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The Fon people's creation myth fits the quadrant model pattern. The Fon people are in Africa.
Lisa (male) and Mawu (female), married twin siblings of Nana Buluku, are the creator spirits, occasionally combined as Mawu-Lisa, an androgynous spirit. Mawu-Lisa created the world and made it orderly, then made plants, animals, and humans; the entire process took four days.
Square 1: The first day, Mawu-Lisa created the world and humanity;
Square 2: The second day the earth was made suitable for human life; (the second square is homeostasis)
Square 3: On the third day, humans were given intellect, language, and the senses; (the third square is rational)
Square 4: Finally, on the fourth day, mankind received the gift of technology. (the fourth square is transcendent, what you do with the rationality)
I discussed in my book that the creation account of Genesis of the Israelites has seven days and fits the quadrant model pattern

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dahomean_religion

The Bakongo, or the Kongo people (Kongo: “hunters”), also referred to as the Congolese, are a Bantu ethnic group who live along the Atlantic coast of Africa from Pointe-Noire (Republic of Congo) to Luanda, Angola. The Kongo week used to consist of four days: Konzo, Nkenge, Nsona and Nkandu.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kongo_people

Adinkra are visual symbols, originally created by the Akan, that represent concepts or aphorisms. Many of these symbols are crosses or variants of crosses and relate with God.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adinkra_symbols

https://en.wikipedia.org/…/File:Adinkra_motifs_Rattray_1927…

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Adinkra_1825.jpg

Adinkra cloth is quadrants, even with 16 square quadrant models embedded in the design of the quadrants

.[14] In Igbo cosmology, the world was divided into four corners by the high god corresponding to èké órìè àfọ̀ ǹkwọ́ which are the days of the week in the Igbo calendar regarded as market days.[24][25] The universe is regarded as a composite of bounded spaces in an overlapping hemispherical structure, the total spaces are referred to as élú nà àlà.[14] In one Igbo cosmological theory reported by W.R.G. Morton in the 1950s from an elder in Ibagwa Nike in northern Igboland, Chukwu sees that the sun travels across the world in the day time and then cuts into two in order for the moon to pass on a perpendicular route, and so the world is divided into four parts and four days.[24] The quarterly division of the earth and the days makes the number four sacred (ńsọ́) to the Igbo.[24][26] The élú nà àlà space is defined by two boundaries: élú ígwé, 'sky's limit' composed of heavenly bodies under the main forces of the 'masculine' sun and 'feminine' moon, and élú àlà, 'earth or lands limit' consisting of the four material elements of fire and air (masculine), and earth and water (feminine).[14]

Picture of figures drawn in chalk on the ground
Ogbo Obodo figures for the cult of Nkpetime, near Asaba, 1900s.
The pattern of two and four reoccur in Chukwu's creations.[26] The days correspond to the four cardinal points and are its names in Igbo, èké east, órìè west, àfọ̀ north, ǹkwọ́ south.[27] The Nri-Igbo claim the market days to have been introduced to the Igbo by their divine progenitor and king Eri in the 9th century after encountering the days as deities.[28] These alusi are venerated as the primary or as a major deity under Chineke in parts of Igboland. In terms of hierarchy, some communities recognise èké as the head of these alusi, while others prioritise órìè and ǹkwọ́ first after the high god.[28] Market days may have local deities representing the spirits in some places, in many southern Igbo towns Agwu is the patron of Eke, Ogwugwu the patron of Orie, Amadioha the patron of Afo and Ala for Nkwo.[24]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odinani

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Igbo_culture

While today many Igbo people are Christian, the traditional ancient Igbo religion is known as Odinani. In the Igbo mythology, which is part of their ancient religion, the supreme God is called Chukwu ("great spirit"); Chukwu created the world and everything in it and is associated with all things on Earth. Chukwu is also a solar deity. To the ancient Igbo, the Cosmo is divided into four complex parts:[6]
Okike (Creation)
Alusi (Supernatural Forces or Deities)
Mmuo (Spirit)
Uwa (World)

In the traditional Igbo calendar a week (Igbo: Izu) has 4 days (Igbo: Ubochi) (Eke, Orie, Afọ, Nkwọ), seven weeks make one month (Igbo: Ọnwa), a month has 28 days and there are 13 months a year. In the last month, an extra day is added.[clarification needed] The traditional time keepers in Igboland are the priests or Dibia.
The names of the days have their roots in the mythology of the Kingdom of Nri. Eri, the sky-descended founder of the Nri kingdom, had gone on to break the mystery of time and on his journey he had saluted and counted the four days by the names of the spirits that governed them, hence the names of the spirits eke, orie, afọ and nkwọ became those of the days of the week. The days also correspond to the four cardinal points, Afọ corresponds to north, Nkwọ to south, Eke to east, and Orie to west.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Igbo_calendar

16 is the squares of the quadrant model

Geomancy (Greek: γεωμαντεία, "earth divination") is a method of divination that interprets markings on the ground or the patterns formed by tossed handfuls of soil, rocks, or sand. The most prevalent form of divinatory geomancy involves interpreting a series of 16 figures formed by a randomized process that involves recursion followed by analyzing them, often augmented with astrological interpretations.

Another method of evaluating a geomantic chart involves taking the total sum of all points from 16 figures within the shield chart. In order to evaluate how quickly the queried situation would resolve, Pietro d'Abano suggested that the total sum be compared to the sum of all points in the sixteen geomantic figures, which is 96.[11] If the sum of the chart is 96, then the resolution of the query will be "swift, and neither slow nor doubtful;" in other words, that all things that could be acted upon in the situation described by the query would resolve without delay nor ahead of schedule. If the sum is less than 96, then it will resolve quickly, and in a degree proportional to the difference between 96 and the total. Conversely, if the sum is more than 96, then it will resolve slowly.

The four binary elements of each figure allow for 16 different combinations, each called a tableau. As each chart is generated from the four Mothers, there are a total number of 164, or 65,536, possible charts. Due to the mathematics of the chart, only figures that have an even number of points total can become Judges;[9] each of the eight Judges then has 8,192 charts associated with it. Traditional practitioners of geomancy use this knowledge as a type of parity check on the chart to ensure that no mistakes have been made while computing the figures.

In each chart, if all sixteen figures are observed (the four Mothers, the four Daughters, the four Nieces, the Witnesses, Judge, and Reconciler), at least two of the figures must be the same. However, as the Reconciler is usually termed an optional figure, 16 combinations of Mother figures can yield a chart where the Mothers, Daughters, Nieces, Witnesses, and Judge are all unique. Notably, Populus cannot appear in these charts, since mathematically it either requires two figures to be the same in order to be formed, or produces a duplicate figure when added to another figure. In such charts, the Judge will always be one of Conjunctio, Amissio, Carcer, or Acquisitio. The sixteen combinations of Mothers, in order from the First to the Fourth Mother, are

Puer, Caput Draconis, Tristitia, Albus
Conjunctio, Puella, Fortuna Major, Tristitia
Puella, Puer, Tristitia, Albus
Puella, Cauda Draconis, Tristitia, Albus
Rubeus, Laetitia, Puella, Puer
Rubeus, Laetitia, Cauda Draconis, Puella
Rubeus, Laetitia, Cauda Draconis, Caput Draconis
Rubeus, Laetitia, Caput Draconis, Puer
Acquisitio, Puella, Albus, Fortuna Major
Laetitia, Fortuna Minor, Puer, Conjunctio
Laetitia, Fortuna Minor, Acquisitio, Cauda Draconis
Cauda Draconis, Caput Draconis, Tristitia, Albus
Caput Draconis, Amissio, Fortuna Major, Tristitia
Caput Draconis, Carcer, Albus, Fortuna Major
Fortuna Minor, Rubeus, Puer, Amissio
Fortuna Minor, Rubeus, Carcer, Cauda Draconis
The Arabic tradition consists of sketching sixteen random lines of dots in sand. This same process survived virtually unchanged through its introduction to Europe in the medieval era, and survives to this day in various Arabic countries. Sikidy and other forms of African divination also follow techniques that have remained virtually unchanged.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geomancy

16 is the squares of the quadrant model

The 16 geomantic figures are the primary symbols used in divinatory geomancy. Each geomantic figure represents a certain state of the world or the mind, and can be interpreted in various ways based upon the query put forth and the method used to generate the figures. When geomancy was introduced to Europe in the Middle Ages, the figures acquired astrological meanings and new forms of interpretation. The figures bear superficial resemblance to the ba gua, the eight trigrams used in the I Ching, a Chinese classic text.

Contents [hide] 
1 Properties of the figures
2 Operations of the figures
2.1 Addition of figures
2.2 Inversion of figures
2.3 Reversion of figures
3 The geomantic figures
3.1 Via
3.2 Cauda Draconis
3.3 Puer
3.4 Fortuna Minor
3.5 Puella
3.6 Amissio
3.7 Carcer
3.8 Laetitia
3.9 Caput Draconis
3.10 Conjunctio
3.11 Acquisitio
3.12 Rubeus
3.13 Fortuna Major
3.14 Albus
3.15 Tristitia
3.16 Populus
4 See also
5 References
Properties of the figures[edit]

Each figure has four lines or rows, with each row representing one of the elements; each row can be either active or passive. Above, Puer is shown to have the Fire, Air, and Earth lines active, but the Water line remains passive.
Each of the figures is composed of four lines, each line containing either one or two points. Each line represents one of the four classical elements: from top to bottom, the lines represent fire, air, water, and earth. When a line has a single point, the element is said to be active; otherwise, with two points, the element is passive. Because there are four lines, and since each line can be either active or passive, there are 24, or 16, different figures. The different combinations of elements yields different representations or manifestations of the figure's energy.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geomantic_figures

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

In the Beginning, Olodumare (God) gave the Orisa Orunmila a flawless method of communication between himself and the Orisa called Ifa. Ifa is linked to destiny through the Ifa the true religion of Yorubas . Sixteen is the number of cosmos; it represents the primal order that issued from the unity of Olodumare.
(Sixteen is also a significant number in the world of computers.) When the world was first created, it spread out from an original palm tree that stood at the center of the world at Ile-Ife. The palm tree had sixteen branches, which formed the four cardinal points and the sixteen original quarters of Ile-Ife. In political terms, Odudua, the first oni of Ife, fathered sixteen sons who founded the sixteen original kingdoms of the Yoruba. On a deeper level still, Orunmila taught the art of divination to his sixteen sons; they, in turn, passed it down to the Babalawos who practice it today.
Through the linked concepts of order, creation, and destiny, the number sixteen represents the variables of the human condition, the sixteen possible situations of human life. For the Yoruba, the sixteen principle signs are called Odu or Olodu, from each of which are drawn sixteen subordinate signs (omo-Odu, "children of the odu" or Odus).
These represent the sixteen essential life situations with sixteen possible variations each. This means 256 possible combinations (Odu's) or two to the eighth power. Each Odu is a recital of a set of poems called ese, that provide clues for the resolution of the problem during a divination session. There are at least, and by far not the most, 16 different ese's for each of the 256 Odu. This adds up to at least 4096 different scenarios. The goal of the Babalawo is to arrive at the appropiate Odu for the situation of his "querent".

http://www.reunionblackfamily.com/apps/blog/show/7134366-ifa-the-true-religion-of-yorubas-sixteen-is-the-number-of-cosmos-

16 is the squares of the quadrant model

West African-derived forms most commonly use 16 cowrie shells on a prepared table or on a mat on the ground, interpreting the patterns that result which are known as Odu. Before casting the shells, the priest/priestess invokes and salutes the Orishas, and puts questions to them. The Orishas answer the questions by influencing the way the shells fall on the table.

Merindinlogun[edit]
Merindinlogun (from the Yoruba mẹrindínlógún "sixteen", literally "four taken from 20") is a cowrie-shell divination method practiced in the Yoruba religion.

The number 16 holds important significance in Yoruba mythology as it was the purported number of original divinities that established life on earth. In merindinlogun divination, the shells are thrown and the number of shells that fall with the opening facing up is associated with a certain odu. This system of divination is used when consulting the Orishas.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cowrie-shell_divination

Ifá is a religion and system of divination and refers to the verses of the literary corpus known as the Odu Ifá. Orunmila is identified as the Grand Priest, as he is who revealed divinity and prophecy to the world. Babalawo's use either the divining chain known as Opele, or the sacred palm or kola nuts called Ikin, on the wooden divination tray called Opon Ifá.
The 16 principle system seems to have it earliest history in West Africa. Each Niger-Congo ethnic group has its own myths of origin; Yoruba mythology suggests that it was founded by Orunmila in Ile Ife when he initiated himself and then he initiated his students, Akoda and Aseda. Other myths suggest in the that it was brought to Ile Ife by Setiu, a Nupe man who settled in Ile Ife. Igbo mythology suggests that Dahomey Kings noted that the system of Afá was brought by a diviner known as Gogo from eastern Nigeria.[1]
Orunmila came to establish an oral literary corpus incorporating stories and experiences of priests and their clients along with the results. This odu corpus emerges as the leading documentation on the Ifá tradition to become a historical legacy.
There are sixteen major books in Odu Ifá[4] literary corpus. When combined there are total of 256 Odu (a collection of sixteen, each of which has sixteen alternatives ⇔ 16^2, or 4^4) believed to reference all situations, circumstances, actions and consequences in life based on the uncountable ese (poetic tutorials) relative to the 256 Odu coding. These form the basis of traditional Yoruba spiritual knowledge and are the foundation of all Yoruba divination systems. Ifá proverbs, stories, and poetry are not written down but passed down orally from one babalawo to another.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ifá

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_sons_of_Horus

The four sons of Horus were a group of four gods in Egyptian religion, who were essentially the personifications of the four canopic jars, which accompanied mummified bodies.Since the heart was thought to embody the soul, it was left inside the body.
Imsety - human form - direction South - protected the liver - protected by Isis.
Duamutef - jackal form - direction East - protected the stomach - protected by Neith.
Hapi - baboon form - direction North - protected the lungs - protected by Nephthys.
Qebehsenuef - hawk form - direction West - protected the intestines - protected by his mother Serket.

http://truthseeker444.blogspot.com/2012/04/number-four-4.html

In the ancient Sumerian legends, Enki was represented by a Crescent moon. A crescent now represents Allah. The symbol for Zeus/Jupiter is a crescent added to a cross, which looks like a 4.

The Sun God RAH (Re,Ra, Atun) the Lord of all creation ROSE, and spat out the elements of Moisture (The Goddess Tefnut), and air (the God Shu).

The twins Shu and Tefnut gave birth to the Earth God Geb, and the Sky Goddess Nut.

Geb and Nut had 4 children: Seth, Isis, Osiris and Nephthys.

Seth married Nephtys and Osiris married Isis, the 4 were primary Egyptian deities.

http://truthseeker444.blogspot.com/2012/04/number-four-4.html

 

ISIS is the primary Egyptian Goddess, and has been worshipped since Antiquity under various different names. ISIS 4 letters.

Numerology

 

ISIS I=1 S=3 I=1 S=3 1+3+1+3=8 The double God number 4:4

SETH S=3 E=5 T=4 H=5 3+5+4+5=17 1+7=8 4:4

OSIRIS O=7 S=3 I=1 R=2 I=1 S=3 7+3+1+2+1+3=17 1+7=8 4:4 again

NEPHTYS N=5 E=5 P=8 H=5 T=4 Y=1 S=3 5+5+8+5+4+1+3=31 3+1=4

 

Whats the chances? Quadruplets each with the numerical value of 4!

Incidentally, ISIS is in Osiris, and the letters O&R are left over or-Isis

And SETH is in Nephtys with the letters NYP over. An acronym for New York to Paris.

The primary Egyptian God and Creator is Rah (Re/Ra/Atun)

RAH R=2 A=1 H=5 2+1+5=8 4:4 again the double God number.

 

 

(all numerology based on the Chaldean system)

https://books.google.com/books?id=ioXXW15VWGgC&pg=PA43&lpg=PA43&dq=sixteen+stars+constellation&source=bl&ots=EQRt7VoEc_&sig=UZZBOYzJR8VJtJMHrN2YkOdYGKc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjH3ta6uYDTAhVD7GMKHeJ8DCsQ6AEITzAL#v=onepage&q=sixteen%20stars%20constellation&f=false

OSIRIS ACCORDING TO SOME SOURCES WAS CUT INTO 14 PARTS BEFORE HE RESURRECTED BUT OTHER SOURCES SAY 16--- THEY SAY THAT SCORPIO HAS 16 STARS RELATED TO THE 16 PARTS OF OSIRIS BODY---- 16 IS THE SQUARES OF THE QUADRANT MODEL

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nommo

DOGON MYTHOLOGY- NOMMO WAS THE FIRST LIVING CREATURE AND HE TURNED INTO FOUR PAIRS OF TWINS

Dogon mythology says that Nommo was the first living creature created by the sky god Amma. Shortly after his creation, Nommo underwent a transformation and multiplied into four pairs of twins. One of the twins rebelled against the universal order created by Amma. To restore order to his creation, Amma sacrificed another of the Nommo progeny, whose body was dismembered and scattered throughout the universe.[1] This dispersal of body parts is seen by the Dogon as the source for the proliferation of Binu shrines throughout the Dogons’ traditional territory; wherever a body part fell, a shrine was erected.

DOGON FOUR CALENDARS

https://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/mitos_creacion/esp_mitoscreacion_1.htm

In addition to their knowledge of Sirius B, the Dogon mythology includes Saturn's rings, and Jupiter's four major moons. They have four calendars, for the Sun, Moon, Sirius, and Venus, and have long known that planets orbit the sun.

