBER FOUR NO OTHER NUMBER- REPETITION OF FOUR DAYS

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi116.htm

23. HERON AND HUMMING BIRD (50)

 

Heron and Humming Bird agreed to race. They said to each other, "We will race for four days, and whichever first on the fourth day reaches and sits down by a big dead tree standing on the bank of the river shall own all the fish in the water." When the time for the race came, Heron started off, while Humming Bird went along or stopped as he chose. While he was going about tasting the flowers Heron overtook him and went on past, while Humming Bird when he got ready went on and overtook Heron. He passed him and when he got a considerable distance ahead tasted the flowers again. While he was flitting about, Heron kept on, reached him, and went past, but while he was going along Humming Bird overtook and passed him once more. When night came he stopped and slept. Humming Bird sat there asleep, but Heron traveled all night. He went on past and when day came Humming Bird chased him and again overtook him. They went on and the night of the fourth day Humming Bird also slept. He sat where he was until morning and then started on, but when he got to where the dead tree stood, Heron had reached it first and was sitting on it. When Humming Bird got there Heron said to him, "We agreed that whoever got to the dead tree first should own all of the water. Now all of the water is mine." Because Heron said to Humming Bird, "You must not drink water but only taste of the flowers when you travel about," Humming Bird has since merely tasted of the flowers.

 

This is how it has always been told.

FOURTH DAY RAIN PUT FIRE OUT FOURTH DIFFERENT- AGAIN THE ONLY NUMBER THE HITCHITI ARE MENTIONING IS THE NUMBER FOUR

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi117.htm

They shouted at Rabbit as he ran away, and they chased him, but he disappeared. Then they made it rain and on the fourth day said the rain must have put the fire out. So it stopped and the sun shone and the weather was fine. But Rabbit had built a fire in a hollow tree and stayed there while it rained, and when the sun shone he came out and set out fires. Rain came on again and put the fires all out but he again built a fire inside of a hollow tree. When the sun shone he would set out fires and then rains would come and put them out, but they could not stop them entirely. People took fire and ran off with it. Rains kept on putting the fires out at intervals but when they stopped all the people distributed it again, and when the rain stopped fire was established there for good. This is the way it is told. Therefore, they say that Rabbit distributed the fire to all people.

HITCHITI AMERINDIANS THE ONLY NUMBER THAT HAS BEEN SAID IN THE MYTHS IS THE NUMBER FOUR- fourth day

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi120.htm

Rabbit started off, came to a place near by where another Tie-Snake lived and said, "I am a strong man." Rabbit said that to the other Tie-snake. "I also am strong," said the Tie-snake. "Well

 

p. 106

 

then," said Rabbit again, "We must set a day on which to contest to see which is stronger." "All right," said the Tie-snake. So Rabbit agreed upon the same day as that on which he was to meet the other snake. "We will contest on the fourth day," he said.

ALABAMA AMERINDIAN MYTHS- SO FAR THE ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED NUMBER FOUR- four times

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi137.htm

Many Indians once lived far down in the earth where they had been made out of the clay. Half of them decided to come up and began the ascent. As it was dark where they were they procured pine torches and fastened them on their horses. They camped four times on the journey and then came out at noon into the bright sunshine. They were very glad to get out and find a good place on the firm ground in which to camp.

THE ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED IS FOUR TWICE- ALABAMA AMERINDIANS

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi148.htm

 

The fourth night a big earthen pot kept guard. About midnight the old woman got up, seized a stick, and struck it. She broke the pot in pieces.

 

said, "You are not the one I want." Next the long snake came out and he said, "It isn't you." The third time he called there came up a snake with long horns (tcinto såktco, "snake crawfish"), and the youth climbed upon it and sat on its back. He took his roasted birds with him. Then he started to recross the ocean. He would throw a piece of roasted meat in front and the snake would go forward toward the ocean, seize it, and eat it. After it had finished it, it would begin to sink under the water, but he would throw another piece of meat in front of it and it would go on. After his meat was used up, he would shoot an arrow on ahead, and the snake, thinking it was more meat, would start after that. Then the youth picked up his arrow and shot again, and the snake started on again. The fourth time the snake brought him to the bank and, picking up his arrow, the boy jumped ashore.

THERE IS A GIRL LIVING WITH HER THREE BROTHERS (makes four) NO OTHER NUMBER IS MENTIONED- NUMBER FOUR IS MENTIONED MANY TIMES- ALABAMA AMERINDIANS- FOUR HUCKLEBERRIES FOUR BLUEBERRIES FOUR PIECES OF CANE AND SOME MUD (four things in total)

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi150.htm

132:1 In the complete version of the story four huckleberries, four blackberries, and four pieces of cane wore evidently thrown down in succession. The pieces of cane wore a fourth gift of the old woman, and that is why cane is mentioned here, though not noted in my original story when the gifts were enumerated. Four, however, satisfies the story requirements of the Alabama.

 

Next day, when Big Man-eater went hunting again, his wife said to the girl, "If you stay here, he will devour you. He has caused me grief by eating me nearly up. Run away. Run along upon this good trail and return and then run along. upon this other good trail and return." After she had defecated close to the house she ran along upon every trail and returned. The woman had given her four ripe huckleberries, four blackberries, [and four pieces of cane]. She also gave her some mud. "Run along upon this old trail," she said. "When he has nearly come up to you, throw down a huckleberry and go on," she said. "The next time he has almost caught you do the same thing. The next time throw down a blackberry and go on. After that throw down the mud and go on," she said to her.

THE GIRL AND HER THREE BROTHERS (four)- THE ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED IN THE STORY IS THE FOUR HUCKLEBERRIES

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi151.htm

 

Before she started the first wife broke off four huckleberries and gave them to her [along with some canes]

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi156.htm

139:1 A note of another version speaks of four men instead of two and says that they traveled west.

