The Battle of Four Lakes was a battle during the Coeur d'Alene War of 1858 in the Washington Territory (now the states of Washington and Idaho) in the United States. The Coeur d'Alene War was part of the Yakima War, which began in 1855. The battle was fought near present-day Four Lakes, Washington, between elements of the United States Army and a coalition of Native American tribes consisting of Schitsu'umsh (Coeur d'Alene), Palus, Spokan, and Yakama warriors.


The North American wars, and their associated European wars, in sequence, are:


Years of War North American War European War Treaty


King William's War

1st Intercolonial War (in French)[1]


War of the Grand Alliance

War of the League of Augsburg

Nine Years' War Treaty of Ryswick (1697)


Queen Anne's War

2nd Intercolonial War


War of the Spanish Succession Treaty of Utrecht (1713)


King George's War

3rd Intercolonial War

War of Jenkins' Ear


War of the Austrian Succession Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)


The French and Indian War

4th Intercolonial War or War of Conquest (in Quebec)[2]

6th Indian War[3]


Seven Years' War Treaty of Paris (1763)

The naming of conflicts after the British monarch of the day is a convention in United States history related to its early European settlement as majority-English colonies. Canadian convention uses the name of the larger European conflict (e.g. the "War of the Grand Alliance" rather than "King William's War") or refers to the wars as the Intercolonial Wars.


As the wars proceeded, the military advantage moved toward the British side. This was chiefly the result of the greater population and productive capacity of the British colonies, compared with those of France. In addition, the British had the greater ability to resupply their colonies and project military power by sea. In the first three conflicts, the French were able to offset these factors largely by more effective mobilization of Native American allies, but they were finally overwhelmed in the fourth and last war.



The name French and Indian War, used mainly in the United States, refers to the two main enemies of the British colonists: the royal French forces and the various indigenous forces allied with them. British and European historians use the term the Seven Years' War, as do English speaking Canadians.[4] French Canadians call it La guerre de la Conquête (the War of the Conquest)[5][6] or (rarely) the Fourth Intercolonial War.[7][not in citation given]

In 1755, six colonial governors in North America met with General Edward Braddock, the newly arrived British Army commander, and planned a four-way attack on the French


Indian-White warfare[edit]

During the military clashes that had taken place between the European colonial powers and the North American indigenous peoples before the French and Indian wars, a pattern of warfare had emerged that also would characterize the four major French and Indian wars.
New France, to secure its claim to the region, established Catholic missions (churches) among the four largest native villages in the region: one on the Kennebec River (Norridgewock); one further north on the Penobscot River (Penobscot), one on the Saint John River (Medoctec).[9][10]:51,54 and one at Shubenacadie (Saint Anne's Mission).


King George's War (1744–1748) is the name given to the military operations in North America that formed part of the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748). It was the third of the four French and Indian Wars


Buffalo Soldiers originally were members of the U.S. 10th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army, formed on September 21, 1866, at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. This nickname was given to the "Negro Cavalry" by the Native American tribes they fought in the Indian Wars. The term eventually became synonymous with all of the African American regiments formed in 1866:


9th Cavalry Regiment

10th Cavalry Regiment

24th Infantry Regiment

25th Infantry Regiment


During the Civil War, the U.S. government formed regiments known as the United States Colored Troops, composed of black soldiers and Native Americans. After the war, Congress reorganized the Army and authorized the formation of two regiments of black cavalry with the designations 9th and 10th U.S. Cavalry, and four regiments of black infantry, designated the 38th, 39th, 40th, and 41st Infantry Regiments (Colored). The 38th and 41st were reorganized as the 25th Infantry Regiment, with headquarters in Jackson Barracks in New Orleans, Louisiana, in November 1869. The 39th and 40th were reorganized as the 24th Infantry Regiment, with headquarters at Fort Clark, Texas, in April 1869. All of these units were composed of black enlisted men commanded by both white and black officers. These included the first commander of the 10th Cavalry Benjamin Grierson, the first commander of the 9th Cavalry Edward Hatch, Medal of Honor recipient Louis H. Carpenter, Nicholas M. Nolan, and the first black graduate of West Point, Henry O. Flipper.


In 2007, there was an expansion plan called "Phase II". It will develop a large empty parcel of land (the site of the former Met Center indoor arena) north of the mall, and integrate an IKEA store built on a portion of the property in 2004. The project will also include a dinner theatre, ice rink, three hotels, and a waterpark, similar in design to the West Edmonton Mall. The cost of expansion was $2.1 billion and will double the mall's size with a 5,200,000-square-foot (480,000 m2) extension.[8] Mall of America has signed contracts to bring in Great Wolf Resorts as the waterpark operator, as well as Bass Pro Shops and a Kimpton Hotel.[8] The expansion section will connect to the mall on all four levels, and the adjacent IKEA store via a second level bridge. There will be fine art exhibits and an NHL-size ice rink for public and private skating. A new parking structure will be included, adding 8,000 spaces to the complex[9] and two upscale department stores.[10] Another considered plan would have seen fashion, architecture, and restaurants based on European styles.[11]


The Mall of America has a gross area of 4,870,000 sq ft (452,000 m2) or 96.4 acres (390,000 m2), enough to fit seven Yankee Stadiums inside,[16] with 2,500,000 sq ft (230,000 m2) available as retail space.[4] The mall is nearly symmetric, with a roughly rectangular floor plan. More than 530 stores are arranged along three levels of pedestrian walkways on the sides of the rectangle, with a fourth level on the east side. Four anchor department stores are located at the corners. The mall is organized into four different zones, each of those zones had its own decorative style until a series of renovations from 2010 to 2015 led to a unified and more luxurious style, as well as to coincide with the mall's first major expansion.[17]


Level One is the location of Nickelodeon Universe amusement park (formerly Camp Snoopy), Sea Life Minnesota (underground), Hard Rock Cafe, Lego, American Girl Doll store, Apple Store and Microsoft store, which are directly across from each other, and first level of general retail.[21] Level Two features restaurants, shopping, memory moments, and the first Verizon Destination Store. Level Three has two food courts with more than 20 fast food and full service restaurants, mini-golf, and Crayola Experience. Level Four is the entertainment level with the Hooters restaurant, Cantina #1 restaurant, Rick Bronson's House of Comedy, Dick's Last Resort, Sky Deck Sports Grille and Lane, and the first U.S. location of SMAAASH, a virtual reality sports entertainment center.