THE HOGON, THE DOGONS LEADER- HAS 16 STONES IN HIS HOUSE

http://www.burlingtonnews.net/dogons.html

The Dogons spiritual leader is called a Hogan. It is his job to remember the history and number system that governs their lives, which he passes down to his successor which again will do the

same. The Hogon, and everyone else, are fully aware that there is both good and bad in everything so everyone is watched very closely by everyone else in case some horrible imbalance

occurs. Villages are built in pairs, houses and stores are built with eight rooms, and there are sixteen special stones in the Hogon's house - eight for Hogons past and eight for the future

successors. There is no real government and although the country has a 'Supreme Hogon' the ordinary villages consist of extended families with the eldest and most respected male taking on

the spiritual leadership role.

FOUR SECTIONS

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Book_of_the_Heavenly_Cow

 

Egyptologists who have examined the text closely have suggested a loose division of the text into four sections. The first section describes the "Destruction of Mankind", in which humanity plot against the Sun God Ra. After Ra consulting with the other gods, the goddess Hathor is chosen by Ra, to act as the violent Eye of Ra. She was to deliver divine punishment to humanity and did so by slaughtering the rebels and bringing death into the world. The survivors of Hathor’s wrath were saved when Ra tricks Hathor by putting dyed beer that resembled blood, which Hathor drinks, becoming intoxicated. The final part of the text deal with Ra's ascension into the sky, the creation of the underworld, and with the theology surrounding the ba (soul)

MADE OF FOUR BOOKS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_Piby

The Holy Piby is a proto-Rastafari text written by an Anguillan, Robert Athlyi Rogers (d. 1931), for the use of an Afrocentric religion in the West Indies founded by Rogers in the 1920s, known as the Afro-Athlican Constructive Gaathly. The theology outlined in this work saw Ethiopians (in the classical sense of all Africans) as the chosen people of God. The church preached self-reliance and self-determination for Africans, using the Piby as its guiding document.

 

The Holy Piby is made up of four books. The first, entitled "The First Book of Athlyi Called Athlyi", has only two chapters. The next, "The Second Book of Athlyi Called Aggregation", is the largest, with fifteen chapters, the seventh of which identifies Marcus Garvey[1] as one of three apostles of God. The "Third Book of Athlyi Named The Facts of the Apostles" presents two prominent members of the UNIA-ACL, Robert Lincoln Poston[2] and Henrietta Vinton Davis,[3] as the other apostles in the Holy Trinity. The title of the last book is "The Fourth Book of Athlyi Called Precaution". That book is followed by a series of catechism-style questions and answers wherein Garvey, Davis and Poston are proclaimed to be the saviors of the "down trodden children of Ethiopia".

QUADRANT NUMBERS - 16 IS QUADRANT MODEL 64 IS FOUR QUADRANT MODELS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Oudjat.SVG

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binary_number

Horus-Eye fractions are a binary numbering system for fractional quantities of grain, liquids, or other measures, in which a fraction of a hekat is expressed as a sum of the binary fractions 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32, and 1/64.

HEKAT WAS ONE SIXTEENTH OF A KHAR- 16 SQUARES QMR-- NOTICE THE 64 NUMBERS - 64 IS FOUR QMRS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hekat_(unit)

 

The hekat or heqat (transcribed HqA.t) was an ancient Egyptian volume unit used to measure grain, bread, and beer. It equals 4.8 litres in today's measurements.[1]

 

Until the New Kingdom (NK), the hekat was one tenth of a khar, later one sixteenth; while the New Kingdom oipe (transcribed ip.t) contained 4 hekat. It was sub-divided into other units – some for medical prescriptions – the hin (1/10), dja (1/64) and ro (1/320). The dja was recently evaluated by Tanja Pommerening in 2002 to 1/64 of a hekat (75 cc) in the MK, and 1/64 of an oipe (1/16 of a hekat, or 300 cc) in the NK, meaning that the dja was denoted by Horus-Eye imagery. It has been suggested by Pommerening that the NK change came about related to the oipe replacing the hekat as the Pharaonic volume control unit in official lists.

 

Hana Vymazalova evaluated the hekat unit in 2002 within the Akhmim Wooden Tablet by showing that five answers were returned to (64/64) when multiplied by the divisors 3, 7, 10, 11 and 13. The RMP also divided a hekat unity (64/64) by prime and composite numbers n when 1/64 < n < 64. The binary quotient used Eye of Horus numbers. The remainder scaled Egyptian fractions to 1/320 units named ro. Quotients and unscaled remainders were obtained for the dja, ro and other units when the divisor n was greater than 64. For example, one the 1/320 ro unit was written by Ahmes by solving 320/n ro. Gillings cites 29 examples of two-part statements converted to one-part statements in RMP 82. Ahmes recorded the n = 3 case by showing (64/64)/3 = 21/64 + 1/192 (a modern statement) as written as(16 + 4 + 1)/64 + 5/3 × 1/320 = 1/4 + 1/16 + 1/64 + 1 2/3ro (two-part ancient statement). Two-part statements were also converted by Ahmes to an unscaled hin unit by writing 3 1/3 hin.

 

The hekat measurement unit, and its double entry accounting system, was found beyond the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus. Another text was the Ebers Papyrus, the best known medical text. The hekat unit was defined, in terms of its volume size, in the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus by MMP #10, by approximating π to around 3.16. The approximation of π was achieved by squaring a circle, increasingly (i.e. for the denominator in terms of setats: 9, 18, 36, 72, and 81, Gillings, page 141) until the vulgar fraction 256/81 was reached, the only relationship that was used in the Egyptian Middle Kingdom. The MMP scribe found the surface area of a basket equal to: (8d/9)2 = 64d2/81, within a cylinder relationship to the hekat. MMP 10 data meant that d = 2 defined π for use in hekat volumes as 256/81. The 256/81 approximation was also used by Ahmes and other scribes. The ancient Egyptian weights and measures discussion further shows that the hekat was 1/30 of a royal cubit3, an analysis that needs to double checked, against the d = 2 suggestion, which means that r = 1, a suggestion that does make sense. One royal cubit of the Ancient Egyptian weights and measures = 523.5 millimeters. ((523.5 mm)3) / 30 = 4.78221176 liters.

IN EGYPTIAN MYTHOLOGY THERE ARE FOUR PAIRS OF PRIMEVAL GODS- BUDGE COMPARES THESE FOUR PAIRS TO THE BABYLONIAN ENUMA ELIS- EIGHT DEITIES IN FOUR MALE FEMALE PAIRS- THE FOURTH PAIR IS DIFFERENT

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ogdoad_(Egyptian)

While there is no doubt as to the antiquity of this group of gods, such that even at the time of composition of the Pyramid Texts towards the end of the Old Kingdom period they were antiquated and forgotten by everyone except religious experts, the oldest known pictorial representations of the group do not predate the time of Seti I. Budge (1904) compares the concept to a group of four pairs of primeval gods mentioned in the Babylonian Enûma Eliš.[1]

 

The eight deities were arranged in four male-female pairs (the female names being merely derivative female forms of the male names), as follows:.[5]

 

The fourth pair appears with varying names, sometimes the name Qerḥ is replaced by Ni, Nenu, Nut, or Amun, and the name Qerḥet by Ennit, Nenuit, Nut, Nit, or Amunet. The common meaning of qerḥ is "night", but the determinative (D41 for "to halt, stop, deny") also suggests the principle of inactivity or repose.[6]

 

There is no clear way to attribute four functions to the four pairs of gods, and it seems clear that "the ancient Egyptians themselves had no very clear idea" regarding such functions.[7]

MISTRESS OF ALL NUT BIRTHED FOUR CHILDREN- VERY FAMOUS GODS- IN QUADRIFORMISRATIO WEBSITE GUY GOES OVER ALL GODS OF EGYPT AND POINTS OUT IT IS A FOURFOLD QUADRANT

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nut_(goddess)

Mistress of All or "She who Bore the Gods": Originally, Nut was said to be lying on top of Geb (Earth) and continually having intercourse. During this time she birthed four children: Osiris, Isis, Set, and Nephthys.

I POSTED ALL THIS STUFF BEFORE NOW IM POSTING PICTURES AND LINKS SO YOU SEE I WASNT MAKING IT UP

 

Fig. 79 – Some four-fold divisions in the ‘Book of the Gates’. 1. The god Atum and the four directions (8th scene); 2. Apes worships the sun; 3. Gods carrying a light (82nd scene); 4. Four gods (87th scene); 5. Gods with rams-heads and Uas-scepter (85th scene); 6. Four apes with human fist (90th scene). In1. HORNUNG (1972) (1, 3-6) and ERMAN (1909) (2).

https://quadriformisratio.files.wordpress.com/2013/06/heliopolis.jpg

https://quadriformisratio.wordpress.com/2013/07/01/a-four-staged-journey-to-holiness/

The cyclic nature in the four-fold division of the world of the gods is well developed in northern Egypt (Heliopolis), and particularly in the later dynasties (GOFF, 1979; WOLDERING, 1981). The framework of the supra-natural universe is a combination of two- and fourfold units adding up to a nine-fold unity, the so-called ‘Ennead of Heliopolis’ (fig. 80). The creation-myth starts with Atum (generated from his own)(I), begetting Sjoe and Tefnoet as female and male children (II). This couple begets Geb (earth) and Noet (heaven)(III). They, in turn, have four children: Osiris, Isis, Seth en Nepthys (IV). In a later stage a differentiation of the four-fold division takes place: Isis and Horus are a holy nine-fold and Nepthys and Osiris create Anubis. The basic division is, however, as follows:

 

heliopolis

Fig. 80 – The ennead of Heliopolis represented as a possible development of division thinking.

https://quadriformisratio.files.wordpress.com/2013/06/memphis.jpg

https://quadriformisratio.wordpress.com/2013/07/01/a-four-staged-journey-to-holiness/

The division of Creation is a combination of two pairs of opposites, made up by the top-members of the ennead (1 – 4; 2 – 3):

 

1. Re (sun and heaven),

 

2. Shu (the air),

 

 

3. Geb (the earth)

 

4. Osiris (the underworld),

 

The scheme in Memphis (Sakkara), south of Cairo, is different, although there are also nine gods involved. The southern influence of (the eight gods of) Hermopolis is joined here with Ptah (the creating god) into a unit of nine. The text which describes this event is engraved into the ‘Shabaka Stone‘, around 700 BC. and now in the British Museum. The sources of this text are much older and go back from the First to the Fourth Dynasty (2925 – 2450 BC.).

 

The suggestion in fig. 81 is an effort to visualize the spiritual development of the gods of Memphis, who reached a strong presence in the Nineteenth Dynasty (1307 – 1196 BC.), under pharaohs like Seti I and Ramses II.

 

The primal unity, the god Horus (I), generates a primary four-fold division, represented by his sons (II). The two-fold division of Ptah and Sechmet (III) makes up the visible part of the spectrum and is – later – jointed by Nefertum to form a trinity, sometimes expanded by Imhotep, the builder of the step pyramid of Zoser (2630 BC.), into a tetradic pluriformity. The third quadrant (III), as the position of the physical observations and creations, remains the most important. Pta, ‘the very great one’, is historically the centre-point, who joins with the local goddess Sechmet, shaped as a lion.

CREATOR LIKE BRAHMA WITH FOUR HEADS

https://quadriformisratio.files.wordpress.com/2013/06/chum.jpg

https://quadriformisratio.wordpress.com/2013/07/01/a-four-staged-journey-to-holiness/

Fig. 86 – Left: The God Chum, the Creator, with four heads of a ram (In: CHAMPOLLION, 1823); Right: The god Amun-Re with the spirit of the four directions. From the New Kingdom. (In: JUNG, 1953/1968) and ENDRES & SCHIMMEL, 1984).

SUN GOD AS RAM WITH FOUR HEADS

https://quadriformisratio.files.wordpress.com/2013/06/boat.jpg

https://quadriformisratio.wordpress.com/2013/07/01/a-four-staged-journey-to-holiness/

Fig. 85 – Sun god as a ram with four heads New Kingdom (1150 – 1050 BC.). This is an early occurrence of the motif. In: GUTBUG, 1977.

 

These few examples are only fragments of a much wider occurrence of division-orientated thinking within the Egyptian cultural period. SETHE (1916) draws attention to the ‘runde oder heilige Zahlen‘ (round and holy figures), which are used over a long period of time. The figure four is, in his view, of prime importance: ‘Die Vier ist die eigentliche heilige Zahl der Ägypter‘ (The figure four is the real holy number of the Egyptians). And he added (p. 32): ‘In den späteren Zeiten der ägyptischen Geschichte scheint die Zahl 4 als heilige Zahl mehr und mehr hinter der 7 zurückzutreten‘ (In the later period of the Egyptian history the figure four as a holy number seems to be outshine by the number seven).

 

These observations are of importance in a modern, quadralectic approach to history. Not only is the timing of the sphere of interest of the observer (i.c. the European cultural period) with regard to the Egyptian history of significance, but also – in the same interaction – the interpretation of the various periods of prominence of a certain type of division-thinking. This type of historical research, based on a philosophical framework, has only recently been discovered.

THE BAVILIS IS A TRIBE WHOS SUPREME GOD IS NZAMBI- THE NAME NZAMBI LITERALLY MEANS "PERSONAL ESSENCE OF THE FOURS"- THE FOURS ARE GROUPS EACH OF FOUR POWERS - FOUR PARTS CAUSE MALE PART FEMALE PART EFFECT

 

https://books.google.com/books?id=PYwV956P_UgC&pg=PA94&lpg=PA94&dq=four+times+four+gods&source=bl&ots=1KyCRh1Mew&sig=bauCM7mBdk3al0jm07S3uNVDNf8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi2zMmxgt3TAhUGzGMKHTsVBNEQ6AEILDAC#v=onepage&q=four%20times%20four%20gods&f=false

 

QUADRANT

THE BATAK TRIBE HAS FOUR DISTINCT INDIVIDUALIZED DEITIES COLLECTIVELY CALLED ASIASI - ASIASI HAS FOUR ASPECTS- LIKE THE TETRAGRAMMATON THE SUPREME GOD OF THE ISRAELITES HAD FOUR PARTS THE SUPREME GOD OF THE BATAK HAS FOUR ASPECTS

https://books.google.com/books?id=bv1MBAAAQBAJ&pg=PT224&lpg=PT224&dq=four+times+four+gods&source=bl&ots=pWYVpN8-EF&sig=ntRIVSVt6_ptk6D7JU9JE92FADA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi2zMmxgt3TAhUGzGMKHTsVBNEQ6AEILzAD#v=onepage&q=four%20times%20four%20gods&f=false

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GOD CALLS SAMUEL FOUR TIMES THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT

https://www.translate.com/spanish/god-called-samuel-four-times-three-times-saying-that-samuel-hantes/7211

God called Samuel four times / three times, saying that Samuel

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

THE SOLAR EYE OF HORUS- 64 PIECES- 16 TIMES FOUR (SOME MYTHS ABOUT OSIRIS SAY HE WAS CUT INTO 14 PIECES OTHERS SAY 16) (16 squares qmr)

HE SAYS THAT "THERE IS NO EXPLANATION WHY" BUT "THE SACRIFICE OF THE HIGHEST TYPE" FOR THE EGYPTIANS INVOLVED FOUR BULLOCKS OF THREE COLORS AND ONE SPOTTED--- ALSO FOUR SORTS OF GAME--- THE ANSWER IS THE QUADRANT MODEL PATTERN

 

THE AUTHOR OF THIS BOOK DESCRIBES HOW THE EGYPTIANS SACRIFICED FOUR BULLOCKS OF DIFFERENT COLORS RED BLACK WHITE AND SPOTTED (fourth is different but contains other three spotted transcendent)- AND THE EGYPTIANS SACRIFICED FOUR SORTS OF GAME--- HE SAYS THAT THUS FAR THERE IS NO EXPLANATION WHY IT IS FOUR---- THE REASON IS THE QUADRANT MODEL

https://books.google.com/books?id=e6IYAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA46&lpg=PA46&dq=number+36+in+mythology&source=bl&ots=N4Q7scOlnu&sig=gphqqjXKeC5sHuY60FsZAUgJByg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi77cPOnt3TAhVNx2MKHYwZDxIQ6AEIUTAI#v=snippet&q=four&f=false

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FOUR MESKHENET'S - THE DOGON REPRESENTED THE SUN BY THE NUMBER FOUR- THE EGYPTIANS ALSO REPRESENTED THE SUN BY THE NUMBER FOUR- FOUR SOURCES OF NILE

https://books.google.com/books?id=e6IYAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA46&lpg=PA46&dq=number+36+in+mythology&source=bl&ots=N4Q7scOlnu&sig=gphqqjXKeC5sHuY60FsZAUgJByg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi77cPOnt3TAhVNx2MKHYwZDxIQ6AEIUTAI#v=snippet&q=four&f=false

Quadrant

I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

THE FOUR SONS OF HORUS AND THE ANKH CROSS- THE FOUR HEADS OF THE FOUR SONS OF HORUS GROW FROM THE SERPANT WHO HOLDS THE ANKH THE CROSS THE SYMBOL OF LIFE- ALSO THE FOUR HORUSES ARE REPRESENTED (NOT SONS OF HORUS BUT FOUR HORUSES) ARE DEPCITED IN THE FOUR CARDINAL DIRECTIONS (quadrant)- ALSO FOUR TRESSES OF HORUS

https://books.google.com/books?id=e6IYAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA46&lpg=PA46&dq=number+36+in+mythology&source=bl&ots=N4Q7scOlnu&sig=gphqqjXKeC5sHuY60FsZAUgJByg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi77cPOnt3TAhVNx2MKHYwZDxIQ6AEIUTAI#v=snippet&q=four&f=false

Quadrant

HE DESCRIBES THAT SOMETIMES AN ERROR IS ADDED MAKING A FIFTH SON OF OSIRIS BUT HE SAYS THERE IS ONLY FOUR (THE FIFTH IS ALWAYS QUESTIONABLE)