 

 

FASCINATING THIS STORY BY THE ALABAMA AMERINDIANS IS ABOUT "TWO MEN WHO WENT TO THE SKY" BUT THE FOOTNOTE SAYS THAT THE ALABAMA INDIANS HAVE ANOTHER VERSION OF THE STORY WHERE IT IS THE FOUR MEN WHO WENT TO THE SKY- THE FOUR IS SO DOMINANT THAT IF THEY HAVE A STORY WITH A TWO THEY ALSO MENTION THAT THERE IS ANOTHER VERSION OF THAT STORY BUT WITH FOUR

 

Two men started off to visit The-One-Sitting-Above (God). They went on. They went a long distance and came to where a Sharp-buttocks lived. He set out a chair with a hole in it and they sat down. "A battle is about to be fought here," he said. So they made arrows. After they had done this ducks came as the Sharp-buttocks had foretold, along with geese and white cranes. They fought together and hung upon and threw one another down on the ground. The two men fought and afterwards they roasted and ate the fowl. Then they started on.

THE ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED OTHER THAN THE FACT THERE IS TWO MEN IS THE FOUR BOTTLES OF WHISKY- THE FOURTH BOTTLE IS DIFFERENT ALABAMA AMERINDIANS

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi159.htm

Then the prophet took four bottles of whisky and a white blanket to lie on. They wrapped him up, placed the whisky by him, tied the corners with a rope and lifted him. Those assembled smoked tobacco, blowing the smoke about continually, until the prophet lay as if dead. Then they laid him down on the ground.

 

He kept on that way until he had used up all but the fourth bottle, the last one. He heard him shout in the distance. Then he poured out the last of this bottle and came on once more, but when the friend reached that place he stopped and disappeared.

THE FOUR IS SO DOMINANT IN THE ALABAMA AMERINDIAN CULTURE THEY HAVE A STORY WITH TWO MEN WHO GO TO MEAT GOD BUT THEY QUALIFY THE STORY BY SAYING "THERE IS ANOTHER VERSION OF THE STORY WITH FOUR MEN"

BEAR COMES ON THE FOURTH DAY- AGAIN THE ONLY NUMBER BEING MENTIONED IN ALABAMA AMERINDIAN MYTHS IS THE NUMBER FOUR

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi169.htm

A man of the Bear clan (Nita ayeksa) living in a certain village went hunting deer, and while walking around met a Bear. "How many men of your clan are there?" said the Bear. He told him how many there were. Then the Bear said, "I am going to come on the fourth day. I am going to kill all of the people. All of you [Bear people] hang up a white cloth. I will not kill anyone at your camp." Some of the men did not believe this. On the morning of the fourth day the bears came and the people took their guns to kill them. Many little and big bears came and killed all of the people but left those who had a white cloth hung out.

NO NUMBER MENTIONED BUT THE NUMBER FOUR AND IT SAYS "THREE OR FOUR TIMES"- THE QUADRANT DYNAMIC THREE AND FOUR- ALSO FOUR HUNTERS

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi176.htm

It crossed without seeing him and went back again. After it had crossed and recrossed three or four times without finding him it went back to its den.

AGAIN THE ONLY NUMBER THAT HAS BEEN BEING MENTIONED BY THE ALABAM AMERINDIANS IS THE NUMBER FOUR- CALLED FOUR TIMES SHE COMES OUT ON THE FOURTH- FOURTH ALWAYS DIFFERENT

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi178.htm

 

A woman got some bison grease and walked along with it. On the bank of a river she picked up some turtle and terrapin eggs and she fried them. Her husband told her not to fry the turtle and terrapin eggs together with the grease but she did so and ate them. Immediately her legs twisted together and became like the tail of a snake. She went down into the water, her husband's people following her, wailing. When they called four times to her she came out. She looked wholly like a snake. Then she went back into the water and stayed there and was never seen again.

REPETITION OF FOUR TIMES- AGAIN FOUR ONLY NUMBER BEING MENTIONED

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi190.htm

In the morning Rabbit said, "Let us go to Jumping-bluff Creek," and they started on. After they had traveled for a while they reached the place and went down the creek. "Let us jump across it and back four times," said Rabbit. Rabbit jumped first four times. When Big Man-eater prepared to jump Rabbit held for him the bag he was carrying. Before Big Man-eater had jumped four times he fell from the bluff into the water. The water rose and Big Man-eater went down into it. "My friend is gone; he is going far out into the sea," said Rabbit. Rabbit, however, took Big Man-eater's bag and started home.

HAPPENS FOUR TIMES- AGAIN FOUR HAS BEEN THE ONLY NUMBER BEING MENTIONED BY THE ALABAMA AMERINDIANS

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi195.htm

now?" Buzzard said, as before, "I am pouring medicine over him." This happened four times. When his cries ceased, Buzzard came out and flew away. And when someone looked into the house he saw nothing lying there but bones.

FOUR ARROWS- AGAIN FOUR HAS BEEN THE ONLY NUMBER BEING MENTIONED

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi196.htm

After this had happened several times, the youth drew his four arrows. He shot a red arrow. He killed a bison, but it was not the big one. After his arrow had passed through a bison it returned to him, so he kept on shooting until he had used the four arrows and killed them all. The big bison was the woman's husband, and when he shot him she jumped down from the tree and fell upon him. She wept; she did not want to go home. For that the youth killed her, took her clothes and earrings and carried them home, and when he got to where her mother lived she gave him a trunk full of things by way of payment.