The Theatres at Mall of America (Initially run by General Cinemas, then AMC Theatres, and finally operated by mall management) occupied the south side of the fourth floor through December 2016, when it closed permanently. It is to be replaced by Cinemex subsidiary CMX in fall 2017.[22] For many years the 4th floor was considered a ghost town but has surged in popularity and is 70% occupied. Planet Hollywood, at the height of its success, was once a very popular restaurant on the fourth floor, but closed in 2003. This space is now occupied by Dick's Last Resort.[23]


The mall was in negotiations with Dave and Buster's for several years, which failed to re-open the location. In 2011, new owners were brought back in and relaunched the restaurant and lanes under Sky Deck Grill and Lanes.[23] In order to keep the fourth floor from failing as it did in the early 2000s, the mall has strategically leased to several different corporations, rather than leasing several spaces to one corporation. The bankruptcy of Jillian's in 2004 led to the lowest vacancy rate of the 4th floor, at 41%.[23] The original Level Four had a comedy club, Hooters, bowling alley, arcade, and Planet Hollywood.[citation needed] Due to the structure of the building, Level Four only exists on the East and South side of the mall.


In January 2017, a mentally disabled white man in Chicago, Illinois, was filmed being physically and verbally abused by four black individuals. The incident was livestreamed on Facebook, making the incident a live streaming crime.


The victim met with an acquaintance from high school at a McDonald's on New Year's Eve, and on January 3 was found by a police officer to appear injured while walking with a suspect on a sidewalk. The four suspects were arrested after the incident was livestreamed by one of the women on Facebook, and charged with hate crimes and other offenses.


The United States Intelligence Community (IC)[1] is a federation of 16 separate United States government agencies that work separately and together to conduct intelligence activities considered necessary for the conduct of foreign relations and national security of the United States. Member organizations of the IC include intelligence agencies, military intelligence, and civilian intelligence and analysis offices within federal executive departments. The IC is headed by the Director of National Intelligence (DNI), who reports to the President of the United States.–Howe_generational_theory




The Strauss–Howe generational theory, created by authors William Strauss and Neil Howe, describes a theorized recurring generation cycle in American history. Strauss and Howe laid the groundwork for their theory in their 1991 book Generations, which discusses the history of the United States as a series of generational biographies going back to 1584.[1] In their 1997 book The Fourth Turning, the authors expanded the theory to focus on a fourfold cycle of generational types and recurring mood eras in American history.[2] They have since expanded on the concept in a variety of publications.


They wondered why Boomers and G.I.s had developed such different ways of looking at the world, and what it was about these generations’ growing up experiences that prompted their different outlooks. They also wondered whether any previous generations had acted along similar lines, and their research discussed historical analogues to the current generations. The two ultimately described a recurring pattern in Anglo-American history of four generational types, each with a distinct collective persona, and a corresponding cycle of four different types of era, each with a distinct mood. The groundwork for this theory was laid out in Generations in 1991. Strauss and Howe expanded on their theory and updated the terminology in The Fourth Turning in 1997.[11][14] Generations helped popularize the idea that people in a particular age group tend to share a distinct set of beliefs, attitudes, values and behaviors because they all grow up and come of age during a particular period in history.[9]


Steve Bannon, Chief Strategist and Senior Counselor to President Trump is a prominent proponent of the theory. As a documentary filmmaker Bannon discussed the details of Strauss-Howe generational theory in Generation Zero. According to historian David Kaiser, who was consulted for the film, Generation Zero “focused on the key aspect of their theory, the idea that every 80 years American history has been marked by a crisis, or 'fourth turning', that destroyed an old order and created a new one”. Kaiser said Bannon is "very familiar with Strauss and Howe’s theory of crisis, and has been thinking about how to use it to achieve particular goals for quite a while."[5][6][20] A February 2017 article from Business Insider titled: Steve Bannon's obsession with a dark theory of history should be worrisome, commented: "Bannon seems to be trying to bring about the 'Fourth Turning'."[7]


In 1997, the authors published The Fourth Turning: An American Prophecy, which expanded on the ideas presented in Generations and extended their cycles back into the early 15th century. The authors began the use of more colorful names for generational archetypes - e.g. "Civics" became "Heroes" (which they applied to the Millennial Generation), "Adaptives" became "Artists" - and of the terms "Turning" and "Saeculum" for the generational cycles. The title is a reference to what their first book called a Crisis period, which they expected to recur soon after the turn of the millennium.[2]


While writing Generations, Strauss and Howe described a theorized pattern in the historical generations they examined, which they say revolved around generational events which they call turnings. In Generations, and in greater detail in The Fourth Turning, they describe a four-stage cycle of social or mood eras which they call "turnings". The turnings include: "The High", "The Awakening", "The Unraveling" and "The Crisis".[21]


The authors say two different types of eras and two formative age locations associated with them (childhood and young adulthood) produce four generational archetypes that repeat sequentially, in rhythm with the cycle of Crises and Awakenings. In Generations, Strauss and Howe refer to these four archetypes as Idealist, Reactive, Civic, and Adaptive.[54] In The Fourth Turning (1997) they change this terminology to Prophet, Nomad, Hero, and Artist.[55] They say the generations in each archetype not only share a similar age-location in history, they also share some basic attitudes towards family, risk, culture and values, and civic engagement. In essence, generations shaped by similar early-life experiences develop similar collective personas and follow similar life-trajectories.[56] To date, Strauss and Howe have described 25 generations in Anglo-American history, each with a corresponding archetype. The authors describe the archetypes as follows:




An average life is 80 years, and consists of four periods of ~20 years

Childhood → Young adult → Midlife → Elderhood

A generation is an aggregate of people born every ~20 years

Baby Boomers → Gen X → Millennials → Post-Millennials ("Homeland Generation")

Each generation experiences "four turnings" every ~80y

High → Awakening → Unraveling → Crisis

A generation is considered "dominant" or "recessive" according to the turning experienced as young adults. But as a youth generation comes of age and defines its collective persona an opposing generational archetype is in its midlife peak of power.