 

https://books.google.com/books?id=e6IYAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA46&lpg=PA46&dq=number+36+in+mythology&source=bl&ots=N4Q7scOlnu&sig=gphqqjXKeC5sHuY60FsZAUgJByg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi77cPOnt3TAhVNx2MKHYwZDxIQ6AEIUTAI#v=snippet&q=four&f=false

Quadrant

EGYPTIANS SAW THE SKY AS HELD UP BY FOUR PILLARS REPRESENTED BY FOUR WOMEN--- NOTICE IN THE DEPICTIONS OF THE SUN GOD ON HIS STAIRS HE IS HOLDING AN ANKH A CROSS- ALSO THE BIRTH OF THE SUN IS REPRESENTED BY THE ANKH THE CROSS/QUADRANT

 

https://books.google.com/books?id=e6IYAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA46&lpg=PA46&dq=number+36+in+mythology&source=bl&ots=N4Q7scOlnu&sig=gphqqjXKeC5sHuY60FsZAUgJByg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi77cPOnt3TAhVNx2MKHYwZDxIQ6AEIUTAI#v=snippet&q=four&f=false

Quadrant

THE AUTHOR SAYS "WE ARE UNABLE TO EXPLAIN WHY THE STARS THAT COVER THE HEAVENLY COW HAVE FOUR RAYS"- THE ANSWER IS BECAUSE THEY ARE QUADRANTS- HE THEN SAYS THAT "FOUR IS THE SPECIAL CELESTIAL OR COSMIC NUMBER"- to the Egyptians- It is to every culture - the quadrant model is truly the form of existence- I studied physics lectures where the bosons were discovered through a quadrant pattern- I studied lectures where the biggest novels literally were the quadrant pattern- I just forget a lot of it now

 

https://books.google.com/books?id=e6IYAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA46&lpg=PA46&dq=number+36+in+mythology&source=bl&ots=N4Q7scOlnu&sig=gphqqjXKeC5sHuY60FsZAUgJByg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi77cPOnt3TAhVNx2MKHYwZDxIQ6AEIUTAI#v=snippet&q=four&f=false

Quadrant

HE SAYS THAT THE HEVENLY BULL IS REPRESENTED WITH FOUR HORNS (one for each of the cardinal directions the quadrant)- AND HE SAYS THAT OSIRIS OFTEN HAS THE FORM OF THE BULL

https://books.google.com/books?id=e6IYAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA46&lpg=PA46&dq=number+36+in+mythology&source=bl&ots=N4Q7scOlnu&sig=gphqqjXKeC5sHuY60FsZAUgJByg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi77cPOnt3TAhVNx2MKHYwZDxIQ6AEIUTAI#v=snippet&q=four&f=false

QUADRANT

THE SKY WAS REPRESENTED BY THE EGYPTIANS AS A COW WITH EACH OF THE FOUR LEGS REPRESENTING THE FOUR CARDINAL DIRECTIONS- ISIS WAS REPRESENTED AS A COW (I ALSO MENTIONED OSIRIS WAS)

https://books.google.com/books?id=e6IYAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA46&lpg=PA46&dq=number+36+in+mythology&source=bl&ots=N4Q7scOlnu&sig=gphqqjXKeC5sHuY60FsZAUgJByg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi77cPOnt3TAhVNx2MKHYwZDxIQ6AEIUTAI#v=snippet&q=four&f=false

Quadrant

16 SQUARES QMR- AFRICAN DIVINATION- FOUR BIT COMBINATIONS IFA FOUR TABLET SYSTEM SOUTH AFRICA SIKIDY FOUR BY FOUR MATRIX SYSTEM- 16 TETRAGRAMS

http://www.pelulamu.net/binmyst/

The Sixteen Tetragrams

 

 

 

One of the 65,536 possible Sikidy tableaux

 

The Chinese have mostly been using their binary combinatorics for

philosophical and religious things. This is also true for the African use of

binary systems.

 

There are actually at least three types of African binary divination

techniques, all of which use four-bit combinations: Ifa (West Africa), the

four-tablet system (South Africa) and Sikidy (Madagascar). The former two

are quite straight-forward (randomise a combination and interpret its

meaning), but Sikidy requires more advanced computation.

 

The first step in Sikidy is to randomise four columns of four bits (a

four-by-four matrix). The randomisation of one bit usually happens by

grabbing a handful of seeds from a bag and removing two seeds at a time

until only one or two seeds are left. (This gives a totally new meaning to

the concept of "random number seed"). The one or two seeds are then placed

in their proper position on the Sikidy board.

 

The figure above shows an example of a completed Sikidy board. The

randomised columns (called "Mother-Sikidy") are in the upper right corner.

The values of the columns from right to left, bottom to top are: 1010, 1001,

1011, 0010.

 

The next thing to do is to form the "Daughter-Sikidy" by rotating and

flipping the matrix. The rightmost column of the Mother-Sikidy (bottom to

top) becomes the top row (left to right) of the Daughter-Sikidy, and so

forth. Our Daughter-Sikidy (placed to the left of the Mother-Sikidy) is

therefore: 0110, 1101, 0000, 0111.

 

The rest is pure binary arithmetic. The columns below the Mother-Sikidy and

Daughter-Sikidy are formed by eXclusive-ORing each pair of columns: 1010 XOR

1001 = 0011, 1011 XOR 0010 = 1001, etc. This process is then repeated to all

the new lines until there is only one column left (the bottom column, 0110

in the example).

 

We now have a complete Sikidy tableau and what is left is the

interpretation: each of the sixteen binary values has its own meaning, and

each of the "memory slots" also has a designated meaning. The interpretation

requires a high level of expertise (or perhaps just a wild imagination).

 

The Sikidy system was also adopted by Arabs (under the name of "ilm

al-raml", "the science of sand"), and from Arabs it even transferred to

Europe in the Middle Ages. In Europe, it was known as "Arabic geomancy", a

small branch of Arabic occultism. All kinds of freaks extended to system to

include relationships with astrology, numerology, tarot and other things.

 

Binary Base-16/10 Latin name Direction Gender Element

------ ---------- ---------- --------- ------ -------

0000 0 Populus (people) both F Water

0001 1 Laetitia (joy) up M Air

0010 2 Rubeus (red) up M Fire

0011 3 Fortuna Minor (small fortune) up F Earth

0100 4 Albus (white) down F Water

0101 5 Amissio (loss) up M Fire

0110 6 Conjunctio (reunion) both M Air

0111 7 Cauda Draconis (dragon's tail) up F Earth

1000 8 (-8) Tristitia (sadness) down F Earth

1001 9 (-7) Carcer (prison) both F Water

1010 A (10, -6) Acquisitio (gain) down M Air

1011 B (11, -5) Puer (boy) up M Air

1100 C (12, -4) Fortuna Major (big fortune) down M Fire

1101 D (13, -3) Puella (girl) down F Water

1110 E (14, -2) Caput Draconis (dragon's head) down M Fire

1111 F (15, -1) Via (way) both F Water

SIKIDY DIVINATION-- AFRICA FOUR PILES OF SEEDS 16 POSSIBLITIES 16 SQUARES QMR- FOUR LINES 16 FIGURES

http://occult-world.com/sikidy-divinations/

The figures are set up in one of two different ways by the Mpisikidy or Ombiasy (diviner).

One way is by interpreting even and odd piles of seeds. Four piles of seeds have two seeds removed at a time until only one or two remains in each pile. The seeds used are either fano seeds (Piptadenia chrysostachys, a type of acacia) or tamarind seeds (Tamarindus indica).

The other way is by drawing a series of wavy lines in sand. The curves (or “bellies” in the line are counted, an odd number counts as one, and an even number counts as two.

Single or double dots are arranged by fours. Each figure has four different parts to it:

Loha — The head (top line)

Tratra — The chest (second line)

Vaniaña — The hips (third line)

Vity or Tomboko — The foot (bottom line)

The four lines can be arranged into sixteen different figures.

The most important aspect of the system of computation with seeds used by diviners is the construction of tableaux. Each of the entries in the tableau can be one seed or two seeds.

Sikidy Tableau Entries

Mother-sikidy = the upper part of the tableau with four rows and four columns (the rows are considered from right to left, thus 2 2 1 1 is the first row above). Daughter-columns = the lower part of the tableau with eight columns of four entries each. The daughters are deduced from the mother-sikidy by applying a simple mathematical rule :

1 + 1 = 2

2 + 2 = 2

1 + 2 = 1

There are 16 possibles outcomes, which are classified in different ways :

Princes / Slaves : The 8 outcomes with an even number of seeds are called princes, for instance (2 2 1 1) with 6 seeds, and the others are called slaves, for instance (1 1 1 2) with 5 seeds.

Cardinal directions : The 16 outcomes are classified according to the 4 cardinal directions :

North = (1 2 2 2), (2 2 1 2), (1 1 1 2), (1 2 1 2)

West = (2 2 2 1), (1 2 1 1), (1 2 2 1), (2 1 2 1), (2 1 1 1)

East = (2 1 2 2), (2 2 1 1), (2 1 1 2)

South = (2 2 2 2), (1 1 1 1), (1 1 2 2), (1 1 2 1)

Some tableaux with particular positions of the outcomes are considered as strongly powerful at the symbolic level. The diviner put dust on some of the outcomes occurring in the tableau, and then, the dust is used as a strong talisman able to cure an illness. These particular tableaux are :

Toka (or tokan-tsikidy) = tableaux such that one of the cardinal directions is represented only once, by a unique outcome (among the four rows and columns of the mother-sikidy and the eight daughter-columns).

Double Toka Tableau

Fohatse = tableaux such that an outcome is repeated at least eight times in the tableau (among the four rows and columns of the mother-sikidy and the eight daughter-columns). The picture of the tableau above shows a fohatse with (2 2 1 1) repeated exactly nine times (2 rows and 2 columns in the mother-sikidy and 5 columns among the daughters)

Another way to use the tableaux is related to the divining practice itself. In this case, the mother-sikidy is chosen randomly, by taking 16 piles of seeds and reducing them to one or two seeds by deleting them two at a time.

OBI DIVINATION AFRICA FOUR COWRIE SHELLS

http://readersandrootworkers.org/wiki/Category:Obi_and_Diloggun_Divination

Obi Divination is a West African system of foretelling the future that originated within the traditional Yoruba religion and its various New World lineages, such as Santeria. The African form of this work employs kola nuts, but in the Americas, Obi readers use either four pieces of coconut or four cut cowrie shells to answer "yes" or "no" questions for clients. Obi means "kola nut" in the West African Yoruba language, and within their native religion Obi is an Orisha or deific spirit in his own right. Within contemporary hoodoo practice, both initiates and gifted non-initiates of these religions use obi in order to divine answers for clients. If cowries, coconuts, or kola nuts are not available, American obi readers also use four coins, after the manner of I Ching readings, which can be done with traditional yarrow stalks or with three coins.

Diloggun Divination is also African in origin, and it too is found among Afro-Caribbean practitioners, but diviners who use this method are initiated priests, and they employ specific religious techniques while performing a fairly complex ritual before and during the casting of the cowrie shells.

A similar form of cast or thrown cowrie or coconut shell divination that originated in the Congo is called Chamalongos. It is practiced in the Americas by initiates of Cuban lineages of the African Diasporic Palo religion.

CHAMALONGO FOUR SHELLS OR COCONUTS DIVINATION

http://readersandrootworkers.org/wiki/Category:Obi_and_Diloggun_Divination

Chamalongo Divination with Four Shells or Coconuts

 

Chamalongo is the name for the shell or coconut oracle as practiced in the Congo. In the Americas it is favoured by initiates of Cuban lineages of the African Diasporic religion of Palo Mayombe.

DILOGGUN DIVINATION AFRICA 16 SHELLS- 16 SQUARES QMR

http://readersandrootworkers.org/wiki/Category:Obi_and_Diloggun_Divination

Diloggun Divination with Sixteen Cowrie Shells

 

A Diloggun reading

 

A Diloggun reading

Diloggun is a method of divination used by initiates in the African Diasporic religion of La Regla de Ocha to ask questions of the orishas. It is relatively rare for hoodoo practitioners to use this system of fortune telling, because one must be initiated in the religion to learn it. The shells are generally associated with altars of the orisha Eleggua.

Ocha initiates who are readers throw sixteen cowries twice to generate one of 256 patterns, or Odu, each composed of two figures, or Letras.

The possible outcomes of a single throw are: Okana (one mouth up), Eji Oko (two mouths up), Ogunda (three mouths up), Irosun (four mouths up), Oche (five mouths up), Obara (six mouths up), Odi (seven mouths up), Eji Ogbe (eight mouths up), Osa (nine mouths up), Ofun (ten mouths up), Owani (eleven mouths up), Ejila Shebora (twelve mouths up), Metanla (thirteen mouths up), Merinla (fourteen mouths up), Marunla (fifteen mouths up), Merindilogun (sixteen mouths up). There is also a seventeenth possibility, Opira (no mouths up), which is not considered an Odu, per se, but which indicates significant problems with the reading (either on the part of the client or the diviner).

Once the Odu for the reading has been determined, further questions must be asked to reveal the proper interpretation. Readings are further refined by asking yes/no questions using a pair of eight possible objects (ibo), one hidden in each hand, and casting the sixteen cowrie shells to select which hand/object represents the answer to the question. These questions reveal whether the figures cast come with blessings (ire) or obstructions (osogbo), as well as the source(s) of those blessings or obstructions and the nature of the blessing or obstruction indicated. Possible sources of blessing or obstruction include the ancestors, Orisha, the client's own ori, another person, or witchcraft.

OBI DIVINATION CUT COCONUT INTO FOUR EQUAL PARTS
http://www.ileifa.org/obi-divination/
The traditional method of divination with Obi instructs us to take a fresh coconut and split it into four equal parts by using a small mallet on the coconut while on a counter or tabletop. We are not to open the coconut by throwing the coconut against the floor, which is an insult to Obi. Obi is a basic tool of divination for any believer of Orisha-based religions and in Spanish it is called “dar el coco”.

Four princesses in this myth four women no other numbers
http://www.sacred-texts.com/afr/fjort/fjo18.htm
Now, the leopard was married to four princesses. To one by common consent, to another by the rites of Boomba, to the third by the rites of Funzi, and to the fourth by those of Lembe, Each of his wives had her own cooking-shed.

Now, when the little dog jumped out of the nut, it ran into the first wife's shed. She beat it, so that it ran away and entered the shed of the wife after the rites of Boomba. This wife also beat the dog, so that it took refuge with the wife after the rites of Funzi. She also beat the little dog; and thus it fled to the wife after the rites of Lembe. She killed it.

But as the dog was dying, it changed into a beautiful damsel. And when the leopard saw this beautiful maiden, he longed to marry her, and straightway asked her to be his wife.

The beautiful girl answered him and said: "First, kill those four women who killed the little dog."

According to Fjort in the beginning there were four men

http://www.sacred-texts.com/afr/fjort/fjo30.htm

IT was in the beginning, and four men were walking through a wood. They came to a place where there were two rivers. One river was of water, clear as crystal and of great purity; the other was black and foul and horrible to the taste. And the four men were puzzled as to which river they should cross; for, whereas the dirty river seemed more directly in their way, the clear river was the most pleasant to cross, and perhaps after they had crossed it they might regain the proper path. The men, after some consultation, thought that they ought to cross the black river, and two of them straightway crossed it. The other two, however, scarce touched and tasted the water than they hesitated and returned. The two that had now nearly crossed the river called to them and urged them to come, but in vain. The other two had determined to leave their companions, and to cross the beautiful and clear river. They crossed it, and were astonished to find that they had become black, except just those parts of them that had touched the black river, namely, their months, the soles of their feet, and the palms of their hands. The two who had crossed the black river, however, were of a pure white colour. The two parties now travelled in different directions, and when they had gone some way, the white men were agreeably surprised to come across a large house containing white wives for them to marry; while the black men also found huts, or shimbecs with black women whom they married. And this is why some people are white and some black.

THE FJORT AFRICANS HAVE FOUR DAYS IN A WEEK- only number mentioned in this myth (they have four days in a week and seven weeks a month we have seven days in a week and four weeks a month)

http://www.sacred-texts.com/afr/fjort/fjo40.htm

 

The Fjort has four days in his week: Tono; Silu; Nkandu; Nsona, the fourth day, upon which the women will not work in the fields, sacred to production and motherhood.

FOUR DAYS AFRICAN WEEK
http://www.sacred-texts.com/afr/mind/mind06.htm
There are four days in the week.

(1) NDUKA, the day when palavers are finished.
(2) NTONA. The day when women do not plant, and burials take place, followed by the dance MASUKU.
(3) CILO. The day when the family fetishes MPUMBU, NGOFO and XIMPUKA are consulted about death palavers, and Manioc is taken out of the water.
(4) SONA. Perhaps short for SUNGA virtue. The day when no one is allowed to pass the NKUMBI tree save women going for water. Man's day of rest, the women's market day. Only women sell in the market.