FOUR REPEATED A LOT ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED IN THIS MYTH- KOASATI

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi213.htm

wander off [hunting] and when he did so they got into the boat and went away, leaving him there. Then the orphan said, "Hold on, I want to go too," but they left him and went away. Not knowing what to do, the orphan traveled along by the river. He traveled, traveled, and presently a Woodpecker came close to him singing. "Hī+yi', I will knock you down and kill you," said the orphan. "Don't. I am making a noise because I have something to tell you." "All right. Tell it to me!" he said and he rubbed red paint on the Woodpecker's head. Then the latter said to him, "Something big is pursuing you. Make many arrows. And as you travel make, four wooden rollers, travel on, and sit at the end of a bent-over tree. The big thing, Big Man-eater, will come there with some huge dogs."

 

He got there with the dogs. Then the man was sitting up in the tree. And he threw the rollers one by one far out on the water. Each time he did so the dogs jumped in after it. When he threw in the fourth one, the dogs did not want to go in after it. So Big Man-eater became angry and killed all of his four big dogs. He took out a little clay pot which he always carried in his pocket and made it large by snapping his fingers against it. He set it down right at the very edge of the water, made a fire, and put water into the pot. Then he put all of his dogs into it, cooked them, and devoured them all. He put all of their bones into the water, stood on the bank and called all of his dogs by name. One shook himself and came out. All four did the same thing. He called to them and started off and they disappeared.

FOUR DAYS FOUR TIMES (other than two) FOUR ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED
http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi215.htm
So he remained there and at the end of four days he said, "Let us go to bathe." They set out. They went down to a big creek near by and as soon as they got there he dived out of sight under water. After the

p. 180

woman had sat waiting for a few minutes he came out on the other side of the creek. He dived again and came out close by her. After he had done this four times; he said, "All right." The woman stayed to wash her hair. Then both came out and returned to the house.

KOASATI AMERINDIANS

MENTION PYGMY MAN PANTHER AND WILD CAT- FOUR- SAYS FOUR DAYS- ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED IN KOASATI MYTHS HAS BEEN NUMBER FOUR REALLY NUMBER FOUR HAS BEEN DOMINANT

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi221.htm

A man traveling along met a pygmy. An old man said, "Whoever first kills a very big bad elk which pursues people in order to kill them will be able to slay anything." The pygmy, the man, the Panther, and the Wildcat, all four, sat down and waited. For four days all stayed there looking for it. Then the elk made a noise. They heard something coming toward them. Then all stood up prepared to shoot. The human being stood in front, the pygmy next, the Panther

KOASATI AMERINDIANS- FOUR MENTIONED THREE TIMES NO OTHER NUMBER MENTIONED- SAYS ONE BEAR PASSED THROUGH THEN TWO THEN THREE THEN FOUR.... AFTER THAT OTHERS CAME IN CROWDS--- AFTER FOUR THERE IS A SHIFT IT ENDS AT FOUR- AGAIN EMPHASIS ON FOUR NO OTHER NUMBERS AND FOUR DAYS

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi227.htm

Indians living in a certain town killed a white bear and walked through the village with it rejoicing and shouting. After that an Indian of the Bear clan traveling about was met by a Bear, which asked him, "To what clan do you belong?" "I am a Bear," he said. "Are you glad on account of what has happened?" "I don't like it," he said. Then the Bear said "On the morning of the fourth day I am going to come." The man answered, "On that very morning they have said, 'We will eat grease.'" "Tell all of your people," said the Bear. He went back and told them, but some of them would not believe him. So he took only his family, and settled in a place apart where they hung up something white. On the morning of the fourth

 

p. 191

 

day a young bear came to the town. When it got there they shot it with their guns. Presently two passed the camp of the Bear clan and went into the village, and they also shot those. Next three passed and went into the village and they shot them. Next time four passed through the Bear camp into the village and were shot. But after that happened others came in crowds. They killed all of the Indians. On the way back from killing them the Bear whom the Indian had met before stopped at his camp and told him he had left the bear meat for him and his friends.

AGAIN ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED IN MYTH FOUR
http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi228.htm
Then the Bear said to the orphan, "Now I must leave you. The hunters are coming after me and want to kill me." And the Bear said to the orphan, "When they kill me, they will take you back, but don't eat of my flesh. If the people say 'Eat!' do not eat of me! After they have killed me, cut off leaves and put them under me and leave me, but, when they are gone, come back here, pile the leaves up, set them on fire, and return. When four days are passed come here to look at the place. You will see a young pokeweed standing there, which you must cut off and split in two. Look into it and you will see something inside. Take it with you, and with it you can kill anything you desire. Don't kill me! (i. e., bears?)" But the orphan was very sad. 1

AGAIN ONLY NUMBER MENTIONED KOASATI FOUR- FOUR TIMES

http://sacred-texts.com/nam/se/mtsi/mtsi231.htm

If it inclined upward he hit it on the head and made it turn down. He struck it on the head and made it come down four times. When it dropped upon the ground he got off and ran away. As he went he saw the thing like a black cloud following him and he ran fast. When he got to some woods the eagle approached them, wheeled about and went back.

LOOK AT THE REPETITION OF FOURS- FOUR BEINGS - APACHE CREATION YTCREATED WORLD AMERINDIAN MYTH FOUR GODS

http://www.stavacademy.co.uk/mimir/apachecreation.htm

http://www.stavacademy.co.uk/mimir/apachecreation.htm

In the beginning there was only darkness. Suddenly a small bearded man, the One Who Lives Above, appeared rubbing his eyes as if just awakened. The man, the Creator, rubbed his hands together and there appeared a little girl, Girl-Without-Parents. The creator rubbed his face with his hands and there stood the Sun-God. Again Creator rubbed his sweaty brow and from his hands dropped Small-boy. Now there were four gods. Then he created Tarantula, Big Dipper, Wind, Lightning-Maker and Lightning-Rumbler. All four gods shook hands so that their sweat mixed together. Then Creator rubbed his palms together from which fell a small round, brown ball. They took turns kicking it and with each kick the ball grew larger. Creator told Wind to go inside the ball and blow it up. Then Tarantula spun a black cord which he attached to the ball and went to the east pulling as hard as he could.