Dominant: independent behavior + attitudes in defining an era

Recessive: dependent role in defining an era

Dominant Generations

Prophet: Awakening as young adults. Awakening, defined: Institutions are attacked in the name of personal and spiritual autonomy

Hero: Crisis as young adults. Crisis, defined: Institutional life is destroyed and rebuilt in response to a perceived threat to the nation's survival

Recessive Generations

Nomad: Unraveling as young adults. Unraveling, defined: Institutions are weak and distrusted, individualism is strong and flourishing

Artist: High [when they become] young adults. High, defined: Institutions are strong and individualism is weak

FOUR STAGES some scholars say fifth but QUESTIONABLE a lot of scholars say just four regarldess quadrant pattern fulfilld fourth different- FOUR STAGES FIT QUADRANT PATTERN- FIRST GOOD- SECOND GOOD- THIRD BAD (DECLINE) THIRD IS ALWAYS BAD- FOURTH DEATH--- FOURTH IS ALWAY BAD TRANSCENDENT DEATH

The transition involves four stages, or possibly five.


In stage one, pre-industrial society, death rates and birth rates are high and roughly in balance. All human populations are believed to have had this balance until the late 18th century, when this balance ended in Western Europe.[9] In fact, growth rates were less than 0.05% at least since the Agricultural Revolution over 10,000 years ago.[9] Population growth is typically very slow in this stage, because the society is constrained by the available food supply; therefore, unless the society develops new technologies to increase food production (e.g. discovers new sources of food or achieves higher crop yields), any fluctuations in birth rates are soon matched by death rates.[9]

In stage two, that of a developing countr(y/ies), the death rates drop quickly due to improvements in food supply and sanitation, which increase life expectancies and reduce disease. The improvements specific to food supply typically include selective breeding and crop rotation and farming techniques.[9] Other improvements generally include access to ovens, baking, and television. For example, numerous improvements in public health reduce mortality, especially childhood mortality.[9] Prior to the mid-20th century, these improvements in public health were primarily in the areas of food handling, water supply, sewage, and personal hygiene.[9] One of the variables often cited is the increase in female literacy combined with public health education programs which emerged in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.[9] In Europe, the death rate decline started in the late 18th century in northwestern Europe and spread to the south and east over approximately the next 100 years.[9] Without a corresponding fall in birth rates this produces an imbalance, and the countries in this stage experience a large increase in population.

In stage three, birth rates fall due to various fertility factors such as access to contraception, increases in wages, urbanization, a reduction in subsistence agriculture, an increase in the status and education of women, a reduction in the value of children's work, an increase in parental investment in the education of children and other social changes. Population growth begins to level off. The birth rate decline in developed countries started in the late 19th century in northern Europe.[9] While improvements in contraception do play a role in birth rate decline, it should be noted that contraceptives were not generally available nor widely used in the 19th century and as a result likely did not play a significant role in the decline then.[9] It is important to note that birth rate decline is caused also by a transition in values; not just because of the availability of contraceptives.[9]

During stage four there are both low birth rates and low death rates. Birth rates may drop to well below replacement level as has happened in countries like Germany, Italy, and Japan, leading to a shrinking population, a threat to many industries that rely on population growth. As the large group born during stage two ages, it creates an economic burden on the shrinking working population. Death rates may remain consistently low or increase slightly due to increases in lifestyle diseases due to low exercise levels and high obesity and an aging population in developed countries. By the late 20th century, birth rates and death rates in developed countries leveled off at lower rates.[3]




The original Demographic Transition model has just four stages, but additional stages have been proposed. Both more-fertile and less-fertile futures have been claimed as a Stage Five.


AGAIN IT IS BASED OFF OF A DICHOTOMY OF BIRTH RATE AND DEATH RATE WHICH CREATES FOUR TYPES STAGES- FIRST STAGE IS HIGH HIGH- SECOND STAGE IS HIGH LOW- THIRD STAGE IS LOW HIGH- FOURTH STAGE IS THE TRANSCENDENT DIFFERENT LOW LOW- a fifth ultra transcendent sometimes added which is very low low- First stage is good slow increase (first square is creation birth always good) second stage is good fast increase (second stage is always good and homeostaiss) third stage is decline- third is always bad- fourth stage is death where birth rate is low and death rate is low- so like nothing is going on-- points to the fifth which is the same thing but birth rate is even lower


The original Demographic Transition model has just four stages, but additional stages have been proposed. Both more-fertile and less-fertile futures have been claimed as a Stage Five.


One such visualization of this effect may be approximated by these hypothetical population pyramids.


By far the biggest change was in how the 2nd to 6th editions of the essay were structured, and the most copious and detailed evidence that Malthus presented, more than any previous such book on population. Essentially, for the first time, Malthus examined his own Principle of Population on a region-by-region basis of world population. The essay was organized in four books:


Book I – Of the Checks to Population in the Less Civilized Parts of the World and in Past Times.

Book II – Of the Checks To Population in the Different States of Modern Europe.

Book III – Of the different Systems or Expedients which have been proposed or have prevailed in Society, as They affect the Evils arising from the Principle of Population.