THIS IS WHY YOU NEED TO LOOK UP MORE--- AND NOT TRUST WHAT YOU READ- IM READING THE SACRED TEXT SIGHT AND IT IS SAYING THAT THE BAVILI WORSHIP THREE MAIN GODS (FROM THAT YOU SAY ---- OH SO THERE IS NO FOURTH THEY LIKE THREE BETTER THAN FOUR- fourth is always different) WELL THE SUPREME GOD OF THE BAVILI MEANS "ESSENCE OF THE FOURS"-  THE SUPREME GOD OF THE BAVILI HAS FOUR PARTS--- So if you just read the sacred text sight you might walk away thinking "huh quadrant model its wrong" but I already knew that the Bavilis supreme God had four parts so I recognized "ok this sight is syaing that the Bavili have three main gods, but I know their supreme God literally means "essence of the fours"-  SO THE FOUR REMAINED DOMINANT

 

https://books.google.com/books?id=bv1MBAAAQBAJ&pg=PT224&lpg=PT224&dq=bavili+four+gods&source=bl&ots=pWYWpR60HH&sig=AKH4Kbz0o49OqDOlso4FIYEvQ5s&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi56t_dnfvTAhUQ8WMKHcnGDGoQ6AEIMzAC#v=onepage&q=bavili%20four%20gods&f=false

Quadrant

GROUPS OF FOUR- SACRED GROVES IN SETS OF FOUR SEASONS MONTHS AND PRODUCTS FALL INTO GROUPS OF FOUR- NYAMBI PERSONALITY OF THE FOUR- DESCENDANTS OF THE FOUR

http://www.sacred-texts.com/afr/mind/mind11.htm

Just as the seasons, months, and products fall into groups of four, which are genetically related to one another, so the first grove is the primary cause, the second and third the operative male and female causes, and the fourth is the product.

 

The groves fall into six groups of four each, and just as Mawalala stands outside the formula of the seasons, so the Lungululubu group stands apart from the rest of the groves.

 

It will be shown in the sequel that the sacred groves are grouped together in sets of four, which we denominate "families." The members of these families are conceived by the natives to be genetically related to each other; beyond this the families themselves are regarded as standing to each other in a similar relation.

 

NYAMBI = Ruler (literally the spirit or personality of the four). NYAMBI is said to be the nephew of BUNZI. Some people call God NYAMBI instead of NZAMBI, but the word rather means Life in the sense of VIS VITÆ. IA= to be.

 

The Nkungu and Nyambi groups are looked upon as the descendants of the four [1] previous great families which as we have seen, include the winds.

IN THE AFRICAN MYTHOLOGY THE AUTHOR POINTS OUT "A CONSTANTLY RECURRING 24 AS SIX TIMES FOUR"- 24 IS CONSTANTLY ALLUDED TO BUT AS A SIX TIMES FOUR- THEY MENTION SIX A LOT BUT IT IS ALWAYS IN RELATION TO THE FOUR-" SIX SETS OF FOUR- he also notices a three plus one pattern (the quadrant pattern)

http://www.sacred-texts.com/afr/mind/mind14.htm

IT is said that BUNZI the South wind brought NSACI and XIMBUKA with him. While both these are the names of BAKICI BANKONDI, or "household gods," they are also the words used for thunder and lightning. NSACI (or NZACI), Antonio Lavadeiro told me some years ago, on one occasion sent his 24 dogs and they killed one of his companions and burnt a palm tree (Folklore of the Fjort, page 72.) At the time I wondered why there should have been 24 dogs, but now I feel assured that these dogs simply represented the 24 parts or pairs of intermediate nerves, which the natives attribute to the trunk of his body.

 

There is no longer any doubt in my mind that this constantly recurring 6 by 4 is part of the system of native philosophy.

 

Thus they believe there are three pairs of nerves and a fourth as the cause, six sets of four pairs as that which goes between, and one and three pairs as the effect. Which counting the joining fourth of the causative set and the joining one of the effective set as one pair would make up the 31 pairs of nerves in the human body, according to the native.

HERE IT TALKS ABOUT HOW THE SUPREME GOD OF THE BAVILI IS CALLED "PERSONAL ESSENCE OF THE FOURS"- AND THE SUPREME GOD HAS FOUR PARTS

http://www.sacred-texts.com/afr/mind/mind16.htm

The name for God is NZAMBI[1] and its literal meaning is the personal essence (IMBI) of the fours (ZIA or ZA = fours). What then are the fours? They are the groups each of four powers called BAKICI BACI, which we have just discussed. The prefix BA the plural of N proving that these powers are personalities or attributes of a person, that is they are not ZINKICI like the mere wooden figures. Each group may be said to be composed of (1) a cause, (2 and 3) male and female parts, and (4) an effect. The group NZAMBI itself may be said to have four parts-(4) NZAMBI the

 

[1. Most people are under the impression that the native does not mention or fear NZAMBI very much, because in his broken English he tells us that "He is good too much." I don't think we are quite right in taking him at his word. As a matter of fact, I think that it is rather owing to his respect and fear of him, that he says as little about him as possible. In trouble he uses the word NZAMBI as an exclamation.]

 

abstract idea, the cause, (2 and 3) NZAMBI MPUNGU God Almighty, the father God who dwells in the heavens and is the guardian of the fire, NZAMBICI God the essence, the God on earth, the great princess, the mother of all the animals, the one who promises her daughter to the animal who shall bring her the fire from heaven, (4) KICI, the mysterious inherent quality in things that causes the BAVILI to fear and respect. This word was translated as "holy" by the first missionaries that came to the Congo, but many people now speak of it as "fetish," and in Seven Years Among the Fjort, I write of NKICI as evil. I had then only heard the word used in connection with fetish as NKICI and had hardly heard of the BAKICI BACI.

THE BAVILI SACRED GROUPS ARE IN SETS OF FOUR- SIX SETS OF FOUR

http://www.sacred-texts.com/afr/mind/mind16.htm

In the next chapter it was shown that the groves are grouped in sets of four, that the order of each set of four is fixed for the natives, and that the order of the groups inter se is likewise determined. That being so, it was possible to trace a connection between certain groups of groves, which we term families, and the categories, and to show that the natives regard the families as genetically related both internally and inter se in the same way as the seasons; it is however impossible, owing to lack of information, to work out this idea in detail, for though I have been successful in obtaining the names of nearly one hundred groves, I have failed to get from the natives any statement as to the order in which they should be placed.

STILL FOUR IS DOMINANT FOR THE YORUBA IT IS FOUR TIMES FOUR FOR THE BAVILI IT IS SIX TIMES FOUR

THE YORUBA HAVE 16 MARKS AND HAVE A LOT OF 16S FOUR TIMES FOURS 16 SACRED PALM KERNELS SO ON- THE BAVILI HAVE A LOT OF 24S AND 24 MARKS AS SIX TIMES FOURS- THE YORUBA ACKNOWLEDGE THE 24 BUT FIRST HAVE THE 16 UNDER FOUR GREAT HEADINGS AND THEN ADD THE OTHER EIGHT TO THE 16 I MENTIONED IN THE TALMUD THE SAME DIVISON WAS MADE WHERE FIRST MOSES HAD FOUR LEADERS THEN WHEN HE LEFT EGYPT ADDED EIGHT THEN DAVID ADDED EIGHT MAKING 16 THEN SAMUEL OR SOMEBODY ADDED EIGHT TO THE 16---- GOING IN QUADRANTS

http://www.sacred-texts.com/afr/mind/mind22.htm

Immediately beneath this bird is the formula formed first of 16 marks or holes in four parallel lines, and secondly of eight

 

[1. Exactly the same idea exists among the Bavili where the word XIVANGA creator is derived from VANGA to create, which literally means to keep on stripping off.]

 

ditto in two parallel lines, that is 24 marks or holes in all. You will notice that there is a distinct gap between the first four and the second two lines.

 

Let us suppose this figure on the wall to represent the divining board, then the first 16 marks represent the 16 sacred palm kernels which the BABALAWOS use in consulting IFA on their Sunday. But Ifa is always attended by his offspring OPÉLE, the other great oracular God of the Yoruba whom the diviners consult every day. Now the literal translation of the word OPÉLE is the one who endures and replenishes.

 

Thus you will see that the Yoruba may be said to divide the "formula" into two great parts, first, 16 divine principles under four great headings, IBARA, EDI, OVEKUN, and OGBE, and second, eight natural parts under two great headings the names of which I have not been able to ascertain.

16 IS FOUR TIMES FOUR- 256 IS FOUR TO THE FOURTH POWER- 16 DIVIVNITIES YORUBA

http://www.sacred-texts.com/afr/mind/mind24.htm

The great Oracle of the Yoruba country is Ifa. He is represented chiefly by 16 palm nuts each having from four to 10 or more eyelets on them. Behind each one of these representative nuts are 16 subordinate Divinities. Each one of the whole lot is termed an Odu -which means a chief, a head. This makes the number of Odu altogether 256. Besides these, there are 16 other Odus connected with each of the 256, and this makes the whole number of Odus 4,096. Some increase this large number still by an addition of 16 more to each of the last number of Odus, but the 16 principal ones are those more frequently in requisition.

SHAMAN OF ALLIGEWI "NUMBER FOUR IS THE MOST SACRED NUMBER"- FOUR DANCERS FOUR DAYS EVERYTHING DONE IN FOURS- ONE ALL INCLUSIVE GOD HAS FOUR TITLES UNDER THE CHIEF GOD FOUR CLASSES OF GODS (I DESCRIBED IN THE CANNANITE ISRAELITE PANTHEON THERE WAS FOUR TIERS OF GODS)

https://books.google.com/books?id=qyhABAAAQBAJ&pg=PA6&lpg=PA6&dq=shaman+of+the+alligewi+sixteen+gods&source=bl&ots=CoLqWHubGw&sig=7e4FGxQincCJ4SKg3GvKzY9gYD4&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjutdyhrvvTAhWqwlQKHVcyA6IQ6AEIKzAB#v=snippet&q=four&f=false

Quadrant

SHAMAN OF ALLIGEWI SAYS THE FOUR DIRECTIONS CORRELATE WITH THE FOUR HUMAN STATES- THE MEDICINE SQUARE THAT THE SHAMAN DREW WAS THE QUADRANT AND HE CONCLUDES "IT TAKES  ALONG TIME TO FULLY UNDERSTAND THE MEANING OF THE MEDICINE SQUARE"- IT IS THE QUADRANT MODEL

https://books.google.com/books?id=qyhABAAAQBAJ&pg=PA6&lpg=PA6&dq=shaman+of+the+alligewi+sixteen+gods&source=bl&ots=CoLqWHubGw&sig=7e4FGxQincCJ4SKg3GvKzY9gYD4&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjutdyhrvvTAhWqwlQKHVcyA6IQ6AEIKzAB#v=snippet&q=four&f=false

Quadrant

TALK ABOUT FOUR ENTITIES- FOURTH IS DIFFERENT "vaguely spoken of"

http://www.sacred-texts.com/afr/fiwa/fiwa06.htm

 

(3) Another set of witnesses will say that, besides the personal soul and the soul of the body, there is a third entity in the human unit, namely, a drearn-soul. That it is which leaves the body on occasions during . sleep, and, wandering off, delights itself by visiting strange lands and strange scenes. On its return to the body its union with the material blunts its perceptions, and the person, in his efforts to remember or tell what be has seen, relates only the vagaries of a dream,--a psychological view which, under the manipulation of a ready pen, could give play to fantasies pretty, romantic, not unreasonable, and not impossible.

 

Some who are only dualists, nevertheless, believe in the wanderings of this so-called dream-soul, but say that it is the personal soul itself that has gone out and has returned. Both dualists and trinitarians add that sometimes in its wanderings this soul loses its way and cannot find its body, its material home; should it never return, the person will sicken and die.

 

(4) A fourth entity is vaguely spoken of by some as a component part of the human personality, by others as separate but closely associated from birth to death, and called the life-spirit. Some speak of it as a civilized person speaks of a guardian angel. Regarded in that light, it should not be considered as one of the several kinds of souls, but as one of the various classes of spirits (which will be discussed in a subsequent chapter). To it worship is rendered by its possessor as to other spirits,--a worship, however, different from that which is performed for what are known and used as "familiar spirits." Others speak of the vague life-spirit as the "heart." The organ of our anatomy which we designate by that name, they call by a word which variously means "heart" or "feelings," much like our old English "bowels," the same word being employed equally to designate a physical organ and a mental state. Considering the organic heart as the seat (or a seat) of life, the natives believe that by witchcraft a person in bealth can be deprived of his life-soul, or "heart"; that he will then sicken; that the wizard or witch feasts in his or her magic orgy on this "heart," and that the person will die if that heart is not returned to him.

ANIMATING SOUL OF HUMANS FOURTH PART DIFFERENT

http://www.sacred-texts.com/afr/fiwa/fiwa07.htm

1. Inina, or Ilina. A human embodied soul is spoken of and fully believed in by all the tribes. It is known in the Mpongwe tribes of the Gabun country as inina (plural, "anina"); in the adjacent Benga tribe, as "ilina" (plural, "malina"); in the great interior Fang tribes, as "nsisim."

 

This animating soul, whether it be only one, or whether it appear in two, three, or even four forms, is practically the same, that talks, hears, and feels, that sometimes goes out of the body in a dream, and that exists as a spirit after the death of the body. That it has its own especial materiality seems to be indicated by the fact that in the Fang, Bakele, and other tribes the same word "nsisim" means not only soul but also shadow. The shadow of a tree or any other inanimate object and of the human body as cast by the sun is "nsisim."

TRANSCENDENT FOURTH ENTITY DREAM SOUL DIFFERENT

http://www.sacred-texts.com/afr/fiwa/fiwa16.htm

Perhaps Declè was not aware of a widespread belief in a dual soul, consisting of a "spirit," that, as far as known, lives forever in the world of spirits, and a "shadow" that for an uncertain length of time hovers around the mortal remains. Some, as already mentioned in a previous chapter, also name a third entity, the "life,"-that which, being "eaten" by sorcerers, causes the living being to sicken, and which the sorcerer, if detected, can be compelled to return to its owner. Miss Kingsley thought also she had discovered a belief in a fourth entity, the "dream-soul." But this, though doubtless believed in as that which sometimes leaves the sleeping body and goes on distant wanderings, is the same as the "spirit," during whose temporary absence the body continues its breathing and other physical motions, in virtue of the presence of its second and third soul-entities.

In the days of Ajagbo the kingdom of Yoruba consisted of the four following states.

http://www.sacred-texts.com/afr/yor/yor02.htm

(1) Yoruba proper, whose capital, Old Oyo, or Katunga, was situated some ninety miles to the north of the present town of Oyo. The king of this state, whose title was Alafin, or Alawofin, literally "One who owns the entering of the palace," was the ruler over all the Yoruba-speaking tribes.

 

(2) Egba, which lay to the south and west of the above kingdom. Its chief town was Ake, and from it the chief took his title of Alake, "One who owns Ake."

 

(3) Ketu. This was then, as now, the western province. Its capital was Ketu, and from it the chief took his title of Alaketu, "One who owns Ketu."

 

(4) Jebu, which lay south and east of Yoruba proper. It was divided into Jebu Remu and Jebu Ode, each having its own chief, but the ruler of the latter, called the Awujale, was considered the chief of the whole.

SUPREME GOD OF THE BAVILI IS REPRESENTED BY A CROSS CALLED THE YOWA CROSS (quadrant)

http://www.palo-mayombe.com/2012/05/29/muna-nsambi-nsambia-liri-nsambia-mpungu-muna-longo-the-creative-force-of-the-known-and-unknown-universe/

For nsambi the only Iconic figure that would and should represent him is the Yowa cross if we are speaking of sacred Pati-mpemba(sigil) that is drawn in chalk to represent that omnipresence. In many houses of Palo mayombe he is represented by some type of herb. Any other iconic figures like the christian cross is denigrating that ever-living force and though many of our Palo Brothers who were taught to hold a cross do not recognize that this was a symbol of torture and oppression and not a sacred part of Palo Mayombe.

Nsambi represents the 4 polarities of earth and the universe. This is an excerpt taken from the sacred texts section to explain a bit of the 4 and what it represents in the Kongo cosmology taken from the bavili tribe and it states from (At the Back of the Black Man’s Mind, by Richard Edward Dennett, [1906], at sacred-texts.com)

(“The name for God is NZAMBI[1] and its literal meaning is the personal essence (IMBI) of the fours (ZIA or ZA = fours). What then are the fours? They are the groups each of four powers called BAKICI BACI, which we have just discussed. The prefix BA the plural of N proving that these powers are personalities or attributes of a person, that is they are not ZINKICI like the mere wooden figures. Each group may be said to be composed of (1) a cause, (2 and 3) male and female parts, and (4) an effect. The group NZAMBI itself may be said to have four parts-(4) NZAMBI the

BAVILI SUPREME GOD MEANS SACRED ESSENCE OF THE FOURS AND THEY DIVIDE THINGS INTO 24s AS SIX TIMES FOURS

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1525/aa.1907.9.1.02a00210/asset/aa.1907.9.1.02a00210.pdf;jsessionid=A08B1E8443ACA5120AD54BB285148628.f01t03?v=1&t=j2vjy7rx&s=7b1ee7109d0575799a18a230eec2399930fce10d

In its last analysis Bavili

JOHN R. SWANTON. 01.Abfcs an fhe Kiiz&y O@ce ilt

London : Macmillan B Co.; New

BOOh- REVZEWS

I99

philosophy is inonistic, resolving itself into Nzambi. Nzambi, we are told, means l r the personal essence (Impi) of the fours (Ziaor Za fours),” and the fours ‘‘are the groups each of four powers called Baltici Baci . . . The prefix Ba the plural of N proving that these powers are personalities or attributes of a person, that they are not zinkici like the mere wooden figures.” The fours as they exist in mundane things appear to arise from the abstract elements of a trinity of male, female, and evolutional power proceeding from Nzambi. The third of these continues to operate in the world under a slightly altered form, making the fourth abstract power. From a similar combination of male and female elements and their prod- ucts the second sacred number, six, arises, and in accordance with these two numbers are arranged the six classes above mentioned. Thus there are six primary groups of sacred groves of four each, and although there

are many other sacred groves, it is supposed that these originally totalled 144,i. e., 6 times 24. There are also six sacred provinces surrounding the royal province, and the Kuilu, the principal river of the kingdom of Loango, is made to fall into the scheine by using the names of its three tributaries, that of a lake at its head, and an additional name borne by the river in its upper course. Again, there are 24 sacred trees and plants, 24 sacred animals, and 24 omens. Finally, seasons only exist as factors in six groups of four,” each four corresponding to the great abstract four arising from Nzambi, while the groups are of two months each. The

whole sequence of months, however, itself represents a process of growth in a living organism, and there is a thirteenth month which stands at one end as the primal cause, and at the other as the ultimate effect and the cause of a new series. For it should be noted that all of the six cate- gories above enumerated proceed in this manner from a primal cause lying outside through an evolution by means of the sexes to a consummation which becomes the cause of a new series

"YOWA CROSS REPRESENTS NZAMBI SUPREME GOD OF BAVILI- NZAMBI MEANS- PERSONAL ESSENCE OF THE FOURS"

http://www.palo-mayombe.com/nsambi/

http://www.palo-mayombe.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/LembaKonga.png

Quadrant

BANTU WEEK FOUR DAYS

http://www.kupsala.net/risto/kongo/kituba-english.html

Bantu week

 

The traditional Bakongo week consists of four days. The week is called nsóna, which is also the name of the day dedicated for rest and worship i.e. their equivalent for Sunday.