FOUR FOUNDERS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Founders_of_the_Daughters_of_the_American_Revolution

The Founders of the Daughters of the American Revolution is a sculpture located beside Constitution Hall in Washington, D.C., United States.[1] Dedicated in 1929, the sculpture was created by artist and socialite Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney in honor of the four founders of the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR): Mary Desha, Mary Smith Lockwood, Ellen Hardin Walworth, and Eugenia Washington.[2] The sculpture is one of three outdoor artworks in Washington, D.C. by Whitney, the other two being the Titanic Memorial and the Aztec Fountain at the Pan American Union Building.[3]

 

Design[edit]

The marble sculpture is a female figure symbolizing American womanhood. She has outstretched arms and is adorned with flowing drapery. Four medallions honoring the four founders of the DAR are on the front of a rectangular marble stele that stands behind the sculpture.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skan

In Lakota tradition, Škáŋ is the Motion of the universe. The Great Spirit, Wakȟáŋ Tȟáŋka, reflected upon himself and created the four Superior Spirits, Wi (the first to be created, bringing light to the world), Skan, Maka (Mother Earth) and Íŋyaŋ (the solid support of the Earth or the rock associated with the natural forces of the Earth).

INCAN EMPIRE CALLED FOUR UNITED REGIONS- FOUR CREATION MYTHS INVOLVING FOUR MEN AND FOUR WOMEN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Incas

The Quechua name was Tawantin Suyu which can be translated The Four Regions or The Four United Regions. Before the Quechua spelling reform it was written in Spanish as Tahuantinsuyo. Tawantin is a group of four things (tawa "four" with the suffix -ntin which names a group); suyu means "region" or "province".

 

The Inca had four types of origin myths. In one, Tici Viracocha of Colina de las Ventanas in Paqariq Tampu sent forth his four sons and four daughters to establish a village. Along the way, Sinchi Roca was born to Manco and Ocllo, and Sinchi Roca is the person who finally led them to the valley of Cuzco where they founded their new village. There Manco became their leader and became known as Manco Cápac.

Bilaan (Mindanao)

http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/creation-phil.html

In the beginning there were four beings (Melu, Fiuweigh, Diwata, and Saweigh), and they lived on an island no larger than a hat. On this island there were no trees or grass or any other living thing besides these four people and one bird (Buswit). One day they sent this bird out across the waters to see what he could find, and when he returned he brought some earth, a piece of rattan, and some fruit.

 

Melu, the greatest of the four, took the soil and shaped it and beat it with a paddle in the same manner in which a woman shapes pots of clay, and when he finished he had made the earth. Then he planted the seeds from the fruit, and they grew until there was much rattan and many trees bearing fruit.

 

The four beings watched the growth for a long time and were well pleased with the work, but finally Melu said, "Of what use is this earth and all the rattan and fruit if there are no people?"

LOOK AT THE REPTITION OF FOURS

http://www.gly.uga.edu/railsback/CS/CSFourCreations.html

The Four Creations

 

The world at first was endless space in which existed only the Creator, Taiowa. This world had no time, no shape, and no life, except in the mind of the Creator. Eventually the infinite creator created the finite in Sotuknang, whom he called his nephew and whom he created as his agent to establish nine universes. Sotuknang gathered together matter from the endless space to make the nine solid worlds. Then the Creator instructed him to gather together the waters from the endless space and place them on these worlds to make land and sea. When Sotuknang had done that, the Creator instructed him to gather together air to make winds and breezes on these worlds.

 

The fourth act of creation with which the Creator charged Sotuknang was the creation of life. Sotuknang went to the world that was to first host life and there he created Spider Woman, and he gave her the power to create life. First Spider Woman took some earth and mixed it with saliva to make two beings. Over them she sang the Creation Song, and they came to life. She instructed one of them, Poqanghoya, to go across the earth and solidify it. She instructed the other, Palongawhoya, to send out sound to resonate through the earth, so that the earth vibrated with the energy of the Creator. Poqanghoya and Palongawhoya were despatched to the poles of the earth to keep it rotating.

 

Then Spider Woman made all the plants, the flowers, the bushes, and the trees. Likewise she made the birds and animals, again using earth and singing the Creation Song. When all this was done, she made human beings, using yellow, red, white, and black earth mixed with her saliva. Singing the Creation Song, she made four men, and then in her own form she made four women. At first they had a soft spot in their foreheads, and although it solidified, it left a space through which they could hear the voice of Sotuknang and their Creator. Because these people could not speak, Spider Woman called on Sotuknang, who gave them four languages. His only instructions were for them to respect their Creator and to live in harmony with him.

 

These people spread across the earth and multiplied. Despite their four languages, in those days they could understand each other's thoughts anyway, and for many years they and the animals lived together as one. Eventually, however, they began to divide, both the people from the animals and the people from each other, as they focused on their differences rather than their similarities. As division and suspicion became more widespread, only a few people from each of the four groups still remembered their Creator. Sotuknang appeared before these few and told them that he and the Creator would have to destroy this world, and that these few who remembered the Creator must travel across the land, following a cloud and a star, to find refuge. These people began their treks from the places where they lived, and when they finally converged Sotuknang appeared again. He opened a huge ant mound and told these people to go down in it to live with the ants while he destroyed the world with fire, and he told them to learn from the ants while they were there. The people went down and lived with the ants, who had storerooms of food that they had gathered in the summer, as well as chambers in which the people could live. This went on for quite a while, because after Sotuknang cleansed the world with fire it took a long time for the world to cool off. As the ants' food ran low, the people refused the food, but the ants kept feeding them and only tightened their own belts, which is why ants have such tiny waists today.