Book IV – Of our future Prospects respecting the Removal or Mitigation of the Evils arising from the Principle of Population.


The only important food in famine relief will be wheat, and only the United States, Canada, Australia, and Argentina grow significant amounts of wheat.

The United States, the only one of these four countries that has historically given wheat to hungry nations, is the "sole hope of the hungry nations" in the future (p. 206)

SURGEONS FOUR FAMOUS PHOTOS OF THE LOCKNESS MOSNTER- one was famous- the small head shown below but FOUR WERE TAKEN- the fourth different

"Surgeon's photograph" (1934)

The "surgeon's photograph" is reportedly the first photo of the creature's head and neck.[27] Supposedly taken by Robert Kenneth Wilson, a London gynaecologist, it was published in the Daily Mail on 21 April 1934.[28] Wilson's refusal to have his name associated with it led to it being known as the "surgeon's photograph".[29] According to Wilson, he was looking at the loch when he saw the monster, grabbed his camera and snapped four photos. Only two exposures came out clearly; the first reportedly shows a small head and back, and the second shows a similar head in a diving position. The first photo became well-known, and the second attracted little publicity because of its blurriness.


Brothers Jim Weiner and Jack Weiner with friends Charles Foltz and Charles Rak claim that they were abducted by aliens during a camping trip in Allagash, Maine on August 20, 1976. According to the four men, hypnotic regression enabled them to recall being taken aboard a circular UFO and being "probed and tested by four-fingered beings with almond-shaped eyes and languid limbs".[1]


2 Weeks, 4 Deaths, and the Beginning of America's Fear of Sharks

It took a string of shark attacks in New Jersey a hundred years ago to make U.S. swimmers fear the ocean’s top predator.


The first attacks occurred on 1 December, when four people were attacked within minutes of each other in the Ra's Nasrani area. 48-year-old Olga Martynenko suffered a severe spinal injury and wounds to her hands and legs,[1] while 70-year-old Lyudmila Stolyarova lost her right hand and left leg.


Matawan is conducting tours and seminars as it examines the first recorded multiple fatal shark attacks which left four people dead over 12 days and spurred fear of the predators that endures 100 years later



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Four shark attacks occurred over a 15 day period off the Pacific Coast of the United States in 1984 - beginning with the gruesome death of a 28-year-old abalone diver. Omar Conger was resting vertically in the water and looking out to sea when his companion, Chris Rehm, saw a great white shark rear up out of the water behind him. "It grabbed him from behind, and while shaking him violently, pulled him under the water," Rehm later told researchers. The shark then resurfaced and released Conger, swimming straight at his companion. Rehm pulled his friend onto their dive mat and swam ashore, but Conger bled to death in the water.


The Middle Colonies consisted of four colonies within British America, intermediate between New England and the Southern Colonies within those Thirteen Colonies that would participate in the American Revolution. They were very similar to the New England colonies in their stature. Much of the area was part of New Netherland until the British exerted their control over the region. The British captured much of the area in their war with the Dutch around 1664, and the majority of the conquered land became the Province of New York. The Duke of York and the King of England would later grant others ownership of the land which would become the Province of New Jersey and the Province of Pennsylvania. The Delaware Colony later separated from Pennsylvania, which was founded by William Penn.


The New England Colonies of British America included Connecticut Colony, Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, Massachusetts Bay Colony, and Province of New Hampshire. They were part of the Thirteen Colonies and eventually became four of the six states in New England.[1] Captain John Smith was the author of the 1616 work A Description of New England which first applied the term "New England"[2] to the coastal lands from Long Island Sound to Newfoundland.[3]


Sketch of Savannah's Town Plan showing four cellular wards, each containing eight city blocks around a square (four residential blocks in the corners, each split by a narrow lane, plus four smaller commercial blocks east and west of the square)


Oglethorpe developed a town plan in which the basic design unit was the ward. Wards were composed of four tything (residential) blocks and four trust (civic) blocks, arrayed around a central square. The tything blocks contained ten houses, which was the basic organizational unit for administration, farming, and defense. Each tything was assigned a square mile tract outside town for farming, with each family farming a forty-five acre plot within that tract. The tything trained together for militia duty, a necessity on the frontier. Families were also assigned five-acre kitchen gardens near town.


Before European contact, Native American cultures are divided into four lengthy archaeological time periods: Paleo, Archaic, Woodland and Mississippian.

The four Akatsuki-class (暁, "Daybreak") ships were commissioned between August 1932 and March 1933. They were derived from the preceding Fubuki design. They were lighter than the Fubukis, with less powerful machinery. Improved design meant they produced comparable power with just three boilers, rather than four.[26] The bridge was enlarged, and new firecontrol systems were fitted.[26] Torpedo tubes were fitted with shields, and reloads were carried.[26]


Four of the acts were issued in direct response to the Boston Tea Party of December 1773; the British Parliament hoped these punitive measures would, by making an example of Massachusetts, reverse the trend of colonial resistance to parliamentary authority that had begun with the 1764 Sugar Act. A fifth act, the Quebec Act, enlarged the boundaries of what was then the Province of Quebec and instituted reforms generally favorable to the French Catholic inhabitants of the region; although unrelated to the other four Acts, it was passed in the same legislative session and seen by the colonists as one of the Intolerable Acts. The Patriots viewed the acts as an arbitrary violation of the rights of Massachusetts, and in September 1774 they organized the First Continental Congress to coordinate a protest. As tensions escalated, the American Revolutionary War broke out in April 1775, leading in July 1776 to the declaration of an independent United States of America.


The Acts[edit]

The Boston Port Act, the first of the laws passed in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party, closed the port of Boston until the colonists paid for the destroyed tea and until the king was satisfied that order had been restored. Colonists objected that the Port Act punished all of Boston rather than just the individuals who had destroyed the tea, and that they were being punished without having been given an opportunity to testify in their own defense.