 

nsona = day of rest and worship

nkandu/mukila

(mu)konso/konzo = market day

nkéngé

THE COSMIC CROSS IN LEMBA AFRICAN SOCIETY HEALERS STAND ON THE CROSS

http://www.webarchaeology.com/html/kongocos.htm

Members of the Lemba society of healers had initiates stand on a cross chalked on the ground, a variant of the cosmogram. "To stand upon this sign,: Fu-Kiau Bunseki tells us, "meant that a person was fully capable of governing people, that he knew the nature of the world, that he had mastered the meaning of life and death." He thenceforth could move about with the confidence of a seer, empowered with insights from both worlds, both halves of the cosmogram.(50)

The Kongo Cosmogram

http://www.webarchaeology.com/html/kongocos.htm

The cosmogram is a symbol which is one of many manifestations of Kongo, or Bakongo, culture in the Americas. It is described and illustrated in detail in Flash of the Spirit: African and Afro-American Art and Philosophy by Robert Farris Thompson.

 

In addition to providing a rich source of ideas that help archaeologists begin to understand the material cultures of enslaved African-Americans and African-Caribbeans, this book has also been a source of many primary ethnographic references used by Ken Brown and other historical archaeologists who study African Diasporan peoples. Links are provided within the excerpt below to archaeological interpretations in this web site which have been informed by a better understanding of how Kongo and Yoruba traditions were transformed in the Americas.

 

 

 

The Kongo Cosmogram – Yowa, the Kongo sign of cosmos and the continuity of human life

 

Adapted from a drawing in Flash of the Spirit, by Robert Farris Thompson (p. 109) (30)

 

See the Kris Brown/Ken Brown paper delivered at the 1998 SHA meetings for some detail on the use of the concepts that follow in interpreting the archaeology of the Jordan Plantation.

 

From Flash of the Spirit, p. 108-116

 

Tendwa Nza Kongo: The Kongo Cosmogram

 

Wyatt MacGaffey, a scholar of Kongo civilization and religion, has summarized the form and meaning of the essential Kongo cosmogram as follows:

 

"The simplest ritual space is a Greek cross [+] marked on the ground, as for oath-taking. One line represents the boundary; the other is ambivalently both the path leading across the boundary, as to the cemetery; and the vertical path of power linking "the above" with "the below". This relationship, in turn, is polyvalent, since it refers to God and man, God and the dead, and the living and the dead. The person taking the oath stands upon the cross, situating himself between life and death, and invokes the judgement of God and the dead upon himself." [this is taken from a work in progress shared with Dr. Thompson by MacGaffey].

 

This is the simplest manifestation of the Kongo cruciform, a sacred "point" on which a person stands to make an oath, on the ground of the dead and under all-seeing God. This Kongo "sign of the cross" has nothing to do with the crucifixion of the Son of God, yet its meaning overlaps the Christian vision. Traditional Bakongo believed in a Supreme Deity, Nzambi Mpungu, and they had their own notions of the indestructibility of the soul: "Bakongo believe and hold it true that man's life has no end, that it constitutes a cycle. The sun, in its rising and setting, is a sign of this cycle, and death is merely a transition in the process of change." (Janzen and MacGaffey 1974:34) (49). The Kongo yowa cross does not signify the crucifixion of Jesus for the salvation of mankind; it signifies the equally compelling vision of the circular motion of human souls about the circumference of its intersecting lines. The Kongo cross refers therefore to the everlasting community of all righteous men and women:

 

Nzungi! n'zungi-nzila.........Man turns in the path,

N'zungi! n'zungi-nzila........He merely turns in the path;

Banganga ban'e E ee!.......The priests, the same (49)

 

A fork in the road (or even a forked branch) can allude to this crucially important symbol of passage and communication between worlds. The "turn in the path", i.e., the crossroads, remains an indelible concept in the Kongo-Atlantic world, as the point of intersection between the ancestors and the living.

 

Here is one precise version of the yowa cross:

 

 

 

The horizontal line divides the mountain of the living world from it's mirrored counterpart in the kingdom of the dead. The mountain of the living is described as "earth" (ntoto). The mountain of the dead is called "white clay" (mpemba). The bottom half of the Kongo cosmogram was also called kalunga, referring, literally, to the world of the dead as complete (lunga) within itself and to the wholeness that comes to a person who understands the ways and powers of both worlds.

 

Initiates read the cosmogram correctly, respecting its allusiveness. God is imagined at the top, the dead at the bottom, and water in between. The four disks at the points of the cross stand for the four moments of the sun, and the circumference of the cross the certainty of reincarnation: the especially righteous Kongo person will never be destroyed but will come back in the name or body of progeny, or in the form of an everlasting pool, waterfall, stone or mountain.

 

The summit of the pattern symbolizes not only noon but also maleness, north, and the peak of a person's strength on earth. Correspondingly, the bottom equals midnight, femaleness, south, the highest point of a person's otherworldly strength. [See "curer's cabin" and "Ken Brown Interview" for more].

 

Members of the Lemba society of healers had initiates stand on a cross chalked on the ground, a variant of the cosmogram. "To stand upon this sign,: Fu-Kiau Bunseki tells us, "meant that a person was fully capable of governing people, that he knew the nature of the world, that he had mastered the meaning of life and death." He thenceforth could move about with the confidence of a seer, empowered with insights from both worlds, both halves of the cosmogram.(50)

 

Drawing a "point", invoking God and the ancestors, formed only a part of this most important Kongo ritual of mediation. The ritual also included "singing the point". In fact, the Bakongo summarize the full context of mediation with the phrase "singing and drawing [a point]: yimbila y sona. (51) They believe that the combined force of singing Ki-Kongo words and tracing in appropriate media the ritually designated "point" or "mark" of contact between the worlds will result in the descent of God's power upon that very point....

 

...The cosmogram of Kongo emerged in the Americas precisely as singing and drawing points of contact between worlds. On the island of Cuba, when Kongo ritual leaders wished to make the important Zarabanda charm (Ki-Kongo, nsala-banda, a charm-making kind of cloth), they began by tracing, in white chalk, a cruciform pattern at the bottom of an iron kettle. This was the signature (firma) of the spirit invoked by the charm. It clearly derived from the Kongo sign except that the sun disks were replaced by arrows, standing for the four winds of the universe (52)....

 

...One of the major functions of the cosmogram of Kongo, to validate a space on which to stand a person or charm, remains in force in certain Afro-Cuban religious circles.[see the section of the "Ken Brown Interview" when he speculates that Levi Jordan imported slaves from Cuba].Kongo-Cuban priests have said "All spirits seat themselves on the center of the sign as the source of firmness" (52). Songs (mambos) are chanted, as in Kongo, to persuade this concentration of power upon the designated point. Kongo-Cuban priests activated old, important charms by singing-and-drawing a sacred point. They chanted sacred texts in Spanish and creolized Ki-Kongo while lowering a charm from the ceiling of a shrine to a chalked sign drawn upon the floor....

 

...In Rio de Janeiro, where there was a heavy importation of Kongo and Angola slaves, we meet simple cruciforms, chalked on the floor of shrines and altars, that have become complex signs fusing diverse Kongo, Yoruba, Roman Catholic, and other references. These signs comprise the blazons of the spirits honored in Rio de Janeiro macumba, a mixture of Kongo, Yoruba, Dahomean, Roman Catholic, Native American, and Spritualist allusions...

 

...As time passes, the ancient cruciforms are complicated by aspects borrowed from the iconography of the Yoruba and enriched by the attributes of Roman Catholic saints identified with Yoruba deities...

 

...Most pontos riscados, traced in chalk on shrine floors or in sand on the beaches at Ipanema, Copacabana and elsewhere in Rio, became fleeting signs of spiritual invocation and encounter. But some were permanently rendered. The collections of the Rio Museo de Policia include a calabash drinking cup (see below), richly lacquered black, which is incised with the ponto riscado of Pai Vehho, a black Kongo ancestor of special power and insight. His ponto warns the world that no one except a person in his spirit, or an appropriate officiant, can use this cup. The ponto, essentially a Latin cross within a Star of David within a circle decorated with six minor stars, compares interestingly with the "sung point" for the same spirit...this [sign] captures a complex history of cultural contact and experience in a form of geometric thought. The blending has carried us far indeed from the Kongo and from the Kingdoms of the Yoruba, but without their encounter in the richest minds of Rio this sign might never have been invented.

Kongo Cross used for Ventilation during Underground Railroad

Quadrant

 

https://landofkam.wordpress.com/tag/yowa-cross/

quadrant

https://books.google.com/books?id=9h5KDRfZ-JgC&pg=PA153&lpg=PA153&dq=yowa+cross&source=bl&ots=O5UQTET1Mo&sig=18Tm2ImGp_nbOBcI9EhlLc1fKR8&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiMoavtwPvTAhWGg1QKHW15BhEQ6AEIXDAN#v=onepage&q=yowa%20cross&f=false

YOWA CROSS VERY IMPORANT IN CONGO---- IT IS HYPOTHESIZED THAT THIS CROSS SYMBOL IS THE OLDEST CROSS SYMBOL AND PERHAPS THE OLDEST SYMBOL IT REPRESENTS TO THE BOKONGO RELIGIOUS GROUP THE COSMOS

FOUR AND SIX ARE SHANGOS SACRED NUMBERS- Umbanda four types of spirits possess mediums fourth different

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shango

Ṣàngó worshippers in Yorubaland in Nigeria do not eat cowpea because they believe that the wrath of the god of iron would descend on them. The Ṣàngó god necklaces are composed in varying patterns of red and white beads; usually in groupings of four or six which are his "sacred numbers". Ṣàngó is called on during coronation ceremonies in Nigeria to the present day.[6][4]

FOUR TYPES ZOMBIE

https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voodoo

Zombies are a large part of popular horror culture, and they originated in voodoo folklore from the original word, “nbzambi”, which refers to the primary sprit and/or to one’s soul. There are four types of zombies in voodoo: the Great Spirit, the Spiritual Soul, the Herbal Zombie and the Bargained Zombie. Each type is created differently. Zombies of voodoo folklore do not come to be from a zombie bite, it is a large misconception.[1]

FOUR CIRCLE GENERATIONS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kuria_people
Wakurya have developed a generation system which place every individual in a generation group. There are two sets of generations

The first set is called Monyasae and the other is Monyachuma.

The Monyasae has a four circle generations as follows:

Abasae—Abanyamburiti—Abagamnyeri—Abamaina
The Monyachuma has also four circle generations as follows:

Abachuma—Abangorongoro—Abagini—Abanyangi

A LOT OF PEOPLE IN JEWISH TRADITION SAY THERE WAS THE FOURTH PATRIARCH JOSEPH- a lot of times there is three patriarchs said but the fourth Joseph is added the transcendent fourth

https://books.google.com/books?id=aZzrVgu2CwQC&pg=PA1038&lpg=PA1038&dq=bantu+four+God+wikipedia&source=bl&ots=qPCcIAFQ0I&sig=aHA1zkmR8OuFJr4UFQ1nsNsFKuY&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi2tuzG2fzTAhVBz2MKHZ_-BUs4ChDoAQgiMAA#v=onepage&q=four&f=false

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THE CONCEPT OF FOUR SETS OF FOUR THE 16 SQUARES OF THE QUADRANT MODEL- AFRICA- ACCORDING TO THE AUTHOR THE FOUR SETS OF FOUR WAS REVEALED TO HIM AND IS THE "CENTRAL NUMBER IN ETERNAL LIFE"-- FOUR SET OF FOUR IS THE QUADRANT MODEL

https://books.google.com/books?id=aZzrVgu2CwQC&pg=PA1038&lpg=PA1038&dq=bantu+four+God+wikipedia&source=bl&ots=qPCcIAFQ0I&sig=aHA1zkmR8OuFJr4UFQ1nsNsFKuY&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi2tuzG2fzTAhVBz2MKHZ_-BUs4ChDoAQgiMAA#v=snippet&q=four&f=false

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HE SAYS "EVERYTHING WAS DESINGED TO FUNCTION ALWAYS INCLUDING THIS NUMBER FOUR"

AFRICA NSA KEEPS EMPHASIZING THE NUMBER FOUR AND NO OTHER NUMBER--- EVEN THE NUMBER 12 IS DESCRIBED ASD 7 PLUS 4 PLUS 3- EVERYTHING IS SEEN IN RELATION TO FOUR "THE NUMBER FOUR IS THE CENTER AND WILL BE THE CENTER OF GOD AND ACTIVITY IN HUMAN LIFE"- The author claims "four sets of four" (THE QUADRANT MODEL) was "revealed to him"

https://books.google.com/books?id=aZzrVgu2CwQC&pg=PA1038&lpg=PA1038&dq=bantu+four+God+wikipedia&source=bl&ots=qPCcIAFQ0I&sig=aHA1zkmR8OuFJr4UFQ1nsNsFKuY&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi2tuzG2fzTAhVBz2MKHZ_-BUs4ChDoAQgiMAA#v=snippet&q=four&f=false

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NSA AFRICA SAYS "JUDAH THE FOURTH SON (FOURTH POT) MUST BE CONNECTED IN SIGNIFICANCE TO THE NUMBER FOUR" AND HE MENTIONS THERE ARE "FOUR POINTS OF THE CROSS"

https://books.google.com/books?id=aZzrVgu2CwQC&pg=PA1038&lpg=PA1038&dq=bantu+four+God+wikipedia&source=bl&ots=qPCcIAFQ0I&sig=aHA1zkmR8OuFJr4UFQ1nsNsFKuY&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi2tuzG2fzTAhVBz2MKHZ_-BUs4ChDoAQgiMAA#v=onepage&q=four&f=false

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I'm a paragraph. Click here to add your own text and edit me. It's easy.

FOUR HEADS

 

(23) OLORI-MERIN.

http://www.sacred-texts.com/afr/yor/yor04.htm

Olori-merin, possessor of four heads, is another god whose worship is nearly, if not quite, obsolete. He was the tutelary deity of towns, and was represented by a hillock, or, if no hillock existed within the precincts of the town, by an artificial mound.

 

Sacrifice was made to Olori-merin every three months, or four times a year, and always consisted of a new-born child not more than three or four days' old. The child's throat was cut by a priest, and the blood, caught in a calabash or earthen vessel, was placed on the summit of the mound, after which the flesh was sliced up into small pieces and buried in the mound. During this dreadful scene the mother had to be present. This sacrifice was called Ejodun (Eje-odun), "The season of blood."

 

Olori-merin had, as his name betokens, four heads, with which he watched the four points of the compass from the top of his mound, and it was believed that no war or pestilence could attack a town under his protection. He had the legs and feet of a goat. Sometimes, at -night, he appeared in the shape of a venomous serpent.

YORUBA 16 BRANCHES 16 PEOPLE TRAVEL- 16 SQUARES QMR

http://www.sacred-texts.com/afr/yor/yor05.htm

sounded. The cloth was accordingly untied, and a palm-nut, with some earth fell into the water from it. The nut immediately began to grow, and shot up so rapidly that in a few minutes it had become a tall palm with sixteen branches.[1] All the party, being very tired from their long wading climbed up into the tree and rested on the branches till next morning, in which position a certain person named Okiki[2] saw them from the country from which they had been sent out. When he saw them, Okiki reminded Okinkin the trumpeter that it was his duty to sound the trumpet again, whereupon he sounded it, and Okambi untied the piece of black cloth a second time. When it was opened, earth fell from it, and, drying up the water, made a small mound. The fowl that the personage had given Okambi then flew on to the mound and scratched the earth here and there, and wherever the earth fell it dried up the water. When there was a good space covered with earth, Okambi came down from the tree, bringing with him his trumpeter Okinkin and his slave Tetu.[2] The other persons wished to come down also, but Okambi would not

 

[1. This number often recurs in Yoruba myths. There were sixteen palm-nuts on the two palms in the garden of Orungan, the chief man, which Ifa obtained for the purpose of divination, and sixteen palm trees grew up from the palm-nut that Ifa planted on the rock at Ado. Sixteen persons, viz. fifteen and Okambi, commence the journey to the south.

http://www.sacred-texts.com/afr/yl/yl33.htm

They agreed to send certain slaves of repulsive appearance, whom they possessed, to haunt the hill after the manner of ghosts, so that the King would be afraid to build his capital there. One noble sent a hunchback, another an albino, another a leper, and a fourth a dwarf.

 

 What was the dismay of the four rebellious nobles to receive the calabash, one from his hunchback, another from his albino, and the others from the hands of the leper and the dwarf!