 

Finally Sotuknang was done making the second world, which was not quite as beautiful as the first. Again he admonished the people to remember their Creator as they and the ants that had hosted them spread across the earth. The people multiplied rapidly and soon covered the entire earth. They did not live with the animals, however, because the animals in this second world were wild and unfriendly. Instead the people lived in villages and built roads between these, so that trade sprang up. They stored goods and traded those for goods from elsewhere, and soon they were trading for things they did not need. As their desire to have more and more grew, they began to forget their Creator, and soon wars over resources and trade were breaking out between villages. Finally Sotuknang appeared before the few people who still remembered the Creator, and again he sent them to live with the ants while he destroyed this corrupt world. This time he ordered Poqanghoya and Palongawhoya to abandon their posts at the poles, and soon the world spun out of control and rolled over. Mountains slid and fell, and lakes and rivers splashed across the land as the earth tumbled, and finally the earth froze over into nothing but ice.

 

This went on for years, and again the people lived with the ants. Finally Sotuknang sent Poqanghoya and Palongawhoya back to the poles to resume the normal rotation of the earth, and soon the ice melted and life returned. Sotuknang called the people up from their refuge, and he introduced them to the third world that he had made. Again he admonished the people to remember their Creator as they spread across the land. As they did so, they multiplied quickly, even more quickly than before, and soon they were living in large cities and developing into separate nations. With so many people and so many nations, soon there was war, and some of the nations made huge shields on which they could fly, and from these flying shields they attacked other cities. When Sotuknang saw all this war and destruction, he resolved to destroy this world quickly before it corrupted the few people who still remembered the Creator. He called on Spider Woman to gather those few and, along the shore, she placed each person with a little food in the hollow stem of a reed. When she had done this, Sotuknang let loose a flood that destroyed the warring cities and the world on which they lived.

 

Once the rocking of the waves ceased, Spider Woman unsealed the reeds so the people could see. They floated on the water for many days, looking for land, until finally they drifted to an island. On the island they built little reed boats and set sail again to the east. After drifting many days, they came to a larger island, and after many more days to an even larger island. They hoped that this would be the fourth world that Sótuknang had made for them, but Spider Woman assured them that they still had a long and hard journey ahead. They walked across this island and built rafts on the far side, and set sail to the east again. They came to a fourth and still larger island, but again they had to cross it on foot and then build more rafts to continue east. From this island, Spider Woman sent them on alone, and after many days they encountered a vast land. Its shores were so high that they could not find a place to land, and only by opening the doors in their heads did they know where to go to land.

 

When they finally got ashore, Sotuknang was there waiting for them. As they watched to the west, he made the islands that they had used like stepping stones disappear into the sea. He welcomed them to the fourth world, but he warned them that it was not as beautiful as the previous ones, and that life here would be harder, with heat and cold, and tall mountains and deep valleys. He sent them on their way to migrate across the wild new land in search of the homes for their respective clans. The clans were to migrate across the land to learn its ways, although some grew weak and stopped in the warm climates or rich lands along the way. The Hopi trekked and far and wide, and went through the cold and icy country to the north before finally settling in the arid lands between the Colorado River and Rio Grande River. They chose that place so that the hardship of their life would always remind them of their dependence on, and link to, their Creator.

NUN PERSONIFIED AS FOUR PAIRS OF DEITIES -- NUN WAS THE PRIOMORDIAL GOD "AN INFINITE EXPANSE OF DARK AND DIRECTIONLESS WATERS"

http://www.historymuseum.ca/cmc/exhibitions/civil/egypt/egcr09e.shtml

The Book of the Dead, dating to the Second Intermediate Period, describes how the world was created by Atum, the god of Heliopolis, the centre of the sun-god cult in Lower Egypt. In the beginning, the world appeared as an infinite expanse of dark and directionless waters, named Nun. Nun was personified as four pairs of male and female deities. Each couple represented one of four principles that characterized Nun: hiddenness or invisibility, infinite water, straying or lack of direction, and darkness or lack of light.

THE FOUR OFFSPRING OF NUT AND THE FOUR PAIRS OF GODS EGYPT ENNEAD

http://www.historymuseum.ca/cmc/exhibitions/civil/egypt/egcr09e.shtml

Geb and Nut produced four offspring: Seth, the god of disorder; Osiris, the god of order; and their sisters, Nephthys and Isis. This new generation completed the Heliopolitan Ennead, the group of nine deities that began with Atum, the primeval creator god.

 

In another version of the creation story, the city of Hermopolis, in Middle Egypt, substituted the Ennead with a group of eight deities called the Ogdoad. It consisted of four pairs of gods and goddesses symbolizing different aspects of the chaos that existed before creation. The goddesses were depicted as snakes and the gods as frogs. Their names were Nun and Naunet (water), Amun and Amaunet (hiddenness), Heh and Hauhet (infinity), and Kek and Kauket (darkness).

THE FOUR OFFSPRING OF NUT AND THE FOUR PAIRS OF GODS EGYPT ENNEAD

http://www.historymuseum.ca/cmc/exhibitions/civil/egypt/egcr09e.shtml

Geb and Nut produced four offspring: Seth, the god of disorder; Osiris, the god of order; and their sisters, Nephthys and Isis. This new generation completed the Heliopolitan Ennead, the group of nine deities that began with Atum, the primeval creator god.