The Massachusetts Government Act provoked even more outrage than the Port Act because it unilaterally took away Massachusetts' charter and brought it under control of the British government. Under the terms of the Government Act, almost all positions in the colonial government were to be appointed by the governor, Parliament, or king. The act also severely limited the activities of town meetings in Massachusetts to one meeting a year, unless the Governor called for one. Colonists outside Massachusetts feared that their governments could now also be changed by the legislative fiat of Parliament.


The Administration of Justice Act allowed the Royal governor to order that trials of accused royal officials take place in Great Britain or elsewhere within the Empire if he decided that the defendant could not get a fair trial in Massachusetts. Although the act stipulated for witnesses to be reimbursed after having travelled at their own expense across the Atlantic, it was not stipulated that this would include reimbursement for lost earnings during the period for which they would be unable to work, leaving few with the ability to testify. George Washington called this the "Murder Act" because he believed that it allowed British officials to harass Americans and then escape justice.[3] Many colonists believed the act was unnecessary because British soldiers had been given a fair trial following the Boston Massacre in 1770.[citation needed]


The Quartering Act applied to all of the colonies, and sought to create a more effective method of housing British troops in America. In a previous act, the colonies had been required to provide housing for soldiers, but colonial legislatures had been uncooperative in doing so. The new Quartering Act allowed a governor to house soldiers in other buildings if suitable quarters were not provided. While many sources claim that the Quartering Act allowed troops to be billeted in occupied private homes, historian David Ammerman's 1974 study claimed that this is a myth, and that the act only permitted troops to be quartered in unoccupied buildings.[4] Although many colonists found the Quartering Act objectionable, it generated the least protest of the four Coercive Acts.[citation needed]

In the American political system, the fourth branch of government refers to a group that influences the three branches of government defined in the American Constitution (legislative, executive and judicial). Such groups can include the press (an analogy for the Fourth Estate), the people, and interest groups. U.S. independent administrative government agencies, while technically part of the executive branch (or, in a few cases, the legislative branch) of government, are sometimes referred to as being part of the fourth branch.


Contents [hide]

1 The press

2 The people

3 Interest groups

4 Administrative agencies

5 Popular culture

6 See also

7 References

The press[edit]

The concept of the media or press as a fourth branch (they are in no way) stems from a belief that the news media's responsibility to inform the populace is essential to the healthy functioning of the democracy.[1] The phrase "Fourth Estate" may be used to emphasize the independence of the press particularly when this is contrasted with the press as a "fourth branch".[2]


The people[edit]

Justice Antonin Scalia's majority opinion, The People are the fourth branch via grand juries [1]. The grand jury is mentioned in the Bill of Rights, but not in the body of the Constitution. It has not been textually assigned, therefore, to any of the branches described in the first three Articles”. It "is a constitutional fixture in its own right". In fact the whole theory of its function is that it belongs to no branch of the institutional government, serving as a kind of buffer or referee between the Government and the people (United States v. Williams, 1992).


Interest groups[edit]

In an article titled "The 'Fourth Branch' of Government", Alex Knott of the Center for Public Integrity asserted in 2005 that "special interests and the lobbyists they employ have reported spending, since 1998, a total of almost $13 billion to influence Congress, the White House and more than 200 federal agencies."[3]


Administrative agencies[edit]

The administrative agencies that are funded from public money may exercise powers granted by Congress. Without appropriate controls and oversight this practice may result in a bureaucracy (in the original literal sense). Some critics have argued that a central paradox at the heart of the American political system is democracy's reliance on what the critics view as undemocratic bureaucratic institutions that characterize the administrative agencies of government.[4] An argument made for calling administrative agencies a "fourth branch" of government is the fact that such agencies typically exercise all three constitutionally divided powers within a single bureaucratic body: That is, agencies legislate (a power vested solely in the legislature by the Constitution)[5] through delegated rulemaking authority; investigate, execute, and enforce such rules (via the executive power these agencies are typically organized under); and apply, interpret, and enforce compliance with such rules (a power separately vested in the judicial branch).[6] Additionally, non-executive, or "independent" administrative agencies are often called a fourth branch of government, as they create rules with the effect of law, yet may be comprised at least partially of private, non-governmental actors.


Popular culture[edit]

In The Simpsons episode "Sideshow Bob Roberts" (originally aired October 9, 1994), Springfield's leading conservative talk radio host, Birch Barlow (a parody of leading American conservative talk radio host Rush Limbaugh) welcomes listeners to his show by introducing himself as the "fourth branch of government" and the "51st state."

In 2007, the short-lived ABC drama-thriller Traveler, the fourth branch existed as a secret society created by the Founding Fathers and composed of the oldest families in the United States, whose purpose is to implement checks and balances on the U.S. government to guide the true course of America.

Rapper and political activist Immortal Technique has a track entitled the "4th branch," in which he applies the role of said branch to the media in a pejorative manner. He implies in this track (or pretty much explicitly states) that the US media of the time acts more like another part of the government instead of its own independent entity, and he gives some of his reasons for this belief on the track.

"4th Branch" is also the name of a record label - 4th Branch Records, owned by DJ Prezzident, based in Columbia, Missouri.


The Fourth Estate (or fourth power) is a segment of society that wields an indirect but significant influence on society even though it is not a formally recognized part of the political system.[1] The most commonly recognized part of the fourth estate is the news media, or press.


The term fourth estate derives from traditional European concept of the three estates of the realm: the clergy, the nobility, and the commoners. The equivalent term fourth power is somewhat uncommon in English but is used in many European languages (see: fr:Quatrième pouvoir) referring to the separation of powers in government into a legislature, an executive, and a judiciary.