 

 Obviously the plot had been discovered, and all four nobles expected to be put to death for opposing the King; but the wise p. 61 Abipa said no word about the matter, and the banquet ended in silence.

THE EGYPTIAN OGOADAD IS FOUR PAIRS OF PRIMEVAL GODS FOR THE EGYPTIANS- THERE ARE ALSO FOUR PAIRS OF PRIMEVAL GODS IN THE ENUMA ELIS

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ogdoad_(Egyptian)

While there is no doubt as to the antiquity of this group of gods, such that even at the time of composition of the Pyramid Texts towards the end of the Old Kingdom period they were antiquated and forgotten by everyone except religious experts, the oldest known pictorial representations of the group do not predate the time of Seti I. Budge (1904) compares the concept to a group of four pairs of primeval gods mentioned in the Babylonian Enûma Eliš.[1]

 

The eight deities were arranged in four male-female pairs (the female names being merely derivative female forms of the male names), as follows:.[5]

 

The fourth pair appears with varying names, sometimes the name Qerḥ is replaced by Ni, Nenu, Nut, or Amun, and the name Qerḥet by Ennit, Nenuit, Nut, Nit, or Amunet. The common meaning of qerḥ is "night", but the determinative (D41 for "to halt, stop, deny") also suggests the principle of inactivity or repose.[6]

 

There is no clear way to attribute four functions to the four pairs of gods, and it seems clear that "the ancient Egyptians themselves had no very clear idea" regarding such functions.[7]

http://www.sacred-texts.com/afr/jas/jas014.htm

There was four friends; one was Anansi, name of the other was Tiger, name of the other Tacoomah, name of the other Parrot. So they go for a journey, and Anansi bargain with them that the four mus' change their name an' when they come home, each one mus' go to their mudder house an' if their mudder call them the old name they mus' eat their mudder. So the new name,--Anansi name was Che-che-bun-da, Parrot new name was Green-corn-ero, Tiger name was Yellow-prissenda, Tacoomah name was Tacoomah-vengeance,--the four new name. Any mudder call them the ol' name, they mus' eat the mudder.

CRUCIFORM WITH ALMOST ALWAYS FOUR CROSS BARS- SKY DIVIDED FOUR PARTS (QUADRANT) SUPPORTED BY STAFFS OF FOUR GODS FOUR SONS OF HORUS
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/djedpillar.htm
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/djedpillar.htm
The djed pillar, was a roughly cruciform object with at least three cross bars, but almost always four that became one of the most recognizable symbols in ancient Egypt. It was sometimes surmounted by a small capital (or perhaps more correctly, an abacus used to support the architrave), and often stands on a rectangular base. Some depictions of the pillar portray it with human arms holding the royal regalia. In representations and in other instances, such as amulets, the djed pillar could be depicted as flat, but at other times it was produced as a fully round pillar.

In some mythological accounts, the sky was divided into four parts and supported by the staffs of four gods. According to Brown, the staffs may also represent pillars, which, in a method to describe four pillars, one behind the other in typical ancient Egyptian artistic style, might create an image that looks remarkably like the Djed symbol. Indeed, Ptah is often depicted holding the djed symbol as a staff, and lending further support to this theory are the bands found below the crossbars of some djet pillars that correspond to the papyrus and other columns in ancient temples, which symbolically held together the papyrus stalks.

It should be noted that the four gods who were responsible for holding up the sky were the Four Sons of Horus, and it is interesting to note that they were associated with the four canopic jars that contained the organs of the dead, which often had depictions of djed pillars adorning the exterior of the chest that held the jars. They also provided various services to the dead in the afterlife, strongly relating them to Osiris.

THE CRUCIFORM FOUR BANDS OF THE DJED PILLAR ARE THE SAME AS THE ASSYRIAN SACRED TREE AND IT IS HYPOTHESIZED ASSUR IS OSIRIS- FOUR PRIESTS AND FOUR PAIRS OF WOMEN

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Djed

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Djed

Parallels have also been drawn between the djed pillar and various items in other cultures. Sidney Smith in 1922, first suggested a parallel with the Assyrian "sacred tree" when he drew attention to the presence of the upper four bands of the djed pillar and the bands that are present in the center of the vertical portion of the tree

 

There is also a scene depicted in the tomb to the right of the above scene which has not been well preserved. Hodel-Hoenes explains that it once showed the pharaoh, accompanied by his queen, using a rope to raise the djed pillar. Three men, probably priests of the temple of Memphis, help him in the process. A fourth priest was seen supporting the pillar. Various offerings were presented before the pillar below the ropes. Both the pharaoh and his queen are each accompanied by four pairs of young women resembling those of the sed-festival

FOUR DIFFERENT STORIES CREATION OF HUMAN BEINGS

http://www.patheos.com/blogs/rhetoricraceandreligion/2014/02/understanding-creation-stories-the-batammaliba.html

When it comes to the creation of human beings, the Batammaliba have four different stories. The one begins as Kuiye carves a human being out of wood, so that he will not be alone. “If I am alone, is that good?” he asked himself. After he put the carving in a granary support for three days, the female ancestor was finished. However, Kuiye knew he could not leave the woman alone and found another piece of wood to carve, which become the first man. They had children together, and, as the Batammaliba say, “we have become numerous.” Kuiye dwelt with these people in Linaba, a sort of paradise world. He taught them to build simple houses and provided for their every need, which eventually caused the humans to become bored. Kuiye, in light of the humans’ complaints, decided to leave the world. He brought rains and winds, plants for food, and guidance on how to survive in the world.

BATAMMALIBA SEE FOUR AS IMPORTANT AND "SEE THREE AND FOUR AS COMPLEMENTARY AND JUXTAPOSED WOMEN REPRESENT FOUR MEN REPRESENT THREE" four represents horizontal three represents vertial- A lot of what the Batammaliba do is based around three and four where three is seen as masculine and four feminine- THE JUXTAPOSITION BETWEEN THE THREE AND THE TRANSCENDENT FOURTH

 

https://books.google.com/books?id=W-PuoeMII3QC&pg=PA208&lpg=PA208&dq=circle+four+primary+forms&source=bl&ots=-tjf0fc-kH&sig=hyDNm_5SChds-4CqMgHBPaWbmZE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj3s8Tz4pTUAhVN7GMKHb1zDfA4ChDoAQgpMAE#v=onepage&q=four&f=false

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THE FOUR PLUS THREE PATTERN AND THE FOUR MASKS OF THE DOGON THE FOURTH IS TWELVEFOLD THE OTHER THREE SEVENFOLD THE FOURTH IS DIFFERENT- I POSTED ALL THIS STUFF BEFORE HOPEUFLLY I CAN GO BACK THROUGH MY TIMELINE HOPEFULLY AND GET THE STUFF BUT THERE IS SO MUCH I HAVE POSTED AND I DONT REALLY FEEL LIKE GOING BACK THROUGH IT WHEN IT IS ALREADY THERE YOU CAN HOPEFULLY LOOK IT UP

https://books.google.com/books?id=99l_P7uGCiQC&pg=PT265&lpg=PT265&dq=blavatsky+four+is+god&source=bl&ots=a1byKgplsb&sig=5bIGFPocdbl6cN3DRt2OWEn-AKI&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjkmInU-vrUAhVGzWMKHe5-AUYQ6AEITzAI#v=onepage&q=four&f=false

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FOUR CREATURES

http://mythology.net/mythical-creatures/anansi/

He rose into the sky on a silken thread that he spun, and approached Nyame to ask if he could give them to the people so that they could enjoy the stories and learn from their wisdom. His father was impressed that Anansi had even found a way to approach him, so even though he did not want to release the stories, assigned Anansi with what he thought was an impossible task. Nyame told his son that if he could bring four creatures to him, he would trade Anansi the stories for them. The creatures were the most fearsome in creation; Onini, a huge python, Osebo, a hungry leopard, the deadly Moboro Hornets, and the invisible fairy Mmoatia who was famous for her pride, greed, and quick temper.

 

As Anansi left, declaring that he would do these tasks, Nyame laughed to himself thinking that each was impossible, and all four combined would be insurmountable.

 

Anansi himself wondered how he could do this, but he was determined. Soon he realized that in order to beat the best traits of the four creatures, he would have to use his best trait – his trickery. He devised plans to defeat each one and put them into motion.

ANCIENT EGYPTIAN HAD FOUR SCRIPTS

https://www.bibalex.org/learnhieroglyphs/lesson/LessonDetails_En.aspx?l=20

Ancient Egyptian language was written in four different scripts: Hieroglyphs, Hieratic, Demotic, and Coptic. These scripts did not all appear simultaneously, but appeared consecutively over the long period that the ancient Egyptian language existed. It also shows the maturity in thinking of the ancient Egyptians who knew that the complexity and development of life would require the invention of the suitable means of communication to improve and record the wider and more developed activities. The Hieroglyphic script was the outcome of such long thinking and urgent need for communication. Hieroglyphic script, the oldest of the ancient Egyptian scripts, is a beautifully written script which required special material and special people to write it. By time, Egyptians were forced to invent a different, more cursive and simplified script to suit their overgrowing needs and to fulfill administrative needs; hence they invented a cursive script known as Hieratic. In later stages, the Hieratic script needed to be more cursive to suit the different affairs and social interactions. This new cursive form was called Demotic script. Later, a new lettering system was invented to serve the need of time, called the Coptic script. The Egyptian language was written using the Greek alphabet in addition to seven signs from the Demotic scripts. Here, it is appropriate to correct a widespread inaccuracy when referring to the ancient Egyptian language, as it is mistakenly known as “the Hieroglyphic language”. Hieroglyphic writing is a script and not a language. There is only one ancient Egyptian language written in four different scripts (Hieroglyphs, Hieratic, Demotic, Coptic).

KARNAK FOUR PARTS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Egyptian_architecture

The temple complex of Karnak is located on the banks of the Nile River some 2.5 kilometers (1.5 mi) north of Luxor. It consists of four main parts, the Precinct of Amon-Re, the Precinct of Montu, the Precinct of Mut and the Temple of Amenhotep IV (dismantled), as well as a few smaller temples and sanctuaries located outside the enclosing walls of the four main parts, and several avenues of ram-headed sphinxes connecting the Precinct of Mut, the Precinct of Amon-Re and Luxor Temple.

GOND SOCIETY FOUR GROUPS FOUR KINGDOMS- CAME OUT CAVE FOUR GROUPS- FOUR GROUPS OF GODS

 

Scholars believe Gonds settled in Gondwana, now known as eastern Madhya Pradesh, between the ninth and thirteenth centuries AD . Muslim writers describe a rise of Gond states after the fourteenth century. Gond dynasties ruled in four kingdoms (Garha-Mandla, Deogarh, Chanda, and Kherla) in central India between the sixteenth and mid-eighteenth centuries.

4 • FOLKLORE

 

Hereditary bards and professional storytellers called Pardhans tell stories about Gond legends and myths. This makes for a rich oral tradition. In these stories, it is said that when Gond gods were born, their mother abandoned them. The goddess Parvati rescued them, but her consort Sri Shambhu Mahadeo (Shiva) kept them captive in a cave. Pahandi Kapar Lingal, a Gond hero, who received help from the goddess Jangu Bai, rescued them from the cave. They came out of the cave in four groups, thus laying the foundations of the basic fourfold division of Gond society. Lingal also is responsible for creating a Gond kinship system and establishing a group of great Gond gods.

 

 

 

Read more: http://www.everyculture.com/wc/Germany-to-Jamaica/Gonds.html#ixzz4mThloXIZ

 

 

Read more: http://www.everyculture.com/wc/Germany-to-Jamaica/Gonds.html#ixzz4mThajnDy

Gond society is divided into four groups known as phratries or sagas in Gondi. Each saga traces its descent to one of the four groups of gods who emerged from the cave after their release by the hero Lingal. The saga is divided into several clans (pari) . A clan consists of a group of people who believe they share a common ancestor. Generally, it is good to marry outside the clan.

 

 

 

Read more: http://www.everyculture.com/wc/Germany-to-Jamaica/Gonds.html#ixzz4mThxZR00

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FOUR CATEGORIES AFRICAN PHILOSOPHY

https://www.ajol.info/index.php/og/article/viewFile/71771/60728

After successfully addressing these scathing remarks on the existence of African philosophy, one then think right and proud to unearth the four categories of African philosophy as expressed by Alexis Kagame.

http://www.focac.org/eng/zjfz/fzzl/t619829.htm

Most languages spoken in Africa belong to one of four language families: Afroasiatic, Nilo-Saharan, Niger-Congo, and Khoisan. A handful of languages associated with the continent belong to the Indo-European and Austronesian language families; the presence of the latter languages dates to 2,600 and 1,000 years ago, respectively. In addition, African languages include several unclassified languages and sign languages.

http://empathosnationenterprises.com/Consulate/EN-Library/Black-Studies/aflang.html

African Languages fall into four basic families following ancient migratory patterns of influence. In the north, following the Saharan routes of trade and travel are the Afro-Asiatic Linguistic groups. Mid-Saharan and extending southward into North Central Africa are the Nilo-Saharan languages. From Western Africa (south of the Sahara) to Southeast Africa is the Niger-Kordofanian family of languages. And finally, in Southwest Africa are the Khoisan languages.

https://www.dorotheum.com/en/auctions/current-auctions/kataloge/list-lots-detail/auktion/11783-tribal-art-africa/lotID/86/lot/2056666-kota-or-bakota-gabon-republic-of-the-congo-a-rare-reliquary-guardian-figure-mbulu-ngulu-of-the-ndumu-or-obamba-type-from-before-or-around-1920.html

The face is separated into four sections by two flat, yellow brass sheets in a cross shape. A slender brass nose sits in the centre, with a triangular profile and is flanked on either side by the brass hemispherical eyes with their small, circular pupils made from copper. The ‘mouth’ consists of two V-shaped chased, dotted lines. The four outer sections of the face are covered with hammered, red copper sheets in the form of a ‘sunray motif

FOUR DAYS FOUR GREAT GODS CREATED WORLD (technically in Jewish tradition it took four days to create world the last three are different)- AGAIN REASON WHY SEVEN DAYS OF WEEK IS TO DIVIDE MONTH INTO FOUR QUADRANTS

https://books.google.com/books?id=pmi2CgAAQBAJ&pg=PA293&lpg=PA293&dq=balubas+four+planes&source=bl&ots=JcXjb-nE3X&sig=nvcAylZrKZIUsaRhRvDvB8_rKuE&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjpxPLcyIXVAhVI-2MKHfKAD-QQ6AEIJDAA#v=onepage&q=four&f=false

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AFRICAN FOUR SPECIAL DAYS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akan_calendar#Dab.C9.94ne

Within the Adaduanan cycle are found four special days collectively called dabɔne (bɔne, evil); Fɔdwo, Awukudae, Fofi and Akwasidae.

THE ISRAELITES HAD 7 DAYS IN ORDER TO MAKE 4 WEEKS A MONTH AFRICANS HAD FOUR DAY WEEKS AND HAD SEVEN WEEKS A MONTH- FOUR DOMINANT- IGBO STORY OF THE FOUR DAYS- THE FOUR DAYS ASSOCIATED WITH FOUR GODS

https://books.google.com/books?id=sQ89llagUGoC&pg=PT207&lpg=PT207&dq=four+days+african+week&source=bl&ots=GU99v5VfoB&sig=yindZnBJVVMxMvHtWWegr5XzzzY&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiUrZmTyoXVAhUV62MKHaBXC4MQ6AEIXTAJ#v=onepage&q=four%20days%20african%20week&f=false

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I POSTED ALL THIS STUFF BEFORE IT IS IN MY OVER 60 QMR BOOKS- IN IGBO MYTHOLOGY IT SAYS "THE NUMBERS TWO AND FOUR RECUR" THE IGBO DIVIDED WORLD INTO FOUR PARTS-- AS THE WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE SAYS "THE NUMBER FOUR WAS SACRED TO THE IGBO"

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odinani

The community of visible interacting beings and the cosmos is referred to as ụ̀wà, which includes all living things íhẹ́ ndi dị́ ńdụ̀, including animals and vegetation and their mineral elements which possess a vital force and are regarded as counterparts to invisible forces in the spirit world.[14] These living things and geomorphological features of the world therefore possess a guardian deity. Igbo cosmology presents a balance between the feminine and masculine, perhaps, with a preponderance of female representation in Igbo lore.[14] In Igbo cosmology, the world was divided into four corners by the high god corresponding to èké órìè àfọ̀ ǹkwọ́ which are the days of the week in the Igbo calendar regarded as market days.[24][25] The universe is regarded as a composite of bounded spaces in an overlapping hemispherical structure, the total spaces are referred to as élú nà àlà.[14] In one Igbo cosmological theory reported by W.R.G. Morton in the 1950s from an elder in Ibagwa Nike in northern Igboland, Chukwu sees that the sun travels across the world in the day time and then cuts into two in order for the moon to pass on a perpendicular route, and so the world is divided into four parts and four days.[24] The quarterly division of the earth and the days makes the number four sacred (ńsọ́) to the Igbo.[24][26] The élú nà àlà space is defined by two boundaries: élú ígwé, 'sky's limit' composed of heavenly bodies under the main forces of the 'masculine' sun and 'feminine' moon, and élú àlà, 'earth or lands limit' consisting of the four material elements of fire and air (masculine), and earth and water (feminine).[14]

 

Picture of figures drawn in chalk on the ground

Ogbo Obodo figures for the cult of Nkpetime, near Asaba, 1900s.