 

In another version of the creation story, the city of Hermopolis, in Middle Egypt, substituted the Ennead with a group of eight deities called the Ogdoad. It consisted of four pairs of gods and goddesses symbolizing different aspects of the chaos that existed before creation. The goddesses were depicted as snakes and the gods as frogs. Their names were Nun and Naunet (water), Amun and Amaunet (hiddenness), Heh and Hauhet (infinity), and Kek and Kauket (darkness).

THE FOUR PRIMORDIAL BEINGS OF HESIOD GREEK

https://global.oup.com/us/companion.websites/9780199997329/student/materials/chapter3/summary/

Hesiod in his epic poem the Theogony offers the earliest Greek version of genesis. CHAOS (“yawning void”) provides the beginning for creation. Out of Chaos the universe came into being. Later writers interpret Chaos as a mass of many elements (or only four: earth, air, fire, and water) from which the universe was created. From Hesiod’s Chaos came Ge, Tartarus, Eros, Erebus, and Night.

LENAPE THE FOUR KEEPERS OF CREATION- PLANT BEINGS OF FOUR KINDS

http://henryhahn.net/myths/lenapecreation.html

There were first created the Keepers of Creation, four powerful Spirit Beings, to help him in his task of fulfilling and creating the vision: the Spirits of the Rock, Fire, Wind, and Water. Into each he breathed life and Spirit, giving each different characteristics and powers. These four beings were:

 

These four Spirit beings, Keepers of the Creation, did help the Creator to make the stars, the sun, the moon and the Earth.

 

First were made the plant beings of four kinds, grasses, flowering plants, trees, and crops. To each was given, through Spirit, life, growth, healing, and beauty. Each was placed where it would be most useful, and give the greatest harmony and balance to all land and life.

FOUR GODS MAYAN CREATION MYTH

http://web.bend.k12.or.us/cameron.reynolds/Reynolds_Blog/Frosh_Honors/Entries/2016/10/12_Narrative_Due,_Creation_Stories_files/Creation%20Stories.pdf

There were four gods in heaven and each of them sat on his chair, observing the world below. Then the yellow lord suggested that they make a man to enjoy the earth and offer praise to the gods. The other three agreed.

So the yellow god took a lump of yellow clay and made a man from it. But his creation was weak; it dissolved in water and could not stand upright.

Then the red god suggested that they make a man out of wood, and the others agreed. So the red god took a branch from a tree and carved it into a human shape. When they tested it in water, it floated; it stood upright without any problem whatsoever. However, when they tested it with fire, it burned.

The four lords decided to try again. This time the black god suggested making a man out of gold. The gold man was beautiful and shone like the sun. He survived the tests of fire and water, looking even more handsome after these tests. However, the gold man was cold to the touch; he was unable to speak, feel, move, or worship the gods. But they left him on earth anyway.

The fourth god, the colorless lord, decided to make humans out of his own flesh. He cut the fingers off his left hand and they jumped and fell to earth. The four gods could hardly see what the men of flesh looked like as they were so far away. From the seat of the four lords, they looked like busy little ants.

But the men of flesh worshipped the gods and made offerings to them. They filled the hearts of the four lords with joy. One day the men of flesh found the man of gold. When they touched him, he was as cold as a stone. When they spoke to him, he was silent. But the kindness of the men of flesh warmed the heart of the man of gold and he came to life, offering praise to the gods for the kindness of the men of flesh.

The word of praise from the previously silent creature woke the four gods from their sleep and they looked down on earth in delight. They called the man of gold "rich" and the men of flesh "poor," ordaining that the rich should look after the poor. The rich man will be judged at his death on the basis of how he cared for the poor. From that day onward, no rich man can enter heaven unless he is brought there by a poor man. Maya Gods and Goddesses

FOUR GODS OF MAIZE FOUR COLORS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinteteo

In Aztec mythology, the Cinteteo (Nahuatl pronunciation: [sinteːˈteoʔ]) are the four gods of maize. They are sons of the goddess Centeotl and the god Cinteotl. Their names are Iztac-Cinteotl (meaning white corn), Tlatlauhca-Cinteotl (meaning red corn), Cozauhca-Cinteotl (meaning yellow corn), Yayauhca-Cinteotl (meaning black corn).[1]

QUETZALCOATL WEARS A QUINCUNX CROSS OF FIVE DOTS ON HIS FACE

http://grahamhancock.com/phorum/read.php?4,822303,822342

Quetzalcoatl is depicted in Mexican manuscripts as a personage bearing on his face the figure five in the form of dots disposed in a quincunx

THIS DESCRIBES THE CROSS OF QUETZALCOATL- IT ALSO DISCUSSES HOW THE NUMBER FOUR WAS SACRED TO TEH AZTECS AND FIVE WAS SEEN AS EXCESS BUT FIVE WAS SEEN AS A "SPECIAL CASE OF THE NUMBER FOUR"- I DESCRIBED IN THE QUADRANT MODEL THAT THE FOURTH IS TRANSCENDENT AND POINTS TO INDICATES THE NATURE OF THE ULTRA TRANSCENDENT FIFTH

 

https://books.google.com/books?id=ZhifwiSUiQ4C&pg=PA93&lpg=PA93&dq=quetzalcoatl+shot+arrow+into+tree+cross&source=bl&ots=R2xDhVP4Be&sig=G4N4bEBaV55JTSiX-vdKZhgRt_k&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwis8N-B2NDUAhVBGWMKHSR9B4IQ6AEILTAC#v=onepage&q=cross&f=false