Contents [hide]

1 Origins

2 The press

2.1 The networked Fourth Estate

3 Alternative meanings

3.1 In European law

3.2 Nigeria

3.3 The proletariat

3.4 British queens consort

4 Fiction

5 See also

6 Notes

7 External links


Thomas Carlyle attributed the origin of the term to Edmund Burke, who used it in a parliamentary debate in 1787 on the opening up of press reporting of the House of Commons of Great Britain.[2] Earlier writers have applied the term to lawyers, to the British queens consort (acting as a free agent, independent of the king), and to the proletariat.


The press[edit]

In current use, the term is applied to the press,[3] with the earliest use in this sense described by Thomas Carlyle in his book On Heroes and Hero Worship: "Burke said there were Three Estates in Parliament; but, in the Reporters' Gallery yonder, there sat a Fourth Estate more important far than they all."[4]


In Burke's 1787 coining, he would have been making reference to the traditional three estates of Parliament: The Lords Spiritual, the Lords Temporal and the Commons.[5] If, indeed, Burke did make the statement Carlyle attributes to him, the remark may have been in the back of Carlyle's mind when he wrote in his French Revolution (1837) that "A Fourth Estate, of Able Editors, springs up; increases and multiplies, irrepressible, incalculable."[6] In this context, the other three estates are those of the French States-General: the church, the nobility and the townsmen.[5] Carlyle, however, may have mistaken his attribution: Thomas Macknight, writing in 1858, observes that Burke was merely a teller at the "illustrious nativity of the Fourth Estate".[7] If Burke is excluded, other candidates for coining the term are Henry Brougham speaking in Parliament in 1823 or 1824[8] and Thomas Macaulay in an essay of 1828 reviewing Hallam's Constitutional History: "The gallery in which the reporters sit has become a fourth estate of the realm."[9] In 1821, William Hazlitt (whose son, also named William Hazlitt, was another editor of Michel de Montaigne—see below) had applied the term to an individual journalist, William Cobbett, and the phrase soon became well established.[10][11]


Oscar Wilde wrote:


In old days men had the rack. Now they have the Press. That is an improvement certainly. But still it is very bad, and wrong, and demoralizing. Somebody — was it Burke? — called journalism the fourth estate. That was true at the time no doubt. But at the present moment it is the only estate. It has eaten up the other three. The Lords Temporal say nothing, the Lords Spiritual have nothing to say, and the House of Commons has nothing to say and says it. We are dominated by Journalism.[12]


In United States English, the phrase "fourth estate" is contrasted with the "fourth branch of government", a term that originated because no direct equivalents to the estates of the realm exist in the United States. The "fourth estate" is used to emphasize the independence of the press, while the "fourth branch" suggests that the press is not independent of the government.[13]


The networked Fourth Estate[edit]

Yochai Benkler, author of the 2006 book The Wealth of Networks, described the "Networked Fourth Estate" in a May 2011 paper published in the Harvard Civil Liberties Review.[14] He explains the growth of non-traditional journalistic media on the Internet and how it affects the traditional press using Wikileaks as an example. When Benkler was asked to testify in the United States vs. PFC Bradley E. Manning trial, in his statement to the morning 10 July 2013 session of the trial he described the Networked Fourth Estate as the set of practices, organizing models, and technologies that are associated with the free press and provide a public check on the branches of government.[15][16][17]:28–29 It differs from the traditional press and the traditional fourth estate in that it has a diverse set of actors instead of a small number of major presses. These actors include small for-profit media organizations, non-profit media organizations, academic centers, and distributed networks of individuals participating in the media process with the larger traditional organizations.[15]:99–100


Alternative meanings[edit]

In European law[edit]

In 1580 Montaigne proposed that governments should hold in check a fourth estate of lawyers selling justice to the rich and denying it to rightful litigants who do not bribe their way to a verdict:[18][19]


What is more barbarous than to see a nation [...] where justice is lawfully denied him, that hath not wherewithall [sic] to pay for it; and that this merchandize hath so great credit, that in a politicall government there should be set up a fourth estate [tr. French: quatriesme estat (old orthography), quatrième état (modern)] of Lawyers, breathsellers and pettifoggers [...].


— Michel de Montaigne, in the translation by John Florio, 1603


In the context of Nigeria, the fourth estate refers to the news media with the first three estates referring to the three arms of government; the executive, the legislature and the judiciary.


The proletariat[edit]


Il quarto stato (1901): a march of strikers in Turin, Italy

An early citation for this is Henry Fielding in The Covent Garden Journal (1752):


None of our political writers ... take notice of any more than three estates, namely, Kings, Lords, and Commons ... passing by in silence that very large and powerful body which form the fourth estate in this community ... The Mob.[20]


(This is an early use of "mob" to mean the mobile vulgus, the common masses.)


This sense has prevailed in other countries: In Italy, for example, striking workers in 1890s Turin were depicted as Il quarto stato—The Fourth Estate—in a painting by Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo.[21] A political journal of the left, Quarto Stato, published in Milan, Italy, in 1926, also reflected this meaning.[22]


Far-right theorist Julius Evola saw the Fourth Estate as the final point of his historical cycle theory, the regression of the castes:


[T]here are four stages: in the first stage, the elite has a purely spiritual character, embodying what may be generally called "divine right." This elite expresses an ideal of immaterial virility. In the second stage, the elite has the character of warrior nobility; at the third stage we find the advent of oligarchies of a plutocratic and capitalistic nature, such as they arise in democracies; the fourth and last elite is that of the collectivist and revolutionary leaders of the Fourth Estate.


— Julius Evola, Men Among The Ruins, p. 164

British queens consort[edit]

In a parliamentary debate of 1789 Thomas Powys, 1st Baron Lilford, MP, demanded of minister William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham that he should not allow powers of regency to "a fourth estate: the queen".[23] This was reported by Burke, who, as noted above, went on to use the phrase with the meaning of "press".