The pattern of two and four reoccur in Chukwu's creations.[26] The days correspond to the four cardinal points and are its names in Igbo, èké east, órìè west, àfọ̀ north, ǹkwọ́ south.[27] The Nri-Igbo claim the market days to have been introduced to the Igbo by their divine progenitor and king Eri in the 9th century after encountering the days as deities.[28] These alusi are venerated as the primary or as a major deity under Chineke in parts of Igboland. In terms of hierarchy, some communities recognise èké as the head of these alusi, while others prioritise órìè and ǹkwọ́ first after the high god.[28] Market days may have local deities representing the spirits in some places, in many southern Igbo towns Agwu is the patron of Eke, Ogwugwu the patron of Orie, Amadioha the patron of Afo and Ala for Nkwo.[24]

Origin of the four market days in Igboland

http://obindigbo.com.ng/2015/11/origin-of-the-four-market-days-in-igboland/

Obindigbo

By Obindigbo

November 22, 2015 11:33

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There are four market days in the Igbo land. These market days are Eke, Orie, Afor and Nkwo.

 

Market days in Igbo land are very significant so much so that the four market days I mentioned above are uniformly observed within every community in Igbo land. It was during the reign of Eze Nrijiofor I (1300-1390AD), the fifth Eze Nri in the line of succession that the Igbo tradition of four market days was instituted.

 

According to Igbo historical records, one day during the reign of Eze Nrijiofor I, four wise strangers came to visit him at his palace. When they arrived, these four men pretended to be deaf and dumb. They did not say their names or their mission to Nri kingdom.market days in Igboland

 

Each of them carried nkata which literally means basket. They were taken to the visitors’ chamber by Adamma the king’s servant. Later in the evening, Eze Nrijiofor I went to see them, but they did not respond warmly to the Eze and did not acknowledge his greetings. Oji – kolanut was presented to them but they did not say anything in acceptance or rejection of the oji.

 

Later at night, the four wise strangers were shown where to sleep. But in the middle of the night, Eze Nrijiofor’s soothsayers sent a rat to disturb their sleep. When the rat went to the first basket that belonged to Eke and started to nibble at it, Oye woke up and said: “Eke, wake up! A rat is trying to get to your basket.” Eke woke up and the rat ran away. After a while, the rat repeated the same trick on the remaining baskets, and in the same manner, all of them revealed each other’s names.

 

In the morning, the Eze Nrijiofor I went to the strangers’ room to greet them and to perform the oji ututu (morning kola nut rituals.) As Adamma broke the kola nuts and the king called each of the visitors by their names-‘Eke’ ‘Oye’ ‘Afo’ and ‘Nkwo.’ The visitors who were hitherto referred to as ‘Ndi bialu ije ekwu okwu’(visitors that do not talk) were astonished when they heard their names being mentioned by Eze Nrijiofor I. They asked for water to wash their hands and faces; and took the oji that were presented to them.

 

After chewing the oji, they gave the King ite ano (four earthen pots) and directed him to keep the pots in front of the Nri Menri shrine outside the obu (palace) with each pots facing the sun. Eke, who was the spokesman of the visiting wise strangers, told Eze Nrijiofor I that the first pot was owned by him, Eke, the second one by Oye, the third by Afor and the last by Nkwo. He told the Eze that the four pots were sent down from Chukwu (God Almighty.) He instructed Eze Nrijiofor I that he and his people whom he ruled should be observing those names daily as market days, during which they should be buying and selling. These market days are used in Igboland to count Izu (Igbo native week). Therefore, Eke, Oye, Afor and Nkwo (four market days) make one Izu (week) in Igbo calendar.

 

Eke also instructed Eze Nrijiofor I that the first name that should be given to their male and female children should contain either Eke, Oye, Afor or, Nkwo. That is why we have igbo names as Okeke or Nweke, Okoye or Nwoye, Okafor or Nwafor, and Okonkwo or Nwankwo. In the same order, female children should be given “Mgbeke’, ‘Mgboye’, ‘Mgbafor’ and ‘Mgbankwo’.

 

The message was preached throughout Igbo land by spiritual priests of Nri and rudimentary open market squares were set up in Igbo land. The four strangers later told Eze Nrijiofor I that they were messengers from God. Some foods were prepared for them but they did not eat them.

 

In the noon of that day, these wise men of Igbo tribe disappeared from the Eze Nrijiofor’s palace like angels. Their news subsequently spread throughout Igbo land and observed till date..

I POSTED ALL THIS BEFORE IT IS IN MY OVER 60 QMR BOOKS BUT IGBO HAVE FOUR PART COSMOS AND THEY HAVE FOUR MAJOR ALUSI (DEITIES) THAT AND EACH OF THEIR FOUR MAJOR ALUSI (GODS) HAS A MARKET DAY

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Igbo_culture#Calendar_.28Iguafo_Igbo.29

While today many Igbo people are Christian, the traditional ancient Igbo religion is known as Odinani. In the Igbo mythology, which is part of their ancient religion, the supreme God is called Chukwu ("great spirit"); Chukwu created the world and everything in it and is associated with all things on Earth. Chukwu is also a solar deity. To the ancient Igbo, the Cosmo is divided into four complex parts:[6]

 

Okike (Creation)

Alusi (Supernatural Forces or Deities)

Mmuo (Spirit)

Uwa (World)

FOUR GOVERNING SPIRITS

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Nri

Nri had a network of internal and external trade, which its economy was partly based on. Other aspects of Nri's economy were hunting and agriculture.[14] Eri, the sky being, was the first to 'count' the days by their names, eke, oye, afor and nkwo, which were the names of their four governing spirits. Eri revealed the opportunity of time to the Igbo, who would use the days for exchanging goods and knowledge.[15]

IT DESCRIBES HOW LIGHT WAS REPRESENTED BY FOUR DOTS AND HOW THE IGBO HAD FOUR MAJOR GODS REPRESENTING THE FOUR MARKET DAYS AND IGBO SAW FOUR AS THE COSMIC NUMBER

https://books.google.com/books?id=DDDZAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA96&lpg=PA96&dq=igbo+four+gods&source=bl&ots=cbuS0gtd4D&sig=aJ9pmUiqr8_Xc7jCEERJCqvho5A&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjNt6OKzoXVAhUC2mMKHfZOA0YQ6AEITTAF#v=onepage&q=igbo%20four%20gods&f=false

QUADRANT

ORION AND THE X- THE CROSS- THE IGBO HAVE TRADITION OF SON HAVING THE MARK OF THE X OF THE CROSS AND BEING SACRIFICED- THE QUADRANT- OSIRIS ALSO X MARK- IGBO OBATALA

https://books.google.com/books?id=DDDZAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA96&lpg=PA96&dq=igbo+four+gods&source=bl&ots=cbuS0gtd4D&sig=aJ9pmUiqr8_Xc7jCEERJCqvho5A&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjNt6OKzoXVAhUC2mMKHfZOA0YQ6AEITTAF#v=snippet&q=cross&f=false

Quadrant

DESCRIBES X QUADRANT IS SIGN OF SUN GOD

http://www.theopenscroll.com/theEsotericLetterX.htm

X is the symbol of the sun god, a simple rayed sun or star - Osiris - Rx is Horus Eye, pharmacolgical prescription

Although a pyramid is usually perceived as it is viewed from the side, with triangular faces, it forms an X in a box when viewed from above. An obelisk viewed from above also presents an X in a box because it is capped with the benben pyramid. A pyramid with a separate capstone can be considered a pair of them. This attribute that presents an X from the heavens may have something to say about why the X is a sign of the sun god.

THIS VIDEO SAYS THE X/QUADRANT IS THE MARK OF THE BEAST BUT REALLY IT IS THE FORM OF EXISTENCE THE FORM OF BEING--- BUT IT SHOWS WALL-E IN THE FORM OF THE QUADRANT AND NUMEROUS OTHER EXAMPLES

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JX9YjyFA_HQ&list=PLjiPOC8yurzvCAjGW9aRpD0rSMcRWuCwY#action=share

Quadrant

THE CROSS THE TETRAGRAM AND SCARIFICATION IN IGBO- AND OSIRIS

https://newafrikan77.wordpress.com/2015/05/11/kusheshiobatala-the-inventor-of-the-ogam-by-catherine-acholonu/

 

All the letters formed by the lines numbering five and four are Igbo/Egyptian words referring to the god Eshi/Kush/Osiris as the son of God and to the Kwa as sons of God and Priest-kings: Kwa, Khem, Iyi, Ora, Ra, Ana, Naga, Eze, Eshi, Isse. From the letter Kw is formed the word Kwa – the Mega-tribal name of the Igbo and their kin the Yoruba, Benin, Ashanti and others all of who were part of the Osiris civilization. From the letter Kh is formed the word Khem – the Egyptian name of Osiris/Eshi. From the letters Yi/J is formed the Igbo word Iyi –Waters/Sea/God as the Great Sea of Being; the word Y-H-V-H (Ieue) – the Tetragram divided into four equal triangles by a central X all the four corners (see The Lost Testament) is the Hebrew symbol for God. It is derived from the X ichi of Osiris and is related to the equal-armed cross (plates 3b, 5, 6). From the letter R is formed the word Ora – Sun and its Egyptian cognate Ra (Sun god), the true title of Osiris/Khem/Eshi as a son of the Sun Sirius, usurped from him by his grandfather. The letter N is the first letter in the word Naga, but it is also the root of thye word Ana – earth, a most important entity among the Ogam writers, whom we have found to be earth-worshippers. Next come the four-line Ogam letters on the face of the god. Their sound equivalents are E and S for Eshi (Igbo name of Osiris), E and Z for Eze (Igbo for ‘Priest-king’), E and SS for Isse (Igbo intonation of ‘Amen’, which means ‘Five’! and is an allusion to Osiris/Khem whose number is five (as seen from the five concentric circles on the Khem monolith, plate 2, and the five cross lines on Obatala’s face (plate 3b), matching the five-pointed star of Egypt). K is the letter/sound associated with the Nagas (see They Lived Before Adam, 2009). The X symbol is Naga letter Ch and Kh. Chi stands for Igbo Chi (‘God/Sun/dawn’) while Kh is the root of the Egyptian name of Osiris (Khem). Chi is equally the root of Ichi, Igbo name for the scarification that Obatala bears on his face (in other words of Ogam).

THE CROSS

https://newafrikan77.wordpress.com/2015/05/11/kusheshiobatala-the-inventor-of-the-ogam-by-catherine-acholonu/

Eshi, whom the Yoruba call Obatala was known, even among the Yoruba tribe of Nigeria, by his facial scarification, which is captured by Phillips Stephens in his book The Stone Images of Esie (plate 3, 3b; 1978). In previous articles on the subject of Ogam, we have drawn similarities between Ogam and Igbo Ichi facial scarification. But here in this image is clearly preserved evidence that Ogam was an invention of the Igbo god and ancestor Eshi/Obatala, whom we have identified as Osiris/Khem/Kush in our three books under reference. The god is bearing the entire lexicon of Ogam engraved on his face! His full face is cut up with exactly five double crossing slanting lines as well as five straight lines above his lips, across his lips and on his jaws! These lines contain the full Ogam orthography made up of one to five slanting lines and one to five straight lines arranged to the right, to the left and across an axis (the axis in this case is the center ridge of the face as well as the lips). The lips represent the axis, while the lines below and above them represent the Ogam horizontal lines facing right and facing left (if the face is turned to the side; plate 3c, item A). The lines hatching across the nose represent the slanting Ogam lines. Five lines in Ogam whether straight or slanting, to the right, or the left and across the central axis give the following letters Kw/Kh/Yi/R/N and contain all the other letters (four lines, three lines, two lines and single lines (see item H, plate 3c). The short lines across the lips are the vowel notches A, O, U/W, E, I. The lines which are four in number give the letters E/S/Z/SS/K. Where these lines cross, they form X-shaped crosses and cross-hatching – X being the symbol of the Christ and the quadrangles created by the hatching are symbols of the Mother/Goddess. Both the X, the quadrangle, the cross hatching and the square all of which are formed in the scarified face of the god, are all Ogam letters (see item G, Plate 3c).

SHE DESCRIBES HOW THE NUMBER FOUR IS HIGHLY SIGNIFICANT TO THE IGBO

http://ajuede.blogspot.com/2016/12/igbo-geometry.html

As I have noted earlier in this chapter, the figure four holds a great significance in

the mythical imperative of the Igbo people. First, it stands for the four market days

of the Igbo settlement. Four market days: Oye, Afor, Nkwọ and Eke mark the completion of the Igbo market week called Izu. The same forms the Igbo pillar of

existence with empirical concept drawn from the creation myths. It embodies the

concept of life and existence in the Igbo cosmology. Wikipedia has the following

MORE ON SACREDNESS OF FOUR TO THE IGBO

http://ajuede.blogspot.com/2016/12/igbo-geometry.html

From the research conducted around Nkanu area of northern Igbo land, Morton (1956) remarks that Chukwu, after creation, sees that the sun travels across the world in the day time and then cuts into two in order for the moon to pass on a perpendicular route, and so the world is divided into four parts and four days. The quarterly division of the earth and the days makes the number four sacred (ńsọ́) to the Igbo. The élú nà àlà space is defined by two boundaries: élú ígwé, “sky's limit” composed of heavenly bodies under the main forces of the masculine sun and feminine moon, and élú àlà, earth or lands limit consisting of the four material elements of fire and air (masculine), and earth and shallow water (feminine).

MORE FOUR IGBO

http://ajuede.blogspot.com/2016/12/igbo-geometry.html

From my grandmother symbolic marks, there was a geometry that looked like a quadrangle. From her, though, scrupulous drawing, the shape looked like a square; but it was not a perfect square. At the centre, there was a carefully dotted point. This point held two perpendicular lines together; each line running from one endpoint-angle to another in the opposite direction respectively. To her, the quadrangle represents an overall concept which houses the entirety of creation; the heavens, the land, humanity (or living things) and spirits. The central point indicates this consolidated point of a pillar that binds everything creatable to himself. The point did not refer to the gods, human, the cosmos or the land. These instead formed the connecting relations which she explained as being parallel to one another. This is the idea she buried in the bisector angles: as heaven is connected to the earth, human beings also share a parallel relationship with spirits.

 

Therefore, the dot represents Chukwuoke (the creator God) for everything began with him and by him gains sustenance. All the benevolence shown to her when she did not make any request from any of the gods mentionable was associated to this creator, God. According to my grandmother, she derived the idea of the quadrangle from four cotyledoneous kolanut. In Nkalaha, the kolanut used for marriage discussions are usually four cotyledoneous kolanut. The same is the kolanut used for various traditional rites, including those used for sacrifices.

 

The principle of life affirmation as constituting the essence of the kola is also supported by the Igbo myth surrounding the emergence of the four Igbo market days. It is said that four enigmatic people once visited a place. They would neither eat nor talk. But by mere coincidence, someone gave them a piece of kolanut to eat. To the surprise of all assembled, the people suddenly were given to speech in which they revealed their names as Orie (Oye), Eke, Nkwọ and Afọ. By this singular act, the kola is said to have gained significance not only as the food of the spirits, but also something that gives life. This is because somebody who can neither talk nor eat anything is as good as dead. It is only something that can give life that worked the wonder of giving back life even to the spirits. This is the basis of the Igbo saying: Onye wetara ọjị wetara ndụ.

SIDNEY DAVIS SAYS "IGBO COSMOLOGY IS ROOTED IN THE NUMBER FOUR"

http://ajuede.blogspot.com/2016/12/igbo-geometry.html

Apart from being an affirmation of life, it is also a symbol of continuity, of the entire life process as a continuum. Kolanut ritual is always a feature of the Igbo society, in social functions and ceremonies, which has resisted westernization and Christianity. According to the documentary of Sidney Davis (2012), the figure four represents four deities in the Igbo cosmology.

 

Igbo cosmology is rooted in the number four. The universal Afa1 language is rooted in the number FOUR as expressed in the cube or the tetrad. FOUR is the basic number of Afa and of the Igbo cosmos. The number four is said to be the number of the earth and mankind. There are four cardinal points on the earth; North – South – East – West. There are four winds. There are four seasons. There are four phases of the moon. The four elements: earth – air – fire – water. There are four basic blood types in man; O, A, B and A B. There are four basic states of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. There are four numbers of basic chemical units in the DNA structure: adenine a solid figure with four faces is a tetrahedron. The regular tetrahedron is the simplest Platonic solid. A tetrahedron, which can also be called a 3-simplex, has four triangular faces and four vertices. It is the only self-dual regular polyhedron. (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C) and guanine (G) A solid figure with four faces is a tetrahedron. The regular tetrahedron is the simplest Platonic solid. A tetrahedron, which can also be called a 3-simplex, has four triangular faces and four vertices. It is the only self-dual regular polyhedron. The valence of carbon the most common element is 4. There are four basic rules of mathematics: addition, subtraction, multiplication, division. There are four basic forces in nature: electromagnetic, weak, strong and gravitational and in Quantum Physics there are four dimensions.

SHE TALKS ABOUT THE IGBO USE OF THE X THE QUADRANT AND HOW THE IGBO REFER TO IT AS THE TETRAGRAM AND IT IS THE SYMBOL OF THE MOTHER GODDESS

http://ajuede.blogspot.com/2016/12/igbo-geometry.html

Achebe rightly said that “certainly the Igbo have a lot of use for fours…” The bisectors in grandmother’s geometry formed an “X” shape through her view of the connectivity or parallel relationship; man to the spirit and the cosmos verses the land. But for a reason which no one could actually explain to me, not even my grandmother; this shape dominated the costume of the various Ekpe masquerades in Nkalaha. There are always the shapes of quadrangles whose diagonals are bisected to form “X” shapes. Other shapes prominent in Ekpe masquerades are triangles. Example of these is seen in the picture below.