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DAKOTA AND FOUR

http://www.tc.umn.edu/~call0031/dakota.html

In general terms, and like some other Native American groups, Dakota spirituality centers around certain customs and beliefs, concepts, events, and objects. These include the sweatlodge, pipe, drums, singing, the naming ceremony, prayer, vision questing and guardian spirits, the ceremonial pow wow (such as the Sun Dance), the medicine man or woman (shamans), medicine bags, dream articles and traditional stories regarding the Great Spirit. Ritual and spiritual objects include sage,sweetgrass,tobacco, and cedar. Dogs were often used in religious feasts and were akin to the sacrifical lambs of early Christianity. Four is a sacred number. There are 4 seasons and four powers of the universe sit at the four cardinal directions of North, South, East, and West. The symbolic "four colors of man" are red,yellow,black, and white. Stones are considered the oldest people and spiritual people talk to them and refer to them in curing and finding lost objects. Frances Densmore wrote a whole chapter including songs in her book The Teton Sioux and their Music.

DAKOTA FOUR RANKS OF GODS WITH FOUR GODS IN EACH RANK THAT IS 16 16 SQUARES QMR

http://www.tc.umn.edu/~call0031/dakota.html

James Walker's Outline of Oglala Mythology

 

James Walker was a Physician and Anthropologist who worked on the Pine Ridge Reservation and who became an Oglala medicine man. He outlined Oglala Mythology as follows:

"The category of the Gods as held by the shamans place them in four ranks with four in each rank, having prestige and precedence according to rank and place in rank.

The first rank is of the Superior Gods who are Wi (the Sun), the chief of the Gods; Skan (the sky), the Great All-powerful Spirit; Maka (the Earth), the ancestress of all upon the world and provider for all; and Inyan (the Rock), the primal source of all things.

The second rank is of the Associate Gods who are Hanwi (the Moon), created by Wi to be his companion; Tate (the Wind), created by Skan to be his companion;Unk (Contention), created by Maka to be her companion, but who was cast into the waters and is the Goddess of the Waters and ancestress of all evil beings; and Wakinyan (Winged One), created by Inyan to be his active associate.

DAKOTA SAY THE 16 GODS ARE ALL ASPECTS OF ONE SUPREME BEING- THE 16 SQUARES OF THE QUADRANT MODEL ARE ALL ONE

http://www.tc.umn.edu/~call0031/dakota.html

The third rank is of the four Subordinate Gods who are Ta Tanka (The Buffalo God), the patron of ceremonies, of health, and of provision; Hu Nonp (the Bear God), the patron of wisdom; Wani (the Four Winds), the vitalizer and weather; and Yum (the Whirlwind), the God of chance, of games, and of love.

The fourth rank is of the Inferior Gods who are Nagi (the Spirit); Niya (the Ghost); Sicun (the Intellect); and Nagila (the immaterial self of irrational things).

These sixteen Gods are each but a personal manifestation of one Supreme Being and that being is Wakan Tanka, the Great Mystery.

Skan created of his essence a daughter to be the Mediator and named her Wohpe. He endowed her with God-like attributes and made her the patron of harmony, beauty, and pleasure. She is more beautiful than any other being.

Inyan has two offspring. The older was brought forth full grown from an egg in an antinatural manner by Wakinyan. His name was Ksa and he was the God of wisdom but he became the imp of mischief and his name is Iktomi.

The second son of Inyan is Iya, who is utterly evil and the chief of all evil beings.. He committed incest with his mother Unk and their offspring is a very beautiful, very enticing, and very deceitful demon whose name is Gnaski.

These are the characters that appear most often in Oglala mythology. The mythic legends give the genesis of the Gods and of all creation. A brief of those relative to the four Superior Gods is this:

CHEYENNE FOUR SOULS

https://www.nps.gov/wica/learn/historyculture/upload/-9B-9-Chapter-Nine-Nature-and-Cosmos-Pp-282-304.pdf

10 The Cheyenne also believe in the existence of four souls, whose spiritual forces are attributed to each of the four Ma’heyuno or Four Directions (Moore 1974a:166).

THE PROPHET OF THE SENECA AMERINDIANS, HANDSOME LAKE, HAD A VISION OF THREE BEINGS AND THE THREE BEINGS TOLD HIM THAT THERE WAS A FOURTH BUT HE WAS NOT THERE WITH HIM AND LATER HANDSOME LAKE MET THE FOURTH GOD- THESE FOUR BEINGS GAVE HANDSOME LAKE FOUR WORDS- AGAIN THE FOURTH WAS DIFFERENT

 

https://books.google.com/books?id=x7sj1msqvWQC&pg=PA67&lpg=PA67&dq=seneca+indians+four+god's+prophet&source=bl&ots=527LkvdHBG&sig=rp8U-S-R4Qw_cjxVSr-Mru--JKA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiwvq6M8_rUAhUP72MKHfexB00Q6AEIMzAD#v=onepage&q=seneca%20indians%20four%20god's%20prophet&f=false

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THE FOUR CARDINAL DIRECTIONS THE QUADRANT AND UP AND DOWN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pomo_religion

According to Pomo ceremony and tradition, the world contained six supernatural beings (or groups of spirits) who lived at the ends of the world: one in each of the four cardinal directions, plus one above in the sky, and one below in the earth:[3]

 

Guksu, also called Kuksu in different Pomo languages,[4] was a supernatural being that lived at the southern end of the world. The word also means a large mosquito like insect locally known as the 'gallinipper'. Healing was his province or specialty and the Pomo medicine men or doctors made their prayers to him. He was normal size human with a very long, large and sharp red nose. He was good natured on the whole. In dance ceremonies, the impersonators of Guksu painted their bodies black, or striped red, white and black. They wore bulky, feathery headdress or a large feather tuft on their head with a yellow headband. The nose was made with feathers and painted red. The impersonators carried a staff 6 to 8 inches long with a feather tuft at top, and provided a double bone whistle. He would whistle but not speak.