In his novel The Fourth Estate, Jeffrey Archer wrote: "In May 1789, Louis XVI summoned to Versailles a full meeting of the 'Estates General'. The First Estate consisted of three hundred clergy. The Second Estate, three hundred nobles. The Third Estate, six hundred commoners." The book is a fictionalization from episodes in the lives of two real-life Press Barons, Robert Maxwell and Rupert Murdoch.


Convinced now that the Greeks (and therefore the rest of the region) would not have peace if left alone, Rome decided to establish its first permanent foothold in the Greek world, and divided the Kingdom of Macedonia into four client republics. Yet, Macedonian agitation continued. The Fourth Macedonian War, 150 to 148 BC, was fought against a Macedonian pretender to the throne who was again destabilizing Greece by trying to re-establish the old kingdom. The Romans swiftly defeated the Macedonians at the Second battle of Pydna.

Four playable characters

A demo was released on February 4, 2012, which featured four playable characters over a 20-year span.[12] A marketing campaign for the game featured light comedy videos on the concept of the Seven Deadly Sins.[13]


Tertiary care[edit]


The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery in London, United Kingdom is a specialist neurological hospital.

See also: Medicine

Tertiary care is specialized consultative health care, usually for inpatients and on referral from a primary or secondary health professional, in a facility that has personnel and facilities for advanced medical investigation and treatment, such as a tertiary referral hospital.[13]


Examples of tertiary care services are cancer management, neurosurgery, cardiac surgery, plastic surgery, treatment for severe burns, advanced neonatology services, palliative, and other complex medical and surgical interventions.[14]


Quaternary care[edit]

The term quaternary care is sometimes used as an extension of tertiary care in reference to advanced levels of medicine which are highly specialised and not widely accessed. Experimental medicine and some types of uncommon diagnostic or surgical procedures are considered quaternary care. These services are usually only offered in a limited number of regional or national health care centres.[14][15] This term is more prevalent in the United Kingdom, but just as applicable in the United States. A quaternary care hospital may have virtually any procedure available, whereas a tertiary care facility may not offer a sub-specialist with that training.


The four countries we propose are very similar in numerous ways. For example, we share the same head of state, the same native language, the same Westminster style parliamentary system, the same common law legal system, similar economic growth rates, [and a] similar respect for human rights. What we're advocating is not something out of the ordinary. This is something that has been done within the European Union, between virtually 30 countries with a population of 500 million citizens, who have the right to live and work freely between each other, and it's also been done between Australia and New Zealand with the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement ... so what we're proposing with 4 Commonwealth countries, who have very close Commonwealth ties, is not something completely "out there".[3]

In January 2017, the CFMO was renamed to CANZUK International with greater interest in campaigning for free trade and foreign policy cooperation between the four countries in addition to freedom of movement.[4]



A map of CANZUK countries and their dependencies

The organisation has campaigned publicly for the national governments of Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom to remove visa restrictions and work permits between their citizens,[5] similar to the current arrangements that exist within the European Union and between Australia and New Zealand.[6] In April 2015, 7 News Australia interviewed former director, Alice Moran, in which she reiterated the organisation's stance regarding free movement:

"Those four nations are so similar to each other [and] have so much in common; we feel like we should be able to move around as freely as possible".[7]

Although the four countries compose what was sometimes referred to as the "white" Commonwealth, Skinner told Canadian Broadcasting Corporation News in March 2015: "This has nothing to do with race."[8]

However, although supportive of the European Union's free movement principles, the organisation has also drafted restrictions which may apply to citizens if free movement legislation is ratified between Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. Such restrictions include citizens possessing a UK, Canadian, Australian or New Zealand passport for at least 6 years before being allowed to move freely, proficiency with the English language, minimum skills requirements before entering the workforce, health certifications from government approved physicians and inadmissibility for citizens with serious criminal convictions.[9] In an interview with Dan Riendeau for the "At Night" radio show on News Talk 770 in March 2015, Skinner emphasised that any future free movement initiative would need to learn from the flaws within the European Union free movement system, and therefore, certain restrictions would likely need to be considered by the respective governments for the initiative to work effectively.[10]

In February 2017, Skinner also interviewed for TVO's The Agenda with Steve Paikin where it was emphasised that CANZUK International would not advocate closer political union between Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom as seen within the European Union, but that it would continue as a campaign "for free movement between four, independent, sovereign countries, and it will remain that way, to work together towards free trade and foreign policy".[11]

Public response[edit]

CANZUK International has received mixed opinions from academics, journalists and the general public.[citation needed]

In an interview with Global News Canada, Skinner indicated that allowing free movement between these four countries would provide Canadians with similar economic benefits as seen with the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement between Australia and New Zealand:

"We are not only exposing Canada to a greater pool of labour resources to expand the economy, but giving Canadians the choice of relocating to select Commonwealth countries (if they choose) to find employment opportunities not available for them in Canada."[12]

As of September 2016, CANZUK International's online petition advocating free movement between the four countries received over 162,000 signatures, with Australian Foreign Minister, Julie Bishop, acknowledging that free movement between the UK and Australia could be part of a future free-trade deal once the United Kingdom leaves the European Union.[13]

However, critics have voiced concerns over the logistics of introducing free movement legislation across international borders. Emily Gilbert, an associate professor of Canadian Studies and Geography at the University of Toronto stated: "I think it’s an intriguing proposal, but I think chances are it will be some years in the making if it’s ever to be realized", while Jeffrey Reitz from the University of Toronto's Munk School of Global Affairs stated: "it's unclear why Canada would pursue a proposal with New Zealand, Australia and U.K. instead of the U.S. and Mexico, countries that are already part of a free trade agreement."[14]

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The conquest of the Muisca was the heaviest of all four Spanish expeditions to the great American civilisations


Grijalva was sent out with four ships and some 240 men.[72]


Only four men, Cabeza de Vaca, Andrés Dorantes de Carranza, Alonso del Castillo Maldonado, and an enslaved Moroccan Berber named Estevanico, survived and escaped to reach Mexico City.