 

This Ekpe is significant, in that it is the first of its kind built in Nkalaha. Therefore as the first, Nkalaha called it Ugbor. Ugbor was completed at the decay part of the nineteenth century; in the 1880s. From the observation of Catherine Acholonu, the “X” shaped geometry “demonstrates the complimentary duality in all things, but is always the tetragram; (a square with sides joined by an X- cross), which is the most common Igbo symbol of the goddess.

IGBO AND THE CROSS AND THE ICHI SCARIFICATION OF THE GOD-MEN IS BASED AROUND THE CROSS

http://ajuede.blogspot.com/2016/12/igbo-geometry.html

From Robert Langdon’s observation, the X (the slanting cross) and the lozenge (the slanting square) represent two opposite forms of the same basic symbol created what is called the Chalice (a V-shape with the open mouth looking up, representing the female gender) and the Blade (an inverted V-shape with the tip pointing upwards, representing the male gender). (Robert Langdon, Symbols of the Sacred Feminine) The Chalice and the Blade joined at the mouth create a lozenge, a quadrangle – the quintessential symbol of the Mother Goddess of order in nature – the cubed, molecular universe. When joined at the base the Vs produce an X shaped cross or a double-mouthed chalice; the symbol of the sacrificial Son of God. In Igbo Ukwu bronse, the X shape represents an equal-armed cross inter-spaced with two such chalices crossing each other at the center. Example is on the floor below.

 

 

This monolith and photograph is Courtesy of National Museum, Lagos, all other

items here are courtesy of Odinani Museum, Nri and Igbo Ukwu Museum, Igbo

Ukwu. This is no coincidence for the cross is the basic geometry of ichi, the scarification mark of the god-men who are retained in the present day Igbo society as Nze na Ozo. Traditionally, equal-armed crosses square crosses, and lozenge symbols are etched on all gate-posts and cult symbols in Igbo land and sometimes

it act as talisman. An ozo traditional seat, shows a classical Igbo example of a perfectly shaped Maltese (or equal-armed) cross. In between the four arms of the cross are four chalices looking outwards and forming a cross at their zero centre. The entire image is surrounded by an outer circle. This is a very potent mystical, Christian symbol, yet as we can see here, its origins are African. The ozo is a cult of men (and originally women too) who have dedicated themselves to the service of God.

DAVIS ON THE IMPORTANCE OF THE NUMBER FOUR TO THE IGBO AND THE CROSS- THE CENTRALITY OF THE X/QUADRANT--- HE GOES SO FAR AS TO SAY THE CROSS REPRESENTS DEITY TO THE IGBO SAYING THE NUMBER FOUR TO THE IGBO REPRESENTS GOD

http://ajuede.blogspot.com/2016/12/igbo-geometry.html

They live out the divine ideal of holiness and self denial, observing all the virtues

of God, remaining sinless and impeccable in their dealings with their fellow human beings. Various instances of Igbo Ukwu ancient bronze are characterized by this“X” shape to depict the same notion. Igbo cosmology is based on the number four…” Davis also noted thus:

 

The Igbo concept of time is rooted in the number four. The Igbo week has four days while the great week has eight days. This basic number also represents the four fish-monger deities of Igbo oral tradition who are said to have inaugurate the four market days Eke, Orie, Afo and Nkwo named after each of them. Thus four is seen as the number of deity among the Igbo. Its basic form is the quadrangle represented by the basic geometrical shapes: the pyramid, the lozenge, the slanting square representing a four-pointed star, the X shaped equal armed cross enshrined in the Igbo Ukwu-type Ichi facial scarifications. These forms, when etched on wooden doorposts and shrine objects represent the deity itself, thus four becomes the number of deity. The ichi markings of the lozenge, a quadrangle is the quintessential symbol of the Mother Goddess, of the order of nature represented by the carbon crystal: the most basic form representing the molecular universe. (PP.4&5).

FOR IGBO LIFE OATH IS AROUND THE X AND THE RITUALS INVOLVE FOURS FOUR DIVINERS FOUR YAMS

http://ajuede.blogspot.com/2016/12/igbo-geometry.html

Ike-Ishi (life oath) which forms one of the highest mysteries of the Igbo metaphysical idea also has deeper thought buried in this shape, “X”. As a matter of concern, anyone who wants to take life oath (Ike-Ishi) in the Igbo communities must have learned the principle of power in the Igbo quadrangle. In the same light, in tracing the progenitor of any child (in a case of Ilo-Uwa) among some Igbo communities, the items required are usually in four. This is believed to be achieved through a ritual divinatory calculus called Igba Agu. A rare combination of ritual identification is the Obi umunna (kindred ancestral origin). Four traditional diviners are usually involved. Igba Agu among the Igbo is also the official second naming ceremony after the initial one made at birth time. In this later ceremony, the returning ancestor is identified so as to name the new born child after him or her, and thereafter the child begins to command effective respect derivable from the returning ancestor. The items required for the proceeding rituals include four medium-sized yams tied up with a rope made from palm fronds are kept aside within the arena.

IGBO FOURFOLD EXORCISM

http://ajuede.blogspot.com/2016/12/igbo-geometry.html

To invite the spirits, abacha and Ighu, dried fish, four cotyledoneous kolanuts, two cocks, palm wine, among others are made available before the chief priest begins with an exorcism of the sacred place. When this is done, the eldest person in the family takes up the Nzu, which is, the symbolic white chalk presented by the biological father of the child to be named. With these he heralds an invitation to ancestors and men to the milieu. After the sacred invitation, follows the prayer of inquiry. This is done in order to determine the returning ancestor. Immediately following the prayers is a broader repetition called Ikpata Agu. Here a person from the family of the child receives from the eldest of the kindred, the votive offerings of ji Agu, kola nut and omumu. With these he also progresses in supplication. The climax of the ceremony is the ancestral litany called Inafu Agu. This involves the two elements of four-fold exorcism – representative of the four native weeks – and chronicling of the names of the ancestors. After the exorcism the officiating priest

begins to call the names of the ancestors one after another.

IGBO CROSS AND GOD

http://piramidasunca.ba/eng/latest-news/item/9354-stone-depicting-the-symbol-magan-found-in-ravne-tunnels.html

The Sumerian pictograph for the "GARDEN OF EDEN" is the letter X, which is a form of the Cross with sides joined into a square, called the Tetragram or Square Cross. This ancient symbol is important because the square is the Sumerian pictograph/hieroglyph for the word "MA". It designates the square Lake where the Sun sets, which is the Oma-mbala Lake in Anambra State, Nigeria. X is the Sumerian hieroglyph for the word "GAN" (Garden of Eden), and it is the popular symbol of Osiris, and it marks the Oshuru Shrine in Lejja where the Sun rises.

An X inside a square as in the Bosnian example is also the pictograph for the Sumerian word "MA-GAN" MA (X) and GAN (SQUARE) both designate the Rising and the Setting points of the Sun, whose hieroglyph is the crescent moon enveloping the sun disc as eternally represented in the Lejja Table of the Sun in Enugu State. By this eternal symbol, the Sumerians provided the proof that the Garden of Eden is in Nigeria. The symbol of the X within a square is the popular Mbari symbol of the Mother Goddess OMA, found in all Mbari shrines in Igboland. It is the representation of the Sun/Son in the Womb of the Mother Goddess, which the Igbo call "Mgba Nnechuchukwu".

IGBO HOLY PEOPLE PUT X CROSS ON FACE

 

Plate 3C: The development of Ogam from Igbo Ichi facial scarification invented by the ancient Nigerian god Eshi/Obatala, the local equivalent of Egyptian god Khem/Osiris.

 

http://ancientamerica.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Screen-Shot-2014-09-25-at-6.31.17-AM.png

http://ancientamerica.com/kusheshiobatala-the-inventor-of-ogam/

Quadrant

IGBO AND THE CROSS/QUADRANT

http://ancientamerica.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Screen-Shot-2014-09-25-at-6.32.32-AM.png

http://ancientamerica.com/kusheshiobatala-the-inventor-of-ogam/

Plate 5a: (Maumanorig Ogam, UK) This equal-armed cross inscribed in a circle is found on a Ogam piece in UK. It is the symbol of Igbo Ozo and of Kwa land (see plates 5b and 6).

 

Catherine7

 

 

Plate 5b: The Equal-armed cross in a circle on a monolith of Ikom, a landmark of Kwa land – the Center of the earth.

 

Catherine8

 

 

Plate 6: The equal-armed cross in a circle on an Igbo traditional seat for Ozo priest-kings.

THE SYMBOL OF THE SPIRITUAL LEADERS OF THE IGBO PEOPLE IS THE CROSS

http://www.archaeocodes.org/news/2016/6/1/evidence-of-pre-columbian-contact-between-the-maya-and-igbo-cultures

Moreover, the Sacred Quaternary, or encircled cross, is the most powerful and widespread sacred symbol throughout West Central Africa. The cross in a circle, used regularly in representations of Jesus Christ, is the traditional Igbo symbol of the Ozo initiates of Igboland. The Nze na Ozo society is the most important magico-religious and social grouping in Igbo society. The members of this society are the Christs among Igbo people. They do not commit sin, or tell a lie, or do any wrong to another human. They are the judges and Durus (“Lords of the society”).

THE CROSS ON IGBO SPIRITUAL LEADERS' DOORS

http://www.archaeocodes.org/news/2016/6/1/evidence-of-pre-columbian-contact-between-the-maya-and-igbo-cultures

It should therefore come as no surprise that the Mayan Foliated Cross is a symbol commonly found on the Ozo titled man's door and panels.

 

Last but not least, on the Mayan cross we also find one of the most significant symbols of all Igboland, the symbol of the Mother Goddess, “Mgba Nnechukwu,” which is also the Sumerian pictograph for the "Garden of Eden," represented by the Cross (X) with sides joined into a square or rectangle.

SUMERIAN X GARDEN EDEN

http://www.archaeocodes.org/news/2016/6/1/evidence-of-pre-columbian-contact-between-the-maya-and-igbo-cultures

An X inside a square is also the pictograph for the Sumerian word "Ma-Gan" Ma (X) and Gan (square) both designate the Rising and the Setting points of the Sun, whose hieroglyph is the crescent moon enveloping the sun disc as eternally represented in the Lejja Table of the Sun in Enugu State. The ancient Sumerian pictograph/hieroglyph for the word "MA" designates the square Lake where the Sun sets, which is the Oma-mbala Lake in Anambra State, Nigeria. By this eternal symbol, the Sumerians provided the proof that the Garden of Eden is in Nigeria.

https://aras.org/concordance/content/ixion-crucified-four-spoked-wheel

GREEK GOD

The legend of Ixion (fig. 258.46b), who was “crucified on the four-spoked wheel,” belongs to the symbol of carrying the cross:

TERTULLIAN TOLD THE PAGANS WHO MADE FUN OF JESUS ON THE CROSS "YOUR RELIGIONS ARE ALL CROSS"

http://www.irishoriginsofcivilization.com/druidic-symbolism-2.html

...the non-Christians possessed crosslike sacred objects and revered their idols of gods in the shape of a cross or in cruciform. In fact, Tertullian is very insistent on this point, stating of the Pagans, "your religion is all cross" and "your gods in their origin have proceeded from this hated cross" - D. M. Murdock (Christ in Egypt)

TERTULLIAN SAID TO THE PAGANS THAT THEIR GODS PROCEEDED FROM THE CROSS/QUADRANT

http://www.astrotheologyzone.com/forgery-in-christianity.html

...the non-Christians possessed cross=like sacred objects and revered their idols of gods in the shape of a cross or in cruciform. In fact, Tertullian is very insistent on this point, stating of the Pagans, "your religion is all cross" and "your gods in their origin have proceeded from this hated cross" - D. M. Murdock (Christ in Egypt)

IGBO HAVE FOUR MAIN GODS IN THEIR PANTHEON

http://www.nairaland.com/3858660/alusi-study-igbo-gods

Chukwu’s incarnations in the world (Igbo: uwa) are the Alusi. The Alusi, who are also known as Arushi, Anusi or Arusi in differing dialects all spring from Ala the earth goddess who embodies the workings of the world. There are lesser deities in Odinani, each of whom are responsible for a specific aspect of nature or abstract concept. According to Igbo lore, these lesser Alusi, as elements of Chukwu, have their own specific purpose. They exist only as long as their purpose does thus many Alusidie off except for the universally served

Alusi. The top four Alusi of the Igbo pantheon are Ala, Igwe, Anyanwu, and Amadioha (or Kamalu); other less important Alusi exist after these, some depending on the community. They are, Ogwugwu, Urasi or Ulasi, Ichi, Uchu, Iyi, Agwu etc.

BAMBARA SUPREME GOD IS FOUR GODS IN ONE

http://www.bookrags.com/research/bambara-religion-eorl-02/#gsc.tab=0

The Supreme Being and the Creation

The Bambara believe in one god, Bemba, or Ngala, who is the creator of all things and has, in a way, created himself as a quaternity. This quaternity consists of Bemba himself, Mousso Koroni Koundyé (or Nyale), Faro, and Ndomadyiri; the last three correspond to the four elements...

BAMBARA WORLD FOUR TWINS

http://www.african-art.net/ethnicity/bambara/africa-black-life-rituals

The Bamara’s cosmology is extremely complex. Their religion recognizes Ngala (meaning God) as the Supreme Being. Other spiritual beings are also represented such as the mixed sex twins of the Dogon. One pair is disruptive: Pemba (male), the equivalent of Ogo for the Bamara, and the other pair is reconciliatory: Bemba (male) the equivalent of O Nommo. The world is conceived then as a world with four twins. Each twin evokes one of the four essential elements: fire, air, water and the earth. Then there is Faro, the androgynous master of words and reorganization like O Nommo. He manifests himself through the rain, rainbows, lightening, and thunder. Born from the saliva of Ngala, Faro is at the same time her voice and visible opposite. Faro is at the heart of the religious belief system and the cosmology of the Bamara. From a pair of female twins he created the first of the Bamara, the primordial ancestor. He is also at the origin of order; he gave men their conscience, their sense of justice and responsibility. He controls their destiny, takes care to maintain the equilibrium within the society and watches over work that is to be done.

BAMBARA HAVE FOUR MAIN SCULPTURES CONSULT FOR DECISIONS- HAVE FOUR FESTIVALS FOR CIRCUMCISION- BAMBARA GOD FOUR IN ONE- SHAKE BEER ON BABIES HEAD THREE OR FOUR TIMES

https://kwekudee-tripdownmemorylane.blogspot.com/2013/08/bambara-bamana-people-malian-ancient.html

The Bambara believe in one god, Bemba, or Ngala, who is the creator of all things and has, in a way, created himself as a quaternity. This quaternity consists of Bemba himself, Mousso Koroni Koundyé (or Nyale), Faro, and Ndomadyiri; the last three correspond to the four elements—air, fire, water, and earth. Before the creation Bemba was named Koni and was, in a sense, "thought" (miri ) dwelling in a void; he is also the "void" itself (lankolo ). Accordingly, he cannot be perceived by humans using their usual senses. His existence is manifested as a force: a whirlwind, thought, or vibration that contains the signs of all uncreated things.

 

 

The Bambara Empire was structured around traditional Bambara institutions, including the kòmò, a body to resolve theological concerns. The kòmò often consulted religious sculptures in their decisions, particularly the four state boliw, large altars designed to aid the acquisition of political power.

 

At birth, the baby is washed with millet beer. The patriarch of the clan (the oldest living male member) shakes the beer on the baby’s head 3 or 4 times to purify the child of the spirit of death. In the Bambara culture, there is a demand for circumcision with both sexes. Because of its close ties to Mohammed, it is considered a rite of passage where it embodies both civil and religious duties. The actual act of circumcision follows a very strict practice, incorporating four festivals into one religious passage. On the second day of celebrations, those who will be circumcised are deemed the soli and need to offer to the higher members of society called the to-n-déou. In order to do so, they must complete soli kili basi, which requires them to sing and beg at each home within the community.

BAMBARA FOUR FESTIVALS CIRCUMCISION

https://bambarainfo.wikispaces.com/Gender+and+Sexual+Orientation

In the Bambara culture, there is a demand for circumcision with both sexes. Because of its close ties to Mohammed, it is considered a rite of passage where it embodies both civil and religious duties. The actual act of circumcision follows a very strict practice, incorporating four festivals into one religious passage. On the second day of celebrations, those who will be circumcised are deemed the soli and need to offer to the higher members of society called the to-n-déou. In order to do so, they must complete soli kili basi, which requires them to sing and beg at each home within the community.

BAMBARA FOUR KOMO MOTHERS

http://www.mandebala.net/references/komo.php

Knowledge, as explained by this initiatory society, may be considered under four aspects, through the four fundamental komo each of which expresses it from a different point of view. This is what the Bambaras mean when they talk about the komo "mothers". Everyone of these "mothers" has a certain number of secondary 'komo' called "children". These complete and expand the idea expressed by their respective "mothers". The "komo" all together thus form an immense institution which, at first sight, seems to lack a properly so called hierarchy. The only obvious hierarchy is that which orders the relations between a "mother" and her children, or between a "child" and the swarms to which it has given birth.

FOUR FACES FOUR WINGS

https://archive.org/stream/ensyclo/GaleEncyclopediaOfIslamAndTheMuslimWorld_djvu.txt

 

The angel of death, 'Izra'il, is veiled before the creatures

of God with a million veils. His immensity is vaster than the

heavens, and the East and West are between his hands like a

dish on which all things have been set, or like a man who has

been put between his hands that he might eat him, and he eats

of him what he wishes; and thus the angel of death turns the

world this way and that, just as men turn their money in their

hands. He sits on a throne in the sixth heaven. He has four

faces, one before him, one on his head, one behind him, and

one beneath his feet. He has four wings, and his body is

covered with innumerable eyes. When one of these eyes

closes, a creature dies.

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