Calnis lived at the eastern end of the world. In ceremonial dances Calnis associated with Guksu, he was also human form, but he was usually testy and pursued people and 'tripped them up'.[5] In dance ceremonies, the Calnis dancer was painted entirely black and carried a black staff without feathers. On his head he wore a feather cape that fell over his face.

Suupadax lived at the northern end of the world. The word is associated with a whirlwind.

Xa-matutsi lived at the western end of the world. The word is associated with the Pacific Ocean and with 'water occupation'. The Pacific Ocean was the western edge of Pomo territory, and it was therefore a very important part of their mythology. The Pomo believed the world was bounded by water along the west.

Kali-matutsi lived in the sky and heavens above. The word is associated with 'sky occupation.'

Kai-matutsi lived on the earth and below. The word associated is with 'earth occupation.'

INCA THE LAND OF THE FOUR SECTIONS

http://peruroutes.com/peru_ing_incas.html

The Inca Empire was the biggest civilization in South America. The integrated territory was called Tahuantinsuyo “land of the four sections.”

Power was not concentrated in a single man, the Inca civilization had a dual government, the power should be divided in two people, one that managed the civic, politics, economic, social and military life and the another person had in his hands all the religious function.

FOUR SACRED TO THE CREEK

https://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/medicine-of-the-creek-indians.htm

In order to become a medicine man or a medicine woman a person must fast a certain number of days, must learn the prescribed songs, must prepare medicines (and charms) according to well-established formulae, must remain in seclusion at times, and must then use the medicines which had been thus prepared when called to minister to the sick. This process of instruction and initiation continued four moons in each year for four successive years. Each medicine must be learned in four days. Some practitioners would refuse to administer remedies for certain diseases and would send the patient to another who was regarded as a specialist in that subject.

 

Four was a sacred number among the Creek. It will be remembered that the novice in medicine fasted for four days. One must sing a song for four days detailing the virtues of the medicine and teaching what it would do. Thus the number four appeared in numerous places. There were four days assigned in which to learn each remedy and four months in each year of a four-year period for completing the medical course. Again, a man might not have sexual relations with his wife for four months after the birth of a child. A sick man must use a remedy during four consecutive days. Mr. Porter said that, certain herbs were collected one at a time on four successive days, and successively on exposures toward the east, the south, the west, and the north.

FOUR AND THE CREEK- FOUR PEBBLES FOUR TIMES

https://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/medicine-of-the-creek-indians.htm

Insanity was treated as follows. First, four clear white pebbles were selected and placed in a cup of clear water. Over this certain ceremonies were performed and certain songs sung. Then the medicine man took some of the water into his mouth and spurted it violently upon the head of the insane man, also causing him to drink from the cup four times. It was believed that this performance gave the medicine man power over the insane person who thereafter was compelled to do his bidding and was treated in various ways until finally cured.

FOUR EAGLES

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Tomorr

In Albanian folklore, Mount Tomorr is anthropomorphized and associated with the legendary figure of Baba Tomor, envisioned as an old giant with a long flowing white beard and four female eagles hovering above him and perching on his snow-covered slopes.[2] According to German folklorist Maximilian Lambertz, Baba Tomor is the remnant of an Illyrian deity.[2]

FOUR TITLES SOMOA

http://www.pasefika.com/Culture/Article/13/sa/samoan-matai

After Salamasina, four high titles combined nameed papa. Individually the four titles include Gao'aitele, Tamasoali'i, Tuia'ana, and Tiuiatua.

 

Salamasina was the first person to hold all four titles, she, and all other people who hold all four titles of the papa are known as Tafa'ifa

FOUR TITLES SOMOA

http://www.everyculture.com/No-Sa/Samoa.html

Classes and Castes. Samoan society is meritocratic. Those with recognized ability have traditionally been elected to leadership of families. Aside from four nationally significant chiefly titles, the influence of most titles is confined to the families and villages with which they are associated. Title holders gained status and influence not only from accumulating resources but also from their ability to mobilize and redistribute them. These principles work against significant permanent disparities in wealth. The power of chiefs has been reduced, and the wealth returned by expatriates has flowed into all sectors of society, undermining traditional rank-wealth correlations. The public influence of women is becoming increasingly apparent. A commercial elite that has derived its power from the accumulation and investment of private wealth has become increasingly influential in politics.

 

 

 

Read more: http://www.everyculture.com/No-Sa/Samoa.html#ixzz4oDlwKZYi

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FOUR SENTENCED TO DEATH FOURTH DIFFERENT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pueblo_Revolt

In the 1670s drought swept the region, causing a famine among the Pueblo and increased raids by the Apache which Spanish and Pueblo soldiers were unable to prevent. Fray Alonso de Benavides wrote multiple letters to the King, describing the conditions, noting "the Spanish inhabitants and Indians alike to eat hides and straps of carts".[6] The unrest among the Pueblos came to a head in 1675. Governor Juan Francisco Treviño ordered the arrest of forty-seven Pueblo medicine men and accused them of practicing "sorcery".[7][8] Four medicine men were sentenced to death by hanging; three of those sentences were carried out, while the fourth prisoner committed suicide. The remaining men were publicly whipped and sentenced to prison. When this news reached the Pueblo leaders, they moved in force to Santa Fe, where the prisoners were held. Because a large number of Spanish soldiers were away fighting the Apache, Governor Treviño was forced to accede to the Pueblo demand for the release of the prisoners. Among those released was a San Juan ("Ohkay Owingeh" in the Tewa Language) Indian named "Popé".[7]