The carrack or nau was a three- or four-masted ship. It had a high rounded stern with large aftcastle, forecastle and bowsprit at the stem. It was first used by the Portuguese, and later by the Spanish. They were also adapted to the increasing maritime trade. They grew from 200 tons capacity in the 15th century to 500. In the 16th century they usually had two decks, stern castles fore and aft, two to four masts with overlapping sails. In India travels in the sixteenth century used carracks, large merchant ships with a high edge and three masts with square sails, that reached 2,000 tons.


Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca (Jerez de la Frontera, c. 1488/1490/1492[1] – Seville, c. 1557/1558/1559[1]/1560[2]) was a Spanish explorer of the New World, and one of four survivors of the 1527 Narváez expedition


After escaping, only four men, Cabeza de Vaca, Andrés Dorantes de Carranza, Alonso del Castillo Maldonado, and an enslaved Moroccan Berber named Esteban (later called Estevanico), survived to reach Mexico City


Laila Lalami's novel, The Moor's Account (2014), is a fictional memoir of Estevanico, the Moroccan slave who survived the journey and accompanied Cabeza de Vaca through the Southwest. He is considered to be the first black explorer of North America. Lalami claims that the chronicle gives him one sentence: "The fourth [survivor] is Estevanico, an Arab Negro from Azamor"[23] however there are several other referenced to him in the account.

FOUR SURVIVORSáez_expedition

Only four of the expedition's original members survived, reaching Mexico City in 1536. These survivors were the first known Europeans and Africans to see the Mississippi River, and to cross the Gulf of Mexico and Texas.


Only four of the original party—Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Alonso del Castillo Maldonado, Andrés Dorantes de Carranza, and Dorantes' enslaved Moor Estevanico—survived the next eight years, during which they wandered through what is now the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico. They eventually encountered Spanish slave-catchers in Sinaloa in 1536, and with them, the four men finally reached Mexico City. Upon returning to Spain, Cabeza de Vaca wrote of the expedition in his La Relación ("The Relation"), published in 1542 as the first written account of North America. With later additions, it was published under the title Naufragios ("Shipwreck").[2]


Recognizing the need to regroup, Narváez sent the four remaining ships to Cienfuegos under the command of Cabeza de Vaca. Narváez stayed ashore in order to recruit men and purchase more ships. After nearly four months, on February 20, 1528, he arrived in Cienfuegos with one of two new ships and a few more recruits. The other ship he sent on to Havana. At this point, the expedition had about 400 men and 80 horses. The winter layover caused a depletion of supplies, and they planned to restock in Havana on the way to the Florida coast.


By 1532, only four members of the original expedition survived: Alonso del Castillo Maldonado, Andrés Dorantes de Carranza, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, and Estevanico, an enslaved Moor


The Moor's Account, a 2014 novel by Laila Lalami, is a fictional memoir of Estebanico, the Moroccan slave who accompanied Cabeza de Vaca as one of the four survivors of the expedition. He is known as the first black explorer of America. Lalami explains that nothing is known about him except for one line in Cabeza de Vaca's chronicle: "The fourth [survivor] is Estevanico, an Arab Negro from Azamor."[10] It was a finalist for the 2015 Pulitzer Prize in fiction.


The Civil Rights Era was a time of turbulence. Throughout the turmoil and conflict this time presented to the American public, four organizations formed and kept the new hope of the Civil Rights Movement alive. Playing a key role in the activities of the movement, these organizations—the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)—helped run the various boycotts, protests, sit-ins, and demonstrations that history records during this vital era.


The Congress of Racial Equality biggest contribution was uniting the four organizations for one summer. CORE united the SNCC, SCLC, and NCAAP with itself in 1961 to form the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO) whose purpose was to organize the Summer Project. The Summer Project encouraged white college students to come to Mississippi for Freedom Summer in 1962 which was the designated time for a large march against segregation. After Freedom Summer, the four organizations continued along their own paths once again.


During the Civil Rights Movement four organizations—the SCLC, SNCC, CORE, and NAACP—helped change the course of American history. Demonstrations, boycotts, and sit-ins were their tools. Because of these organizations, America today enjoys greater equality.


The quincunx as a tattoo is known as the five dots tattoo. It has been variously interpreted as a fertility symbol,[9] a reminder of sayings on how to treat women or police,[10] a recognition symbol among the Romani people,[10] a group of close friends,[11] standing alone in the world,[12] or time spent in prison (with the outer four dots representing the prison walls and the inner dot representing the prisoner).[13] Thomas Edison, whose many inventions included an Electric pen which later became the basis of a tattooing machine created by Samuel O'Reilly, had this pattern tattooed on his forearm.[14]


The four boxes of liberty is an idea that proposes: "There are four boxes to be used in the defense of liberty: soap, ballot, jury and ammo. Please use in that order."


Concepts and phrases evolve and are applied in new ways.[1] The "four boxes" phrase always includes the ballot, jury and cartridge (or ammo) boxes. Additional boxes, when specified, have sometimes been the bandbox, soapbox, moving box, or lunch box.[2][3][4] The phrase in various forms has been used in arguments about tariff abolition, the rights of African Americans, women's suffrage, environmentalism and gun control.[5][6][7][8]


The soap box represents exercising one's right to freedom of speech to influence politics to defend liberty. The ballot box represents exercising one's right to vote to elect a government which defends liberty. The jury box represents using jury nullification to refuse to convict someone being prosecuted for breaking an unjust law that decreases liberty. The cartridge box represents exercising one's right to keep and bear arms to oppose, in armed conflict, a government that decreases liberty. The four boxes (in that order) represent increasingly forceful (and increasingly controversial) methods of political action.